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Full text of "Communist activities among aliens and national groups. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Immigration and Naturalization of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, Eighty-first Congress, first session, on S. 1832, a bill to amend the Immigration act of October 16, 1918, as amended"

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COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  AMONG 
ALIENS  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 


HEARINGS 

BBFOSB  THB 

SUBCOMMITTEE  ON 
IMMIGRATION  AND  NATURALIZATION 

OF  THE 

COMMITTEE  ON  THE  JUDICIARY 

UNITED  STATES  SENATE 

EIGHTY-FIRST  CONGRESS 

FIRST  SESSION 
ON 

S.  1832 

A  BILL  TO  AMEND  THE  IMMIGRATION  ACT  OF 
OCTOBER  16,  1918,  AS  AMENDED 


PART  2 

SEPTEMBER  7,  8,  9, 13, 14, 16,  28,  AND  29, 1949 


Printed  for  the  use  of  the  Committee  on  the  Judiciary 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  AMONG 
ALIENS  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 


{      HEARINGS 

BEFORE  THE 

SUBCOMMITTEE  ON 
IMMIGRATION  AND  NATURALIZATION 

OF  THE 

COMMITTEE  ON  THE  JUDICIARY 
UNITED  STATES  SENATE 

EIGHTY-FIEST  CONGRESS 

FIRST  SESSION 
ON 


U^i 


S.  1832 


A  BILL  TO  AMEND  THE  IMMIGRATION  ACT  OF 
OCTOBER  16,  1918,  AS  AMENDED 


PART  2 

SEPTEMBER  7,  8,  9,  13,  14,  15,  28,  AND  29,  1949 


Printed  for  the  use  of  the  Committee  on  the  Judiciary 


UNITED  STATES 

GOVERNMENT  TRINTING  OI'FICB 

WASHINGTON  :   1950 


A 


1/ 


'^l.-*.  ^P£Rim"ENOENT  Of  OOCUMfcNib 

I  OQT231950 


COMMITTEE  ON  THE  JUDICIARY 

PAT  McCARRAN,  Nevada,  Chairman 
HARLBY  M.  KILGORE,  West  Virginia  ALEXANDER  WILEY,  Wisconsin 

JAMES  O.  EASTLAND,  Mississippi  WILLIAM  LANGER,  North  Dakota 

HERBERT  R.  O'CONOR,  Maryland  HOMER  FERGUSON,  Micliigan 

FRANK  P.  GRAHAM,  North  Carolina  FORREST  C.  DONXELL,  Missouri 

ESTES  KEFAUVBR,  Tennessee  WILLIAM  E.  JENNER,  Indiana 


J.  G.  SonRwiNE,  Counsel 


Special  Subcommittee  To  Investigate  Immigration  and  Naturalization 

PAT  McCARRAN,  Nevada,  Chairman 
JAMES  O.  EASTLAND,  Mississippi  WILLIAM  LANGER,  North  Dakota 

HERBERT  R.  O'CONOR,  Maryland  FORREST  C.  DONNELL,  Missouri 

Richard  Arens,  Staff  Director 

(Senator  J.  Melville  Broughton,  of  North  Carolina,  was  a  member  of  the  Committee 
on  the  Judiciary  until  his  death  on  March  6,  1949  ;  Senator  J.  Howard  McGrath  was  a 
member  of  the  Committee  on  the  Judiciary  until  his  resignation  from  the  Senate  on  August 
23,  1949 ;  Senator  Bert  H.  Miller,  of  Idaho,  was  a  member  of  the  Committee  on  the 
Judiciary  until  his  death  on  October  8,  1949.) 


CONTENTS 


statement  or  testimony  of—  Pa„^ 

Malkin,  Maurice,  Brooklyn,  N.  Y ^r-V 

Huber,  joiiu  J __:_  .i::::"::::"" — ^nn  tti 

Draskovich,  Dr.  Slobodan  M.,  former  professor  of  economics,  UnTver- 

sity  of  Belgrade ^^^ 

Ti^zecleski,  Anthony,  former  purchasing  agent,  Gdyn'ia-Amerfca  LfnT, 

Grzelak,  Czeslaw,  vice  presid"ent,  Gdynia -AmeiTca" Line" ine~~III"II  728 


Biro,  Father  Benedict,  OFM,  presidenf  ol  UNlTAS^^'r''''!"":":": —       IS 

Fprip'.-iJf'';  ^%''T  ^-  ^■'  ^^*^^"fi^e  secretary,  Hungan"an"Reform"e"d" 
i^ederation   of  America n.^-  no-, 

^FederaSon    ^^''^^'''°  ^'  ^'^^^"'^''^  secreta^ryrrmerk^n'ilungan'an  "" 

Nadanyi,  Paul,  editor,  Amerikailla'gyarsa'gllll  s?o 

Disabled  American   Veterans 11111"  oqi 

^"veteran?!"''''  ^^■'  ''''^'''''^^  legislative  directo^,"  Di7abTed"Am;"r[ca"n 

idex I_III  ^^'^ 

I 

III 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  AMONG  ALIENS  AND 
NATIONAL  GKOUPS 


WEDNESDAY,   SEPTEMBER  7,   1949 

United  States  Senate, 
Special  Subcommittee  To  Investigate 
Immigration  and  Naturalization  of  the 

Committee  on  the  Judiciary, 

Washington^  D.  G. 
The  subcommittee  met,  pursuant  to  recess,  at  11  a.  m.,  in  room  424, 
Senate  Office  Building,  Senator  Herbert  K.  O'Conor  presiding. 
Present:  Senator  O'Conor  (presiding). 

Also  present:  Messrs.  Richard  Arens,  staff  director  of  the  special 
subcommittee ;  Otto  J.  Dekom  and  Frank  W.  Schroeder,  professional 
staff  members. 

Senator  O'Conor.  The  hearing  will  come  to  order. 
Mr.  Arens.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  would  like  to  present  our  witness,  Mr. 
Malkin. 

Senator  O'Conor.  Will  you  raise  your  right  hand? 
In  the  presence  of  Almighty  God,  do  you  swear  that  the  testimony 
you  will  give  in  this  hearing  will  be  the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and 
nothing  but  the  truth  ? 
Mr.  Malkin.  Yes,  sir.^ 

TESTIMONY  OF  MAURICE  MALKIN,  BROOKLYN,  N.  Y. 

Senator  O'Conor.  For  the  record,  will  you  give  your  full  name? 

Mr.  Malkin.  My  name  is  Maurice  Malkin. 

Senator  O'Conor.  What  is  your  address  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Brooklyn,  N.  Y. 

Mr.  Arens.  In  order  to  keep  the  record  straight,  may  I  insert  the 
statement  in  the  record  that  this  is  a  continuation  of  the  hearing  on 
S.  1832  which  was  introduced  by  Senator  McCarran  and  is  for  the 
purpose  of  excluding  and  deporting  subversive  aliens. 

Senator  O'Conor.  At  the  request  of  the  chairman  of  the  committee 
I  am  presiding,  and  am  very  pleased  to  have  you  submit  any  state- 
ment you  desire  to  submit.  The  members  of  the  staff  of  the  committee 
will  then  conduct  the  interrogation. 

Mr.  Arens.  Mr.  Malkin,  1  understand  you  have  a  prepared  state- 
ment you  would  like  to  read  at  this  time. 

Mr.  Malkin.  Yes,  sir.  At  the  beginning  of  my  statement,  I  would 
like  to  give  a  short  biographical  sketch  of  myself,  indicating  where 
I  was  born,  when  I  came  to  the  United  States,  and  my  former 
experience. 

^  The  witness  appeared  under  subpena. 

471 


472       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

Mr.  Arens.  Please  proceed. 

Mr.  Malkin.  I  was  born  in  Minsk,  Russia,  on  November  10,  1900. 
In  1914, 1  came  to  the  United  States  with  my  parents.  Thereafter,  I 
became  associated  with  the  Socialist  Party  and  the  Industrial  Work- 
ers of  the  World.  In  1919, 1  helped  organize  and  was  a  charter  mem- 
ber of  the  Communist  Party  of  the  United  States.  Thereafter,  I  asso- 
ciated myself  actively  with  the  Communist  Party's  activities  in  this 
country  until  1936  and  the  beginning  of  1937,  when  I  left  the  party. 

Mr.  Arens.  By  the  way,  how  did  you  happen  to  break  with  the 
party  ? 

Mr.  Malkjn.  I  broke  with  the  party  because  I  disagreed  with 
Moscow  dictating  to  us  what  to  do  in  this  country.  That  actually  was 
the  reason. 

Mr.  Arens.  When  did  you  break  with  the  party  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  x\t  the  end  of  1936  and  the  beginning  of  1937. 

I  believe  that  the  Communist  Party  presents  a  real  and  continuing 
threat  to  our  form  of  government.  Since  I  left  the  party,  I  have  done 
what  I  can  to  expose  the  Communist  Party  in  the  United  States  for 
what  it  is — a  revolutionary  foreign  party  whose  aim  is  to  destroy  our 
freedom  and  democratic  institutions  by  force  and  violence. 

The  Communist  Party  of  the  United  States  was  organized  and  has 
been  led  by  aliens  since  its  inception  in  1919.  The  alien  organiza- 
tional efforts  are  directed  through  such  channels  as  the  foreign- 
language  groups  such  as  the  Russian  Federation  in  the  Socialist  Party 
and  the  Ukranian,  Italian,  Jewish,  Bulgarian,  and  other  language 
federations  and  groups. 

The  backbone  of  the  original  Communist  Party  was  the  Russian 
Federation.  They  were  the  most  active  in  immediately  alining  them- 
selves with  the  Lenin-Trotsky  Bolshevists  of  1917. 

The  various  language  federations  of  the  Socialist  Party  of  the 
United  States  were  invited  to  form  the  Communist  Party  by  Ludwig 
A.  C.  K.  Martens,  then  the  unofficial  Soviet  Ambassador  to  the  United 
States.  He  was  deported  from  the  United  States  in  1920  as  persona 
lion  grata. 

Since  Martens'  deportation,  the  Communist  Party  in  the  United 
States  has  been  directed  by  the  Comintern  in  Moscow.  Every  move- 
ment of  the  front  organization  that  has  been  organized  since  then 
has  been  directed  by  the  Comintern  directly  through  its  representa- 
tives to  the  United  States  or  through  the  Communist  Party  leaders 
who  take  orders  from  the  Moscow  representatives. 

One  such  Communist-front  organization  is  the  American  Slav  Con- 
gress, which  was  conceived  and  organized  by  the  Comintern.  Its 
foundation  was  laid  by  B.  K.  Gebert  as  early  as  1930  through  the 
Polonia  Society  and  other  Communist-front  organizations  which  later 
merged  into  the  Slav  Congress  with  the  Ukranian-American  Fraternal 
Society,  headed  by  Mike  Tkach,  charter  member  of  the  Communist 
Party,  one  of  the  officials  of  the  Ukranian  Daily  News,  and  a  national 
committee  member  of  the  International  Worl^ers  Order,  representing 
the  Ukranian  Fraternal  Society  in  the  IWO. 

Mr.  Dekom.  May  I  interrupt  you  with  a  question  ? 

You  named  B.  K.  Gebert. 

Mr,  Malkin.  That  is  right. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Do  you  know  where  he  is  now  ? 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       473 

Mr.  Malkin.  Yes;  he  is  in  Poland  at  the  present  time,  sir. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Is  he  an  oflicial  of  the  Polish  Government? 

Mr.  Malkin.  3Ir.  Gebert  at  the  present  time  is  in  charge  of  all 
trade-unions  in  Poland  under  Comintern  direction. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Was  he  not  a  delegate  to  the  World  Federation  of 
Trade  Unions  in  Paris  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Yes. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Would  you  identify  the  World  Federation  of  Trade 
Unions  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  The  World  Federation  of  Trade  Unions  was  con- 
ceived, organized,  and  the  foundation  laid  by  the  Profintern.  In  Eng- 
lish that  means  the  Red  International  of  Labor  Unions,  whose  head- 
quarters have  always  been  at  Moscow.  They  were  organized  in 
1920-21,  with  the  cooperation  of  the  American  delegates,  one  of  whom 
was  William  Z.  Foster. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Is  Mr.  Gebert  an  American  citizen  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Gebert  was  never  an  American  citizen.  He  has  always 
considered  himself  a  citizen  of  Poland.  To  my  knowledge,  he  never 
even  bothered  declaring  his  intention  of  becoming  a  citizen. 

Mr.  Dekom.  How  long  was  he  in  the  United  States  before  he 
returned  to  Poland  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  I  knew  Mr.  Gebert  from  about  1919  to  about  1939  or 
1940. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Did  he  go  back  to  Poland  on  the  ship  Batory'i 

Mr.  Malkin.  Yes,  he  did. 

Mr.  Gebert  was  a  member  of  the  central  executive  committee  of 
the  American  Communist  Party  since  its  inception  in  the  United 
States. 

Mr.  Dekom.  When  was  that  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  From  1919  up  to  the  time  I  left  the  party,  to  my 
knowledge.  I  worked  with  Gebert.  He  was  district  organizer  in 
Chicago  when  I  was  organizational  secretary  under  Gebert. 

Senator  O'Conor.  Will  you  continue,  please? 

Mr.  Malkin.  The  Russian- American  Fraternal  Society  was  headed 
by  Daniel  Kasustchik.  This  Daniel  Kasustchik,  to  my  knowledge, 
has  been  a  member  of  the  partj'  since  1919.  He  was  one  of  the  leaders 
of  the  original  Bolshevik  group  in  the  United  States.  He  is  at  present 
one  of  the  leaders  of  the  Slav  Congress ;  in  fact,  one  of  the  executive 
committee  members,  together  with  Mike  Tkach  and  other  people  whom 
I  will  name.  He  is  also  one  of  the  leaders  of  the  International  Workers 
Order,  representing  the  Russian  Fraternal  Society. 

In  1943,  Gebert  united  a  number  of  the  pro-Communist  Slav  organ- 
izations into  the  organization  which  is  called  the  American  Slav  Con* 
gress.  Leo  Krzycki,  a  leader  in  Communist  front  organizations  among 
the  Polish  population,  was  also  instrumental  in  establishing  the 
American  Slav  Congress,  as  was  George  Pirinsky,  who  was  recently 
ordered  deported  by  the  Immigration  and  Naturalization  Service  for 
being  a  Communist.     Pirinsky  is  free  on  bail  pending  an  appeal. 

The  Communist  Party  is  able  to  mold  the  opinions  and  sympathies 
of  aliens  in  this  country  through  its  fronts,  like  the  one  mentioned 
above,  and  through  its  control  of  foreign-language  papers  such  as  the 
Russki  Golos,  the  Russian  daily,  the  Glos  Ludowy,  a  Polish  paper, 


474       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

and  various  other  foreign  language  papers  published  throughout  the 
country  in  all  foreign  languages. 

Mr.  Arens.  You  say  that  the  Communist  Party  is  able  to  wield  in- 
fluence over  the  minds  of  aliens.  How  extensive  is  the  influence  of 
communism  among  the  aliens  and  foreign  language  groups? 

Mr.  Malkin.  It  is  quite  extensive  because  the  Communists  control 
quite  a  few  of  these  alien  fraternal  and  sickness  and  death  benefit 
societies,  singing  choruses,  gymnastic  societies,  and  also  by  publishing 
daily,  weekly,  and  monthly  organs  in  foreign  languages. 

Mr.  Arens.  How  many  organizations  among  foreign  language 
groups,  in  your  judgment,  are  controlled  by  Communists'? 

Mr.  Malkin.  I  would  say  quite  a  few.  I  cannot  tell  you  exactly 
the  number,  but  they  have  control  in  practically  every  nationality 
group :  Hungarian,  Bulgarian,  Rumanian,  Finnish,  and  Jewish;  prac- 
tically in  every  foreign-language  group. 

Mr.  Arens.  What  you  mean  is  that  they  do  have  groups  within  each 
of  the  nationality  units,  but  you  don't  mean  to  testify  here  that  they 
control  all  persons  of  each  nationality  group  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  In  some  groups  they  might  control  a  big  faction 
of  those  groups.  There  would  be  quite  a  few  of  the  Communists  within 
the  group  who  would  take  control  of  it  and  who  are  the  heads  of  it. 
In  some  of  these  groups  the  Communists  are  not  in  control,  but  they 
do  have  quite  an  influence. 

Mr.  Arens.  I  wonder  if  you  could  be  a  little  more  specific,  Mr.  Mal- 
kin, in  telling  us  the  total  number  of  the  members  of  the  groups  that 
are  controlled  by  Communists,  so  that  we  would  have  perhaps  a  little 
better  understanding  of  the  extent  and  scope  of  Communist  control 
in  foreign  language  organizations? 

Mr.  Malkin.  For  instance,  in  the  Jewish  group,  the  Communists,  to 
my  estimation,  control  approximately — and  by  control  I  mean  have 
influence  over — between  150.000  to  200,000  as  a  minimum  in  the  United 
States.  That  is  done  through  its  control  of  the  International  Workers 
Order  and  various  Jewish-controlled  unions,  like  the  furriers  union  in 
New  York  and  other  sections  of  the  needle  trades  industry  throughout 
the  country. 

Mr.  Arens.  To  be  just  a  little  more  specific  still,  I  would  like  to  pose 
a  hypothetical  situation  and  then  ask  you  a  question  about  it.  Let  us 
say  that  there  is  an  organization  of  10,000  persons  predominantly  of 
foreign  birth.  Is  it  your  testimony  that  the  persons  in  the  group  are 
led  by  the  Communists,  or  that  the  organization  itself  is  used  by  the 
Communists  for  direction  and  control  ?  In  other  words,  the  Commun- 
ists are  the  rudder  of  the  group;  is  that  what  you  mean? 

Mr.  Malkin.  That  is  correct;  yes,  sir.  The  Communists  actually 
are  what  you  would  call  the  leadership  of  the  group,  and  they  wield  in- 
fluence due  to  the  fact  that  they  form  the  leadership.  I  would  not  say 
that  the  majority  of  the  members  are  Communists. 

Mr.  Arens.  Your  testimony,  then — and  I  am  not  trying  to  put  words 
in  your  mouth,  I  am  only  trying  to  clarify  the  concept  here — is  that  a 
number  of  these  foreign-language  groups  are  directed  and  controlled 
by  the  Communists,  which  does  not  necessarily  mean  that  all  of  the 
membership  of  the  group  is  Communist? 

Mr.  Malkin.  That  is  true,  of  course. 

Mr.  Dekom.  How  do  the  Communists  gain  control  so  easily  ? 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       475 

Mr.  Malkin.  The  Communists  gain  control,  whether  it  be  a  trade- 
union  or  a  fraternal  organization,  by  having  what  they  call  something 
like  military  discipline  and  voting  in  groups  and  blocks. 

For  instance,  let's  take  a  local  union.  It  might  have  a  membership 
of  12,000,  but  only  about  300  of  400  will  come  to  regular  meetings. 
Now,  amongst  those  400  there  will  be,  we  will  say,  100  Communists, 
but  they  vote  in  a  block  like  a  disciplined  group.  By  voting  in  that 
group  they  are  able  to  wield  influence  over  the  others.  Not  only  that, 
but  the  Communists  have  got  into  the  habit  of  dragging  out  the  meet- 
ings until  12  o'clock  or  1  o'clock  at  night  and  until  such  a  time  that 
other  members  who  are  not  so  much  interested  in  the  organization, 
and  who  are  just  card-carrying  members,  go  home,  being  tired  of 
having  the  meeting  dragged  out.  But  the  Communists  remain  there 
until  the  last  moment  and  are  able  to  take  control  by  voting  in  blocks. 

]Mr.  Arens,  How  do  you  distinguish  between  a  foreign-language 
group  composed  largely  of  foreign-born  persons  and  other  groups, 
from  the  standpoint  of  susceptibility  to  Communist  control  and  dom- 
ination? I  noticed,  if  I  may  make  an  observation,  that  you  have 
testified  to  the  effect  that  Communists  are  particularly  active  and  par- 
ticularly powerful  among  foreign-language  groups. 

Mr.  Malkin.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Arens.  How  do  you  account  for  that  ?  What  is  your  analysis 
of  that  situation  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  My  analysis  of  that  is  that  an  American  group,  not 
a  foreign-language-speaking  group,  is  able  to  read  the  American 
press,  the  American  literature,  the  American  history,  and  is  able  to 
mold  its  opinion  more  toward  the  American-history  side.  They  are 
able  to  read  both  sides  of  the  question.  They  will  read  the  Soviet 
side  of  the  question  and  they  will  read  the  American  side  of  the  ques- 
tion. They  will  be  convinced  more  by  the  American  part  of  the 
question  than  they  will  be  by  the  foreign-language  part  of  the  question. 

Mr.  Arens.  Do  you  have  information,  Mr.  Malkin,  respecting  the 
number  of  foreign-language  publications  in  the  United  States  which 
are  or  were  in  the  past  under  Communist  control  and  domination? 

Mr.  Malkin.  I  have  not,  but  I  could  get  it. 

Mr.  Arens.  Will  you  be  kind  enough,  Mr.  Malkin,  when  you  return 
to  your  office  or  your  home,  to  assemble  that  information  in  memo- 
randum form  and  submit  it  to  the  subcommittee  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Yes ;  I  will. 

Mr.  Arens.  Will  you  accompany  that  with  a  statement  that  these 
papers  are,  in  your  judgment,  on  the  basis  of  your  background  and 
experience,  Communist  controlled  and  dominated  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Yes. 

(The  material  is  as  follows :) 

Foreign  Language  Press 

The  following  is  a  partial  list  of  the  Commvinist  publications  amongst  the 
foreign  language  press  in  the  United  States : 

I'auvor :  An  Armenian  weekly. 

Radnicki  Glasnik :  A  Croatian  language  daily  located  at  1629  Blue  Island 
Avenue,  Chicago,  111. 

Saznanie  (Knowledge)  :  Bulgarian  language  weekly.  OflScial  Communist  Party 
publication. 

Schodeni  Visti :  Ukranian  Daily  News.  Official  Communist  Party  organ.  New 
York  City. 


476       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

Russki  Golos  (Russian  Voice)  :  Russian  daily  under  Communist  Party  in- 
fluence. 

Narodni  Glasnik :  Croatian  weekly.     Published  by  Communist  Party. 

Novy  Mir :  Official  weekly  of  the  Russian  section  of  the  American  Communist 
Party.  Official  publication  of  the  International  Workers  Order.  Published  in 
New  York  City. 

New  York  Tyd :  Finnish  language  paper  under  Communist  domination. 

Uus  Urn  (The  New  World)  :  Esthonian  language  weekly. 

Laisve  :  A  Lithuanian  daily.  Published  at  46  Ten  Eyck  Street,  Brooklyn,  N.  Y. 
Official  party  publication  in  the  Lithuanian  language. 

Ludovny  Dennik :  Slovak  daily  published  at  1510  West  Eighteenth  Street, 
Chicago,  ill. 

Rovnost  Ludu :  Slovak  daily  published  at  1510  West  Eighteenth  Street,  Chi- 
cago, 111. 

Pravda  Weekly. 

L'Unita  Del  Popolo  :  Italian.    Published  in  New  York  City. 

Naileben :  Published  in  New  York  City  by  the  Communist  Soviet  front  "The 
Icor." 

Vida  Obrera  (Workers  Life)  :  Semimonthly.  Communist  initiated  and  con- 
trolled. 

Vanguarda :  A  Portuguese  Communist  Party  paper. 

Vienybe :  A  Lithuanian  triweekly.      Communist  initiated  and  controlled. 

Toveri  (Comrade)  :  E'innish  Communist  Party  section  weekly. 

Tyolaisnainen  (The  Working  Woman)  :  Finnish  weekly.  Communist  initiated 
and  controlled. 

Tyomis  (The  Worker)  :  Finnish  Communist  Party  daily. 

Obrana :  Communist  controlled  Czech  weekly  published  at  3624  West  Twenty- 
sixth  Street,  Chicago,  111. 

Desteptarea :  Rumanian  weekly.  Published  at  6527  Russell  Street,  Detroit, 
Mich. 

Greek  American  Tribune :  Published  in  Ne\v  York  City. 

Eteenpain :  Official  organ  of  the  Finnish  Federation  of  the  Communist  Party 
of  the  United  States  of  America.  Published  at  50  East  Thirteenth  Street,  New 
York  City.      Communist  headquarters. 

Fraternal  Outlook :  Published  by  the  International  Workers  Order  at  80  Fifth 
Avenue,  New  York  City. 

Morning  Freiheit:  Jewish  Communist  daily.  Published  at  50  East  Thirteenth 
Street,  New  York  City. 

Deutsche  Amerikaner  (German  American)  :  Published  at  50  East  Thirteenth 
Street,  New  York  City. 

Glos  Ludowy :  Polish  daily.     Official  Communist  Party  publication. 

The  Communist  Party  has  either  under  its  full  control  or  influence  between 
200  and  250  foreign-language  periodicals  in  daily,  weekly,  and  monthly  publi- 
cations throughout  the  United  States.  These  also  include  trade-union  publica- 
tions and  fraternal  foreign-language  publications,  etc. 

Senator  O'Conor.  Mr.  Malkin,  did  your  work,  while  you  were  an 
active  member  of  the  party,  bring  you  in  direct  contact  with  this 
method  of  operation? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Yes. 

Senator  O'Conor.  As  a  member  of  the  party,  did  you  have  direct 
contact  along  the  lines  indicated  by  the  last  questions  which  have  been 
propounded  to  you? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Yes.  As  an  organizer,  and  as  a  member  of  the  party, 
I  used  to  have  direct  contact  with  these  papers,  for  this  reason,  I  will 
give  you  an  illustration : 

If  I  am  an  organizer  of  a  certain  territory  and  a  Communist  paper 
is  within  my  territory,  I  would  be  in  full  charge  of  that  paper.  I 
would  give  orders  to  the  others,  tlie  editor  of  that  paper,  as  to  what 
to  publish  and  as  to  what  they  should  not  publish. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Could  you  name  some  of  those  papers  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  The  Ukranian  Daily  News. 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       477 

Mr.  Dekom,  The  editor  is  Mike  Tkach  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Yes. 

There  used  to  be  a  paper  called  the  Novy  Mir,  a  Eussian  paper.  The 
Russki  Golos  was  not  controlled  by  the  Communist  Party  at  that 
time,  but  its  sympathies  have  always  been  toward  the  Soviet  Union. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Are  you  familiar  with  the  Croatian  newspaper, 
Narodni  Glasnik,  published  in  Pittsburgh  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Yes.  It  is  edited  by  an  old  friend  of  mine  by  the 
name  of  Toni  Minerich. 

Mr.  Dekom.  I  wonder  if  you  would  enlarge  on  the  matter  of  this 
editor  of  the  newspaper  Narodni  Glasnik? 

Senator  O'Conor.  Will  you  just  give  us  some  detail,  please? 

Mr.  JMalkin.  Toni  Minerich  has  been  a  member  of  the  party,  to  my 
knowledge  from  personal  contact  with  him,  since  1925,  He  was  origi- 
nally a  coal  miner . 

Senator  O'Conor.  Is  he  an  American  citizen  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  I  recall  that  he  was  naturalized  in  1927  in  the  Penn- 
sylvania district.  I  have  known  Toni  Minerich  for  years  as  a  party 
member.  I  worked  with  him  in  the  party  and  also  with  his  coworker 
Borich. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Is  that  Frank  Borich  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Yes. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Is  he  now  under  deportation  order? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Yes,  that  is  right. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Do  you  know  whether  or  not  Toni  Minerich  was  an 
official  of  the  Young  Communist  League? 

Mr.  JVLilLkin.  Yes,  a  member  of  the  National  Executive  Committee. 

Mr.  Dekom.  And  an  organizer? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Yes,  that  is  right. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Do  you  know  whether  or  not  he  has  ever  been  in  prison  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  He  was  arrested,  I  think,  in  Pittsburgh  or  in  Phila- 
delphia for  disorderly  conduct,  having  a  meeting  without  a  permit,, 
or  something  of  that  kind. 

iSIr.  Dekom.  Was  he  active  in  the  organization  of  the  American 
Slav  Congress  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Yes. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Was  he  one  of  the  original  organizers  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  He  was  one  of  those ;  yes.  He  was  from  the  Croatian 
division. 

Mr.  Dekom.  There  are  a  number  of  newspapers  published  in  De- 
troit at  5856  Chene  Street,  including  Glos  Ludowy,  which  you  have 
identified  as  a  Communist  paper.  Can  you  state  whether  theNarodna 
Volya  published  there  is  a  Communist  paper,  too? 

Mr.  Malkin.  The  Narodna  Volya  is  the  original  Russian  name  of 
the  terrorist  group  that  Lenin's  brother  ^  was  hanged  for  his  partici- 
pation in  the  assassination  of  Czar  Alexander  in  1880.  Narodna  Volya 
was  also  the  name  of  their  paper.     That  is  Pirinslry's  paper. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Is  it  a  Bulgarian  paper  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  It  is  a  Bulgarian  paper. 

Senator  O'Conor.  Will  you  continue  with  explaining  the  details 
of  your  credentials  ? 

1  Alexander  Lenin  (Ulianov). 


478       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

Mr.  Malkin.  During  my  activity  in  the  party,  I  used  to  come  in 
contact  with  a  lot  of  these  newspapers.  There  used  to  be  a  paper 
called  the  Uj  Elore  of  which  Peters  was  in  charge  of  at  one  time. 

Senator  O'Conor.  We  have  heard  a  lot  about  him. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Could  you  identify  him  further  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  I  testified  in  Peters'  deportation  hearing  and  identi- 
fied him  in  New  York. 

Mr.  Dekom.  You  identified  him  as  what  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  J.  Peters  was  born  in  Hungary.  He  was  active  in 
the  Hungarian  revolution  in  1919. 

Mr.  Dekom.  That  was  the  Communist  revolution  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  That  is  right ;  under  Bela  Kun. 

He  came  to  the  United  States  with  another  person  called  Emil 
Gardos.  He  started  to  work,  and  I  met  him  for  the  first  time  in 
1923  or  1924.  He  was  later  in  charge  of  all  of  the  underground  ap- 
paratus of  the  organization,  the  hush-hush  organization  of  the  party, 
and  the  espionage  that  the  party  did  for  the  Soviet  Union  in  this 
country.  He  collaborated  with  the  Central  Control  Commission  and 
the  resident  GPU  agents  in  this  country,  some  of  whom  I  will  name 
later  in  my  statement.     They  were  later  known  as  NKVD. 

The  foreign-language  newspapers  published  on  behalf  of  the  Com- 
munist Party  are  governed  by  a  policy  laid  down  in  the  first  section 
of  conditions  for  admission  to  the  Communist  International,  which 
were  adopted  by  the  Second  World  Congress  of  the  Communist  Inter- 
national in  Moscow  in  1920.     That  first  section  provides  as  follows: 

Section  1.  The  general  propaganda  and  agitation  should  bear  a  real  Com- 
munist character  and  should  correspond  to  the  program  and  decisions  of  the 
Third  International.  The  entire  party  press  should  be  edited  by  reliable  Com- 
munists who  have  proved  their  loyalty  to  the  cause  of  the  proletarian  revolution. 
The  dictatorship  of  the  proletariat  should  not  be  spoken  of  simply  as  a  current 
hackneyed  formula,  it  should  be  advocated  in  such  a  way  that  its  necessity  should 
be  apparent  to  every  rank-and-file  working-man  and  workingwoman,  to  each 
soldier  and  peasant,  and  should  emanate  from  everyday  facts  systematically 
recorded  by  our  press  day  by  day. 

All  periodicals  and  other  publications,  as  well  as  all  party  publications  and 
editions,  are  subject  to  the  control  of  the  presidium  of  the  party,  independently 
of  whether  the  party  is  legal  or  illegal.  It  should  in  no  way  be  permitted  that 
the  publishers  abuse  their  autonomy  and  carry  on  a  policy  not  fully  corresponding 
to  the  policy  of  the  party. 

Wherever  the  followers  of  the  Third  International  have  access,  and  whatever 
means  of  propaganda  are  at  their  disposal,  whether  the  columns  of  newspapers, 
labor  meetings,  or  cooperatives,  it  is  indispensable  for  them  not  only  to  denounce 
the  bourgeoisie  but  also  its  assistants  and  agents,  reformists  of  every  color  and 
shape. 

In  order  that  the  above  rules  and  conditions  be  carried  out,  the  Com- 
munist International  has  always  maintained  representatives  in  the 
United  States,  some  of  whom  enter  the  country  illegally  and  on  false 
passports. 

The  following  agents  have  been  here  under  the  conditions  and  dur- 
ing the  stated  period  for  the  purpose  mentioned  above  and  to  keep 
the  aliens  in  line  with  Moscow's  political  and  diplomatic  moves, 
whether  on  a  Soviet  national  scale,  or  whether  on  its  international 
diplomatic  fronts : 

The  first  agent  I  want  to  mention  here  is  Ludwig  A.  C.  K.  Martens. 
He  was  here  from  1918  to  1920.  He  was  the  unofficial  Soviet  Am- 
bassador to  the  United  States,  and  the  original  organizer  of  the  Com- 


COAIMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       479 

munist  Party  in  the  United  States.     He  performed  the  wedding  of 
the  American  party  with  the  Communist  International. 

Another  agent  who  was  here  was  a  person  by  the  name  of  Valetzky. 
He  was  here  in  1922. 

The  third  agent  was  John  Pepper,  alias  Schwartz,  alias  Joseph 
Pogany.  He  was  one  of  the  leaders  of  the  Hungarian  revolution  in 
1919,  and  was  sent  here  in  1923  as  a  Comintern  representative  to  the 
American  party. 

Pepper  came  back  in  1928  and  1929,  until  he  was  expelled  and  re- 
called by  Moscow,  because  he  had  alined  himself  with  the  Bukharin 
faction  in  Russia  against  Stalin. 

Another  one  is  P.  Green.  He  called  himself  P.  Green,  but  his  real 
name  is  Gussev.     He  was  here  in  1925  and  in  1926. 

Another  one  who  was  here  was  a  man  by  the  name  of  Ewart.  He 
went  under  the  name  of  Brown.  He  was  a  member  of  the  Communist 
Party  of  Germany,  and  was  sent  here  by  the  Comintern  in  1926  and 
1927. 

Another  agent  who  was  here  was  one  by  the  name  of  Jenks.  He  was 
here  in  1931  as  a  representative  of  the  Comintern. 

After  him  came  a  person  by  the  name  of  F.  Brown,  that  is,  he 
called  himself  Brown,  but  his  real  name  was  Alpi. 

Morigni  was  here  from  1931  to  1939.  He  left  this  country  after 
my  testimony  before  the  Un-American  Activities  Committee  naming 
him  as  one  of  the  Soviet  agents. 

Mr.  Arens.  Is  your  testimony  with  respect  to  chese  agents  you  say 
have  been  sent  into  the  country  at  various  times  based  upon  your 
experience,  observation,  knowledge,  and  experience? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Arens.  That  is  as  a  former  Communist  Party  official  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Yes,  sir. 

The  next  representative  to  the  United  States  was  a  person  by  the 
name  of  Harry  Pollitt,  a  member  of  the  executive  committee  of  the 
British  Communist  Party.  He  was  here  from  1933  to  1934,  helping 
to  direct  the  San  Francisco  general  strike  with  Harry  Bridges. 

To  help  him  in  this  work  was  Mrs.  Kuusinen.  She  is  the  wife  of 
Kuusinen  ^  who  was  named  Premier  of  Finland  during  the  Finnish- 
Eussian  AVar  of  1910-41,  by  the  Comintern.  She  is  one  of  the  leaders 
of  the  Communist  Party  in  Finland  now. 

In  1938  and  1939  there  was  another  representative  here  b}'  the  name 
of  Dengal. 

The  Young  Communist  International  also  sent  its  representative  to 
the  United  States  to  direct  the  Young  Communist  League.  That  is 
the  youth  organization  of  the  Communist  Party. 

Amongst  those  here  during  diiferent  periods  was  one  by  the  name 
of  Rust,  and  another  one  who  called  himself  by  the  name  of  Bob. 

Most  of  the  people  whom  I  have  named  came  here  under  fictitious 
or  false  passports. 

Mr.  Arens.  How  did  they  get  those  fictitious  or  false  passports  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  To  my  knowledge,  although  I  was  never  there — 1 
found  this  out  while  being  in  the  party  through  various  channels  in 
the  party — the  passports  were  made  from  original  American  pass- 

^  otto  Kuusinen. 


480       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

ports,  or  from  passports  of  Americans  who  came  to  the  Lenin  School, 
and  from  other  sources  which  I  will  enumerate  in  my  statement. 

Mr.  Dekom.  I  notice  that  all  of  the  Comintern  representatives  are 
aliens.  Is  it  customary  to  send  aliens  to  run  the  American  Commu- 
nist Party  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  That  is  right.  They  will  never  send  an  American  be- 
cause an  American  might  work  with  the  other  fellows  and  not  carry 
out  the  wishes  of  the  Comintern, 

There  was  another  representative  wlio  came  here  in  1938  to  the 
World  Youth  Congress  from  France.  I  named  him  l)efore  the  Un- 
American  Activities  Committee  and  Mrs.  Franklin  Roosevelt  prac- 
tically called  me  a  liar.  He  is  one  whom  the  French  Communist 
Paity  was  tickled  to  death  to  get  rid  of.  He  was  a  friend  of  Ercoli, 
alias  Togliatti/  the  leader  of  the  Italian  party.  His  name  is  Prof. 
Ambrosio  Donini.  In  1946  and  1947,  during  the  Italian  elections,  the 
Di  Gasperi  government  recalled  Professor  Donini  from  his  position 
as  Ambassador  to  one  of  the  European  countries  because  of  his 
membership  in  the  Communist  Party. 

This  same  Donini  was  CI  Rep  and  came  as  a  delegate  to  the  World 
Youth  Congress  which  was  then  held  at  Schenectady. 

Since  its  inception  in  the  United  States,  the  United  States  party 
has  been  one  of  the  main  sources  of  espionage  for  the  Soviet  Govern- 
ment through  the  information  that  the  membership  gathers  in  in- 
dustrial units,  armament  factories,  naval  shipyards,  et  cetera. 

Besides  having  the  regular  party  members  gather  that  information, 
the  Soviet  Government  established  regular  espionage  apparatus 
through  the  Soviet  Embassy,  the  Amtorg,  trading  agencies,  purchasing 
missions,  and  the  United  Nations. 

The  following  are  but  a  few  of  the  agents  who  have  been  here  anil 
who  have  done  tlieir  work  loyally  for  the  Soviet  Government : 

Alexander  Karen  was  one  of  the  resident  GPU  agents  in  the  United 
States  who  was  here  from  1928  up  to  1983. 

Valentin  ISIarkin  was  here  from  1933  to  1938,  and  was  a  regular 
resident  GPU  agent  in  the  United  States.  He  was  killed  in  New  York 
mysteriously.  No  one  ever  found  out  how  he  was  killed.  They  found 
him  dead ;  that  is  all. 

Colonel  Bykov  was  here  from  1938  to  1940.  Through  information 
that  I  have  received,  which  I  have  checked,  he  was  one  of  those  who 
were  instrumental,  in  my  opinion,  in  killing  General  Krivitsky. 

Mr.  Arens.  What  first-hand  information  do  you  have  on  that? 

Mr.  Malkin.  I  don't  know  whether  the  information  is  first-hand  or 
second-hand  but  I  have  checked  and  double-checked  with  quite  a  few 
of  my  former  comrades  and  other  people. 

Colonel  Bykov  was  actually  in  charge  of  the  GPU  during  that 
period  and  he  was  actually  the  type  to  do  the  job.  He  was  a  hatchet 
man.    He  was  actually  the  type  to  do  the  job  if  no  one  else  could  do  it. 

Another  GPU  chief  in  the  United  States  was  Boris  Shpak. 

At  the  present  time  Moscow  and  the  Communist  Party  in  the  United 
States  are  concentrating  a  great  deal  on  the  United  Nations. 

Senator  O'Conor.  Now,  upon  what  do  you  base  that  statement  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  I  base  that  statement  on  the  foreign  policy  of  the 
Soviet  Union,  on  the  policy  of  the  party,  on  the  language  of  the  Daily 

1  Palmiro  TogllattL 


COMIVIUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       481 

Worker,  the  language  in  the  party  press,  and  on  the  activities  of  the 
party. 

Senator  O'Conor.  Have  you  been  keeping  in  touch  with  those  ac- 
tivities ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Yes. 

That  is  clone,  for  example,  by  placing  people  on  the  United  Na- 
tions staff  such  as  General  Victor  Yakhontoff,  who  has  supported  the 
Communist  front  through  the  Friends  of  the  Soviet  Union.  I  think 
that  organization  is  out  of  existence  now.  In  the  early  thirties  he  used 
to  speak  at  their  meetings. 

He  was  always  a  member  of  dozens  of  Communist  front  organiza- 
tions. Every  time  the  Soviet  Union  wanted  to  put  up  some  kind  of  a 
front  for  the  defense  of  the  Soviet  Union,  or  for  the  defense  of  their 
mock  trials  that  they  were  carrying  on  in  1936  and  1937,  one  of  those 
used  to  put  up  the  front  was  General  Yakhontoff.  He  claimed  he  was 
a  former  Russian  general  in  the  Czar's  army. 

Mr.  Arens.  What  is  Yakhontoff's  official  status  in  the  United 
Nations  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  He  is  employed  by  them. 

Mr.  Arens.  But  you  don't  know  in  v,diat  capacity  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  I  don't. 

I  used  to  see  General  Yakhontoff  going  in  and  out  of  the  Communist 
Party  headquarters.  I  cannot  place  him  as  a  member  of  the  party,  but 
to  go  in  and  out  of  the  Communist  Party  headquarters  you  have  to  be 
a  party  member  in  order  to  get  into  the  inner  sanctum.  Otherwise, 
you  can  never  enter. 

Mr.  Dekom.  I  have  here  a  copy  of  the  new  telephone  directory  of 
the  United  Nations  dated  February  1,  1949.  On  page  90,  I  show  you 
a  name.    Is  that  the  name  of  the  man  you  have  been  referring  to  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  That  is  the  same  one.  Gen.  Victor  A.  Yakhontoff. 

Mr.  Dekom.  This  indicates  that  he  is  in  the  translating  division. 

Mr.  Arens.  Can  you  tell  me  what  he  does  from  the  standpoint  of 
Communist  work? 

Mr.  Malkin.  He  used  to  be  put  up  as  a  speaking  front,  or  as  a 
writing  front,  for  all  Communist  apologetic  organizations  to  the 
Soviet  Union. 

Mr.  Arens.  You  say  he  used  to  do  that.  Do  you  know  what  he 
has  been  doing  during  the  course  of  recent  months  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  I  haven't  seen  his  name  on  any  Communist  fronts 
lately,  but  during  the  war  he  was  active  in  the  American-Soviet  Friend- 
ship Society  and  on  every  other  Soviet  front  that  there  was. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Was  he  connected  with  the  American  Slav  Congress? 

Mr.  ISIalkin.  That  is  right. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Was  he  one  of  the  writers  for  New  Masses,  a  con- 
tributor to  New  Masses? 

Mr.  Malkin.  He  was  a  contributor  to  New  Masses.  He  also  con- 
tributed to  Soviet  Russia  Today. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Would  you  identify  New  Masses  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  New  Masses  was  a  monthly  magazine  published  by 
the  Communists  for  the  intelligentsia,  for  what  they  called  the  "Ameri- 
can intelligentsia."  I  would  call  them  students,  writers,  artists,  and 
so  on. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Was  it  an  official  publication  of  the  party  ? 


482       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

Mr.  Malkin.  It  was  organized,  controlled,  managed,  and  everything 
else  by  the  party. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Was  he  ever  a  speaker  before  the  International  Workers 
Order? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Yes,  General  Yakhontoff  spoke  before  that  groun. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Is  that  an  organization  listed  by  the  Attorney  General 
as  a  subversive  organization  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  It  is  not  only  listed  as  such,  but  it  was  organized  by 
the  Communist  Party  in  1929. 

Mr.  Dekom,  Do  you  know  whether  or  not  he  was  a  lecturer  or  a 
speaker  at  the  Jefferson  School  of  Social  Science. 

Mr.  Malkin.  Yes,  that  is  right. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Can  you  identify  that  school  ? 

Mr,  Malkin.  Jefferson  School  is  a  continuation  of  the  Workers' 
School,  whose  lecturers,  managers,  textbooks,  and  everything  else,  are 
controlled  by  the  party. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Was  he  connected  in  any  way  with  the  Mother  Bloor 
Celebration  Committee? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Yes. 

Mr,  Dekom.  Would  you  identify  Mother  Bloor? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Motlier  Bloor  is  what  they  call  "the  mother  of  the 
American  revolution,"  That  is  what  they  consider  her.  She  has  been 
a  charter  member  of  the  American  Communist  Party,  and  she  has 
been  active  in  trade-unions  way  before  the  Communist  Party  was 
active.  She  is  a  woman  of  about  87  years  old,  formerly  the  wife  of 
Browder,  and  formerly  the  wife  of  a  couple  more  I  can't  remember. 

Mr.  ScHROEDER.  Do  you  mean  Earl  Browder? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Yes,  the  unofficial  wife,  of  course. 

Mr.  Arens.  Will  you  kindly  continue,  Mr.  Malkin. 

Mr.  Malkin.  Another  partner  of  General  Yakhontoff  in  the  United 
Nations  is  Millard  Lampell  who,  to  my  knowledge,  is  at  present  em- 
ployed as  a  script  writer,  I  think,  for  the  United  Nations. 

Mr.  Dekom,  Mr.  Chairman,  I  would  like  to  submit  in  evidence  a 
clipping  from  the  New  York  Times  stating  Millard  Lampell's  con- 
nection with  the  Radio  Division  of  the  United  Nations. 

Senator  O'Conor.  The  clipping  will  be  received  in  evidence. 

(The  clipping  referred  to  is  as  follows:) 

[From  the  New  York  Times,  August  10,  1949] 
RADIO,  VIDEO 

A  series  of  six  documentary  radio  programs  designed  to  show  the  need  of  world 
reliance  upon  the  United  Nations  for  peace,  welfare,  and  security  will  be  broad- 
cast in  weekly  Sunday  installments  by  the  National  Broadcasting  Co.,  starting 
September  11.  The  programs,  presented  in  cooperation  with  United  Nations 
Jiadio.  will  be  supervised  by  Norman  Corwin,  head  of  special  projects  for  the 
UN's  Radio  Division. 

In  addition  to  supervising  the  series,  Mr.  Corwin  will  write,  direct  and  produce 
tlie  initial  program  entitled  "Could  Be,"  which  will  be  aired  on  the  tenth  anni- 
versary of  the  Nazi  attack  on  Poland.  This  full-hour  broadcast  will  strive  to 
show  what  could  happen  if  all  nations  got  together  to  solve  the  problem  of 
maintaining  peace. 

Tiie  first  two  programs  will  be  1  hour  long  and  the  others  a  half  hour.  The  time 
for  each  broadcast  will  be  announced  later. 

Others  in  the  series  will  deal  with  the  function  of  the  United  Nations  in  its 
ol'jective  of  keeping  peace,  a  tour  behind  the  scenes  of  UN  activities,  an  illus- 
tration of  the  achievements  of  the  Economic  Commission  for  Europe,  a  treatment 
on  genocide  and  the  story  of  the  International  Refugee  Organization, 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       483 

Radio  writing  and  producing  talent  from  tliis  country,  Great  Britain,  and 
Canada  will  be  called  upon  for  the  scripts.  The  list  includes  Millard  Lanipell, 
writer  of  October  Morning;  Allen  Sloane,  a  writer  recently  returned  trom  Europe 
after  working  out  of  IRO  headquarters  in  Geneva;  W.  Gibson-Parker,  formerly 
of  the  British  Broadcasting  Corp.,  and  now  production  chief  for  United  Nations 
Radio;  Jerome  Lawrence,  and  Robert  E.  Lee.  a  radio  writing-directing-producing 
team  ;  Gerald  Kean,  supervisor  of  the  English  Language  Section  of  the  UN's 
Radio  Division;  and  Leu  I'eterson  and  Andrew  Allen  of  the  Canadian  Broadcast- 
ing Corp. 

Mr.  Malkin.  Mr.  Lampell,  to  my  knowledge,  has  been  on  a  dozen 
Communist  fronts.  He  has  been  connected  quite  a  few  times  with 
the  Hollywood  group  that  has  been  indicted,  I  think,  for  contempt  of 
Congress.     He  has  been  on  many  Communist  fronts,  to  my  knowledge. 

Even  as  late  as  September  1  of  this  year,  liis  name  appeared  in  the 
Daily  Worker  as  one  of  the  speakers,  together  with  Howard  Fast,  who 
admitted  then  being  a  member  of  the  Communist  Party,  at  the  Jeffer- 
son School.  Mr.  Lampell  is  listed  as  active  in  a  protest  being  spon- 
sored by  the  Council  of  Arts,  Sciences,  and  Professions. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Is  that  a  Communist-front  organization  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  That  is  a  Communist  front — organized,  led,  and  con- 
trolled by  the  Communist  Party. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Has  Millard  Lampell  ever  been  a  contributor  to  the 
New  Masses? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Yes. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Has  he  been  connected  with  the  Progressive  Citizens  of 
America,  to  your  knowledge? 

Mr.  Malkin.  I  cannot  name  the  Progressive  Citizens  of  America 
as  being  all  Communists.  Some  of  them  are  just  plain  fools,  that  is, 
most  of  them,  and  the  ones  that  control  the  organizations  are  Com- 
munists. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Has  he  been  connected  with  the  Civil  Eights  Congress? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Yes. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Is  that  a  Communist  front? 

Mr.  Malkin.  That  is  a  Communist  front  controlled  by  the  party 
through  people  such  as  our  friend  Paul  Robeson  and  others. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Has  he  been  a  contributor,  to  your  knowledge,  to  the 
magazine  Mainstream? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Mainstream  is  a  continuation  of  the  old  Masses. 
Masses  and  Mainstream  it  is  called. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Is  he  a  contributor? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Yes. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Has  Millard  Lampell,  to  your  knowledge  been  con- 
nected with  the  New  York  Committee  to  "Win  the  Peace? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Yes. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Can  you  identify  that  organization  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  That  was  a  New  York  committee  organized  after  the 
war  to  combat  the  Marshall  plan  and  to  fight  every  other  suggestion 
or  proposal  that  the  President  or  the  United  States  Congress  would 
make  against  the  iron  curtain  countries,  any  of  the  countries  controlled 
by  the  Soviet  Union. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Was  he  a  speaker  at  the  Win-the-Peace  Conference  in 
Washington,  which  w^as  organized  by  the  Communist  Party? 

Mr.  Malkin.  That  is  right. 

98330— 50— pt.  2 2 


484       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

Senator  O'Conor.  With  further  reference  to  the  activities  of  Mil- 
lard Lampell,  were  they  notorious  and  pretty  generally  known,  or 
were  they  all  secret  and  clandestine  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Sometimes  they  were  carried  out  in  secret,  but  the 
information  would  leak  out  at  conferences. 

Senator  O'Conor.  What  I  have  reference  to,  and  what  I  think  may 
be  of  particular  interest,  is  whether  or  not  there  was  sufficient  knowl- 
edge of  the  activities  of  Millard  Lampell  so  that  those  in  charge  of 
appointments  at  the  United  Nations  would  be  wary  of  him. 

Mr.  Malkin.  There  is  quite  a  group  around  New  York  that  could 
give  you  more  information  on  that,  based  on  their  personal  knowledge 
of  him. 

Senator  O'Conor.  Have  you  previously  testified  concerning  him? 

Mr.  Malkin.  No. 

Senator  O'Conor.  Did  you  testify  concerning  him  before  the  Un- 
American  Activities  Committee  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  I  testified  before  the  Un-American  Activities  Com- 
mittee in  1939. 

Mr.  Dekom.  May  we  submit  for  the  record  the  public  record  of 
Millard  Lampell's  connection  with  some  30  Communist-front  organi- 
zations reported  in  public  sources  ? 

Senator  O'Conor.  Yes;  that  will  be  introduced  and  marked. 

(The  documents  referred  to  are  included  in  apjiendix  V,  p.  A80.) 

Senator  O'Conor.  Will  you  proceed,  Mr.  Malkin  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  To  continue,  we  have  the  agents  of  this  international 
organization  carrying  out  a  policy  of  world  revolution  and  chaos. 
Now,  we  come  to  the  question  of  citizenship  and  its  misuse. 

It  has  always  been  the  Communist  Party  line  in  the  United  States 
to  misuse  American  citizenship  and  its  certificates.  Since  it  has  been 
so  easy  to  become  an  American  citizen,  it  has  been  the  party  line 
and  policy  to  get  the  members  to  become  American  citizens  in  order 
to  enable  the  Communists  to  run  for  political  office  and  to  participate 
in  election  campaigns,  and  to  try  to  elect  its  representatives  to  political 
offices  so  as  to  utilize  the  election  of  its  representatives  and  their  posi- 
tions in  advocating  the  overthrow  of  our  Government  by  force  and 
violence  with  the  establishment  of  a  dictatorship  of  the  proletariat 
in  the  United  States. 

The  other  use  of  American  citizenship  is  to  enable  them  to  go  from 
Moscow  to  other  parts  of  the  world  on  American  passports  to  carry 
out  the  Kremlin's  line  without  being  molested  by  foreign  governments. 

Mr.  ScHROEDER.  Mr.  Malkin,  you  made  a  statement  a  moment  ago 
with  reference  to  the  overthrow  of  our  Government  by  force  and 
violence.  Have  you  ever  heard  that  statement  made  at  any  party 
meetings  that  you  have  attended  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  That  has  not  only  been  stated  at  meetings,  but  it  is 
a  statement  contained  in  the  literature  from  the  time  of  the  inception 
of  the  party  throughout  my  existence  in  the  party.  In  1920,  when 
the  party  had  been  organized,  the  party  issued  a  paper  called  the 
Revolutionary  Age.  I  remember  that  James  Larkin,  an  Irishman 
who  was  deported  from  the  United  States  back  to  Ireland  in  1923,  and 
Harry  Winitsky,  who  edited  the  paper,  were  prosecuted  on  a  charge 
of  criminal  anarchy  for  coming  out  with  the  statement : 

We  Communists  do  not  believe  in  ballots;  we  believe  in  bullets. 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       485 

Those  are  exactly  the  words  that  were  used. 

Throughout  the  party's  existence  and  my  existence  in  the  party, 
there  was  never  any  doubt  in  the  minds  of  the  leadership  and  in  our 
minds,  and  in  the  minds  of  the  rank  and  file  that  was  theoretically 
developed  in  the  party,  that  the  party  never  will  accomplish  its  aims ; 
that  is,  the  establishment  of  a  dictatorship  of  the  proletariat  in  the 
United  States  by  peaceful  means. 

We  always  taught  in  the  schools  of  the  party,  and  we  were  taught 
that  the  controlling  interests  of  the  United  States,  or  of  any  demo- 
cratic country,  what  the  Communists  call  the  bourgeois  countries,  will 
never  give  up  their  power  peacefully.  Therefore,  it  is  up  to  the  Com- 
munists to  take  control  at  an  opportune  moment  such  as  an  economic 
or  political  crisis  in  the  United  States.  That  would  be  done  through 
arming  what  they  called  their  party  members,  their  sympathizers, 
and  what  they  call  the  proletariat  in  the  United  States,  by  capturing 
arsenals,  and  by  agitation  in  the  National  Guard  and  the  armed  forces 
in  an  effort  to  get  those  soldiers  or  sailors  within  the  armed  forces  to 
come  to  their  side,  and  through  those  means  to  overthrow  the  demo- 
cratic form  of  government  of  the  United  States  and  establish  the 
Soviet  Government. 

Birth  certificates  and  American  citizenship  certificates  have  been 
used  to  send  American  party  members  to  the  Lenin  school  and  other 
sabotage  schools  to  train  for  leadership  in  the  methods  of  sabotage  and 
propaganda  in  the  United  States.  Citizenship  papers  have  been  used 
for  the  above-named  purposes,  as  well  as  for  the  forging  of  passports 
for  Moscow  agents  to  enter  the  United  States  without  detection.  That 
has  been  going  on  since  the  party's  inception  in  1919. 

Mr.  Aeens.  Now,  may  I  just  ask  you  at  this  point,  first  of  all,  how 
extensive  this  practice  has  been,  to  your  experience  ? 

Mr.  Malkix.  It  has  been  quite  extensive.  In  fact,  the  party  could 
have  sent  hundreds  of  agents  to  Moscow  on  American  papers.  For 
instance,  in  the  case  of  people  who  are  dead,  they  take  that  certificate 
and  go  and  get  a  passport.  Somebody  else  gets  it.  I  mean  a  passport 
to  leave  the  United  States  to  go  to  Russia. 

Mr.  Arens.  How  about  the  entrance  to  the  United  States? 

Mr.  Malkin.  In  the  case  of  an  entrance  to  the  United  States,  you 
could  take  an  American  passport  that  has  already  been  used  by"  an 
American  student  who  is  there.  They  would  use  his  passport,  or 
make  a  copy  of  it  in  a  building  called  the  Omsk  in  Moscow,  where  they 
forge  all  kinds  of  foreign  passports,  counterfeit  money,  and  everything 
else. 

Mr.  Arens.  Do  they  forge  visas^ 

Mr.  Malkin.  They  forge  visas  and  passports. 

Mr.  Arens.  How  extensive  has  been  the  entrance  into  this  country 
of  agents  on  fraudulent  papers  ? 

Mr.  Malkix.  It  has  been  quite  extensive. 

Mr.  Arens.  How  extensive  is  it  at  this  time,  to  your  knowledge? 

Mr.  Malkin.  At  the  present  time,  to  my  knowledge,  they  are  a  little 
more  careful,  because  the  Soviet  Government  knows,  and  also  the 
party  knows  that  its  existence  in  the  United  States  is  legally  en- 
dangered, that  they  are  on  their  hind  legs. 

Mr.  Arens.  What  do  you  mean  by  that? 


486       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

Mr.  Malkin.  That  the  party  is  liable  to  be  driven  underground. 
This  is  what  they  fear  most  and  what  they  are  seeking  to  avoid.  If 
Congress  passes  a  bill  outlawing  the  Communist  Party,  it  will  set  up 
machinery  to  neutralize  the  influence  of  the  party  among  the  pseudo- 
liberals  and  wealthy  stooges  in  this  country  from  which  the  Communist 
Party  derives  much  of  its  support. 
They  are  scared. 

Mr.  Arens.  Are  they  at  this  time  still  sending  agents? 
Mr.  Malkin.  They  do,  but  not  to  the  extent  that  they  used  to. 
Mr.  Akens.  Are  they  still  sending  them  here  in  the  same  manner 
you  have  described  previously  ? 
Mr.  Malkin.  That  is  right. 
Mr.  Arens.  By  false  and  fraudulent  documents  ? 
Mr.  Malkin.  That  is  correct.     The  fact  is — I  do  not  know  exactly 
the  names  of  the  people,  I  am  trying  to  check  on  that — that  there  are 
three  representatives  here  in  the  United  States  now  from  Moscow. 

Mr.  Arens.  What  do  you  mean  by  three  representatives  from  Mos- 
cow? 

Mr.  Malkin.  From  the  Comintern.     They  are  not  GPU  agents, 
but  agents  of  the  Comintern. 
Mr.  Arens.  Who  are  those  men  ? 
Mr.  Malkin.  That  is  what  I  am  trying  to  find  out. 
Mr.  Arens.  How  do  you  know  that  they  are  here  ? 
Mr.  Malkin.  I  was  told  that  through  information  I  received  from 
the  party. 

Mr.  Arens.  Did  they  indicate  what  status  they  have  here  from  the 
standpoint  of  our  immigration  laws  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  They  are  called  the  CI  Commission. 
Mr.  Arens.  What  do  you  mean  by  CI  Commission?  _ 
Mr.  Malkin.  The  Communist  International  Commission. 
Mr.  ScHROEDER.  Is  it  unusual  to  send  a  commission  ? 
Mr.  Malkin.  Well,  it  has  been  done  before. 
Mr.  Dekom.  Is  that  a  trouble-shooting  unit? 
Mr.  Malkin.  That  is  right. 

They  are  actually  in  charge  of,  if  necessary,  reorganizing  the  party, 
giving  orders  to  the  party,  and  everything  else.  Leaders,  like  Wil- 
liam Z.  Foster,  Earl  Browder,  and  Eugene  Dennis  have  never  had 
much  to  say  about  the  American  party  anyway. 

Mr.  Arens.  As  to  these  three  top  men  of  whom  you  say  you  have 
information  are  here,  what  is  their  immigi'ation  status?  Are  they 
affiliates  of  embassies,  affiliates  of  some  purchasing  commission,  or 
what  are  they  here  as  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  I  would  doubt  very  much  whether  they  are  affiliates 
of  any  purchasing  commission  or  any  diplomatic  group.     They  are 
here  just  as  agents  who  came  here  illegally,  and  they  give  the  orders. 
Mr.  Arens.  How  did  they  get  here? 

Mr.  Malkin.  They  usually  come  here  on  different  passports,  not 
their  own,  because  the  Soviet  passport  authorities  know  that  the 
American  Government  will  have  a  check  on  them  and  keep  an  eye 
on  them,  so  they  come  in  under  other  false  passports. 

Mr.  Arens.  During  your  experience  as  a  member  of  the  party,  did 
you  have  occasion  to  arrive  at  a  conclusion  as  to  the  extent  to  which 
the  officials  of  foreign  governments  and  affiliates  of  international  or- 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       487 

ganizations  participate  in  the  Communist  apparatus  in  the  United 
States? 

Mr.  Malkin.  They  would  not  do  so  openly,  because,  to  my  knowl- 
edge, no  Avorker  in  the  Soviet  Embassy,  or  any  of  the  purchasing  com- 
missions or  trading  organizations,  or  any  so-called  legal  group  that 
might  come  here  from  the  Soviet  Union,  representing  the  Soviet  Gov- 
ernment, are  allowed  to  participate  openly  in  the  activities  of  the 
Communist  Party. 

To  my  former  knowledge,  and  to  my  knowledge  at  the  present  time, 
the  way  things  work  is  that  the  Soviet  Government  might  have  its 
agent  here,  and  he  might  act  as  a  janitor  at  the  Embassy,  for  example, 
but  still  give  orders  to  the  Ambassador. 

Mr.  Arens.  To  what  extent  is  the  Communist  apparatus  in  the 
United  States  directed  through  the  consulates  and  the  embassies? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Directly  they  never  do.  because  that  is  what  they  have 
the  control  commission  and  party  for.  The  central  control  commission 
of  the  Communist  Party  is  actually  the  group  in  the  party  that  is 
the  top  layer  of  the  party.  They  are  over  the  Politburo  and  every- 
thing else.  That  is  the  discipline  and  control  group  that  controls 
finances  and  that  disciplines  the  behavior  of  every  party  member. 
That  group  sees  to  it  that  the  party  carries  out  the  Moscow  line. 

Their  function  is  to  first  gather  information  that  is  collected  by  the 
organization  apart  from  the  party.  Let's  say,  for  instance,  that  the 
Brooklyn  Navy  Yard  will  have  a  party  unit  which  is  called  a  nucleus. 
That  party  unit,  when  they  get  together,  will  furnish  information  on 
the  caliber  of  guns  and  what  they  are  doing  in  the  navy  yard.  At 
this  unit  meeting  there  will  be  present  a  representative  of  the  district 
organization.  He  gathers  that  information  and  sends  it  to  the 
organization  department. 

The  organization  department  sends  it  to  the  control  commission, 
and  the  control  commission  transmits  it  by  cable  to  Moscow,  or,  if 
necessary,  gives  it  to  one  of  the  couriers  through  the  Communist  Inter- 
national representative  here.  Sometimes  they  give  it  to  the  resident 
GPU  agent,  who  transmits  it  to  Moscow. 

Mr.  Arens.  Do  you  know  any  resident  GPU  agents  who  are  pres- 
ently in  the  United  States? 

Mr.  Malkin.  No;  not  at  present. 

Mr.  Arens.  What  is  the  source  of  your  information  about  these 
three  top  men  from  Moscow  who  you  say  are  here  to  direct  and  control 
the  Communist  apparatus? 

Mr.  Malkin.  My  information  is  that  just  a  few  weeks  ago  there 
was  a  meeting  of  the  top  layer  of  the  party. 

Mr.  Arens.  Where? 

Mr.  Malkin.  At  Beacon. 

Mr.  Arens.  In  what  State  is  that? 

Mr.  Malkin.  That  is  at  Beacon,  N.  Y. 

Mr.  Arens.  Where  was  that  meeting  held  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  That  meeting  was  held  at  a  farmhouse.  One  of  the 
party  members  present  gave  me  the  information  as  to  what  was  going 
on  at  the  meeting.  Present  at  that  meeting  was  the  whole  group  of 
the  11  persons  being  tried  there  now,  as  well  as  Elizabeth  Gurley 
Flynn,  Alexander  Bittleman,  and  another  group. 


488       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

The  information  that  I  received  was  that  there  were  three  strangers 
there.  They  didn't  look  like  Americans.  They  kept  quiet  except  for 
one  who  delivered  the  line  of  the  discussion,  actually  to  the  orders. 
No  names  were  mentioned,  and  up  to  the  present  time  he  doesn't  know 
the  names  of  those  people. 

Mr.  Arens.  Is  my  understanding  correct  that  the  men  who  are 
presently  on  trial  in  New  York  City  as  Communists  were  in  attend- 
ance at  this  session  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  That  is  right.  That  is  not  unusual.  It  always  has 
been  that  way.  That  was  what  they  call  an  enlarged  plenum  of  the 
Politburo. 

Mr.  Arens.  When  was  this  session  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Just  a  few  weeks  ago  up  at  Beacon. 

Mr.  Arens.  And  your  informant  was  a  man  who  was  in  attendance 
at  that  session  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  He  is  a  party  member;  yes. 

Mr.  Akens.  Does  he  know  that  you  have  broken  with  the  party  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  He  knows.  I  meet  with  him  once  in  a  while  so  that 
no  one  sees  us. 

Mr.  Arens.  What  is  your  vocation  and  occupation  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  I  am  a  machinist,  but  for  the  past  year  I  have  been, 
on  and  off,  employed  by  the  Immigration  and  Naturalization  Service 
as  an  expert  witness  in  deportation  hearings. 

Mr.  Arens.  Have  you  other  contacts  with  present  agents  of  the 
Communist  Party  who  are  in  the  United  States  other  than  the  man 
you  have  talked  to  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  I  have  with  one  or  two  other  party  members  who 
are  in  the  party,  but  who  are  not  in  the  top  layer. 

Mr.  Arens.  But  the  man  that  you  talked  to  who  attended  this 
meeting  was  in  the  top  layer  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  He  is  one  of  the  top  layer  of  the  party. 

Mr.  Arens.  Wlio  attended  that  meeting  ?    Can  you  clear  the  record  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  According  to  my  information,  there  were  present 
Jack  Stachel,  John  Williamson,  Alexander  Bittelman,  Eugene  Dennis, 
Gil  Green,  Elizabeth  Gurley  Flynn,  Margaret  Krumbein,  and  quite 
a  few  others. 

jMr.  Arens.  What  transpired  at  that  meeting,  to  your  knowledge  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  They  were  mainly  discussing  the  line  of  the  party 
at  the  present  time  and  how  to  pursue  the  Foley  Square  trial. 

Mr.  Arens.  You  mean  how  to  proceed  at  the  trial  ? 

Mr.  ]Malkin.  The  policy  at  the  trial.  It  was  decided  up  there  that, 
instead  of  using  as  witnesses  for  the  defense  aliens  or  those  who  have 
been  naturalized,  that  they  would  use  strictly  American-born  persons 
as  witnesses  for  the  defense,  so  that  they  should  not  be  deportable  and 
should  not  have  to  go  through  denaturalization  procedures. 

Mr.  Arens.  What  else  was  decided  there  or  discussed  there  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  That  is  exactly  what  he  told  me. 

Mr.  Arens.  What  else  was  decided  there,  or  discussed  there? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Mainly  th:it  question  was  discusbed  and  the  question 
of  the  drive  for  the  defense;  that  is,  how  to  proceed  with  the  drive 
for  $450,000. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Do  you  have  any  reason  to  believe  that  the  commission 
was  appointed  because  of  the  trial  of  the  Politburo  of  the  Communist 
Party  here  ? 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROLTPS       489 

Mr.  Malkin.  In  my  opinion,  this  commission  was  sent  here  because 
the  party  in  the  United  States  finds  itself  in  danger  of  being  liqui- 
dated ;  that  is,  of  going  underground. 

That  question  of  going  underground  is  quite  an  important  question 
to  the  Communist  International.  Quite  a  lot  of  people  in  govern- 
ment may  disagree  with  me  on  my  idea  of  underground.  They  feel 
that  going  underground  will  just  drive  the  agents  underground  so 
their  identity  will  not  be  known.  Our  experience  has  been  different 
in  1919  and  in  1920.  The  policy  of  underground  is  very,  very  im- 
portant to  the  Communist  International. 

Mr.  Arens.  Is  it  more  difficult  for  the  party  to  function  under- 
ground than  it  is  in  the  open  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Of  course.  It  stifles  the  party ;  it  kills  the  party.  In 
1919  when  we  split  from  the  Socialist  Party,  there  were  87,000  of  us 
split  from  the  Socialist  Party.  After  being  underground  for  l^^ 
years,  the  party  dwindled  to  3,500,  because  they  were  not  able  to  carry 
on  open  press  agitation,  open  propaganda,  open  schooling,  and  every- 
thing else.     That  killed  the  party. 

It  was  necessary  for  Lenin  to  send  a  letter  to  the  American  party 
telling  them  that  if  they  did  not  get  out  of  the  underground  the  party 
would  be  stifled  to  death. 

Mr.  Areists.  Now,  tell  me  about  this  defense  fund  you  mentioned  u 
few  moments  ago,  for  the  alleged  Communists  on  trial  in  New  York 
City.     I  understood  you  to  say  there  was  a  fund  being  raised. 

Mr.  Malkin.  That  is  right.  There  was  discussion  of  the  procedure 
of  raising  the  $450,000  defense  fund,  because  it  takes  quite  a  lot  of 
money  to  defend  these  11  persons  with  all  of  the  lawyers,  staff,  and 
everything  else.     The  amount  was  laid  down  by  the  CI  rep  who  spoke. 

Mr,  Arens.  What  do  you  mean  by  the  CI  rep  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Communist  International  representative. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Is  he  the  real  boss  of  the  American  Communist  Party  ? 

Mr.  jMalkin.  Yes. 

Mr.  Dekom.  And  has  he  always,  to'  your  knowledge,  been  an  alien 
sent  here  by  Moscow  to  direct  the  party  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Yes. 

Mr.  Arens.  Did  your  informant  meet  the  man  who  was  the  boss  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  He  was  present  at  the  meeting,  but  everyone  had  to 
remain  seated  until  after  tliey  left.  No  one  was  allowed  to  write  any- 
thing down  or  to  make  any  notes,  or  anything  else.  That  is  the  usual 
procedure  in  an  underground  party. 

Mr.  Arens.  Did  your  informant  describe  the  appearance  of  his 
bosses  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Yes ;  he  told  me. 

Mr.  Arens.  What  did  he  say  they  looked  like  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  He  said  one  looked  like  a  German,  and  the  other  two 
looked  like  Finns. 

Mr.  Arens.  Did  he  describe  the  accent  they  used  ? 

Mr.  Malktn.  He  mentioned  a  German,  Kussian,  and  English  accent, 
you  know,  comrades,  and  all  that  stuff,  in  German  guttural  sound. 

Mr.  Arens.  Did  he  describe  the  physical  appearance  of  these  men? 

Mr.  Malkin.  One  was  quite  heavy.  One  of  the  fellows  who  was 
sitting  must  have  weighed  some  two-hundred-and-some-odd  pounds. 


490       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

He  was  short  and  chubby,  blond,  with  blue  eyes.  He  had  a  scar  on  his 
forehead,  on  the  left  side  of  his  forehead. 

Mr.  Arens.  Over  his  left  eye  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  I  don't  know  whether  it  was  over  his  left  eye.  I  know 
he  had  a  scar  on  his  forehead. 

Mr.  Arens.  Did  he  describe  either  of  the  other  two  to  you  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  No.  He  said  that  he  didn't  remember  their  descrip- 
tion because  they  were  there  just  for  about  a  half  hour  and  they  had  to 
leave,  and  no  one  was  allowed  to  leave  until  they  had  left. 

Mr.  Arens.  How  many  persons  were  in  attendance  at  the  meeting  in 
total? 

Mr.  Malkin.  About  15  to  18  people, 

Mr.  Arens.  And  it  was  conducted  in  a  farmhouse  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  That  is  right. 

Mr.  Arens.  Did  he  indicate  the  location  of  the  farmhouse? 

Mr.  Malkin.  He  said  they  were  taken  there  by  car  and  that  right 
near,  he  knows,  is  Beacon.  It  was  in  Beacon,  so  it  must  have  been 
right  near  the  Communist  camp.  The  party  has  had  a  camp  there 
for  years. 

Mr,  Arens,  Where  is  this  Communist  camp? 

Mr.  Malkin.  It  is  right  in  the  township  of  Beacon,  N,  Y, 

Mr,  Arens,  Have  you  ever  been  to  that  camp  ? 

Mr,  Malkin.  There  is  Camp  Unity  and  Camp  Nitkedaiget. 

Mr,  Arens.  Have  you  ever  been  to  those  camps  ? 

Mr.  Malkin,  I  have  been  to  both  camps, 

Mr.  Arens.  Is  there  a  meeting  place  in  either  camp  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  There  are  quite  a  few  houses  built  there, 

Mr,  Arens.  These  camps  are  owned  by  the  Communist  Party? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Yes;  and  its  front  organizations, 

Mr.  Arens.  What  are  these  camps  used  for  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  They  are  summer  camps  for  Communists,  or  sympa- 
thizers. They  go  out  there  as  .people  go  out  to  any  other  camp  or 
country  place. 

Mr,  Arens,  Would  you  kindly  proceed  with  your  statement,  Mr. 
Malkin? 

Mr,  Malkin,  Yes, 

The  use  of  citizenship  papers  to  enter  the  United  States  without 
detection  has  been  going  on  since  the  party's  inception  in  1919,  That 
was  especially  done  during  the  Spanish  Civil  War,  the  war  in  1936 
and  1937,  when  passports  were  forged  by  the  hundreds  and  were  col- 
lected by  the  GFTI  and  the  Communist  Party  representatives  in  Spain 
from  the  recruits  that  reached  there  from  the  United  States  and  who 
were  joining  the  loyalist  army, 

Mr,  Arens,  Are  you  saying,  in  eifect,  that  passports  which  were 
issued  by  this  Government  to  American  citizens  for  the  purpose  of 
going  to  Spain  were  then  taken  by  the  Communist  representatives  in 
Spain  from  the  persons  to  whom  the  passports  were  issued? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Yes. 

Mr.  Arens.  For  the  purpose  of  establishing,  or  attempting  to  estab- 
lish, American  citizenship  by  persons  who  were  not  Americans? 

Mr,  Malkin.  Yes.  In  fact,  the  passport  of  every  recruit  that  went 
to  the  loyalist  army  from  the  United  States  was  immediately  taken 
away  by  the  commissar  of  the  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade  who  at 
that  time  was  in  charge,  a  fellow  by  the  name  of  George  Mink. 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       491 

Mr.  Dekom.  How  did  these  commissars  have  authority  to  do  that? 
Was  the  unit  controlled  by  the  Communist  Party? 

Mr.  Malkin.  The  whole  thiui?  was  controlled  by  the  Communist 
Party.  It  was  nothing  but  a  Communist  organization  throughout. 
Tlie  "brigade  was  recruited  by  the  Communist  Party  through  Com- 
munist agents,  through  Communist  headquarters  by  Communist  fronts, 
and  through  funds  collected  by  the  Communist  Party  through  front 
organizations  such  as  the  American  Committee  for  Aid  to  Spanish 
Democracy,  and  similar  fronts. 

Every  one  of  those  passports  was  taken  away  by  these  agents.  When 
the  end  of  the  Spanish  Civil  War  came,  or  when  a  soldier  finished  his 
term  and  wanted  to  go  back  to  the  United  States,  most  of  them  never 
received  their  passports  back  again.  Those  passports  were  taken  to 
Moscow,  and  they  were  used  to  forge  other  passports  for  use  by 
Communist  agents  who  traveled  around  the  world. 

Later  the  same  procedure  of  the  forgery  of  passports  was  used  by 
a  person  known  by  the  name  of  Gerhart  Eisler.  He  used  the  citizen- 
ship of  a  person  whom  I  know  well,  Sam  Liptzen,  who  claimed  he 
had  lost  his  certificate.  This  same  Sam  Liptzen,  in  my  opinion,  gave 
him  that  paper  willingly,  because  Sam  Liptzen  has  been  a  charter 
member  of  the  party.  He  never  deviated  from  the  party  line.  He 
carries  out  the  party  discipline  according  to  the  21  commandments 
of  Comrade  Stalin.  He  writes  once  in  a  while  for  the  Jewish  Daily 
Freiheit,  which  is  the  daily  Jewish  Communist  organ  in  the  United 
States.  He  is  a  member  of  the  left-wing  and  control  group  of  the 
furriers'  union  in  New  York. 

In  my  opinion,  his  statement  that  he  lost  that  citizenship  certificate 
•was  an  absolute  lie. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Mr.  Malkin,  you  have  mentioned  the  furriers  union  on 
one  or  two  occasions.     Is  that  a  Communist  controlled  union? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Yes. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Who  is  president  of  that  union  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Ben  Gold. 

^Ir.  Dekom.  Is  he  a  member  of  the  Communist  Party  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  He  is  a  member  of  the  party  since  1921  and  I  was 
at  meetings  with  him  throughout  my  period  up  until  1937. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Isn't  he  one  of  the  few  Communist  officials  who  pub- 
licly admits  being  a  member  of  the  party  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Yes. 

That  American  citizenship  papers  have  been  a  blessing  to  the  Com- 
munist International  is  exemplified  in  the  sending  of  American 
naturalized  citizens  to  Moscow  to  learn  and  to  teach  at  the  Lenin 
School.  Following  are  the  names  of  just  a  fraction  of  the  numbers 
that  were  there. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Will  you  identify  the  Lenin  School? 

Mr.  Malkin.  The  Lenin  School  is  the  school  where  the  Communist 
Party  sends  its  potential  leaders  to  make  professional  revolutionary 
leaders  out  of  them.  When  they  get  hold  of  a  bright  young  man  who 
is  willing  to  be  a  yes-man  for  the  party  and  to  carry  out  orders  without 
question,  he  is  sent  to  the  Lenin  School  for  training  in  party  leadership. 

Mr.  Dekom.  What  type  of  things  do  they  learn  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  They  learn  everything  from  political  economy  from 
the  Marxian  point  of  view,  to  the  ultimate  aim  of  the  overthrow  of  the 


492     coMMuisnsT  activities  in  alien  and  national  groups 

United  States  Government,  sabotage,  how  to  make  demolitions,  how  to 
create  riots,  how  to  participate  in  riots,  how  to  lead  crowds  in  rioting, 
how  to  create  action  committees,  such  as  they  did  in  Czechoslovakia 
when  they  took  over  the  Government ;  as  was  done  in  San  Francisco, 
in  1933  and  1934,  during  the  general  strike  in  San  Francisco.  That 
was  a  small  rehearsal  of  the  later  action  in  Czechoslovakia. 

Mr.  Arens.  How  many  naturalized  citizens  have  been  sent  from  the 
United  States  to  this  Lenin  School? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Hundreds. 

Mr.  Arens.  Over  what  period  of  time  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Since  the  party's  inception. 

Mr.  Arens.  Are  they  still  sending  them  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Yes,  they  always  send  them  because  they  have  to  carry 
on  continuously  what  they  call  the  education  of  leadership. 

Mr.  Arens.  How  do  these  people  get  to  be  naturalized  citizens  if  they 
are  Communists? 

Mr.  Malkin,  They  deny  that  they  are  Communists. 

Mr.  Arens.  Mr.  Malkin,  you  testified  a  little  while  ago  with  respect 
to  the  foreign-language  groups  that  are  under  Communist  control  and 
domination.  Is  there  any  particular  element  or  group  in  our  popula- 
tion which  is  especially  under  Communist  control  and  domination? 

Mr.  Malkin.  As  a  unit,  or  as  a  group  ? 

Mr.  Arens.  Yes.  We  are  composed,  as  we  all  know,  of  a  nation  of 
various  nationalities  of  various  backgrounds.  Is  there  any  particular 
group  or  element  which  is  especially  under  the  control  and  domination 
of  communism  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  I  wouldn't  say  the  whole  group.  I  would  say  that 
parts  of  those  foreisfn  groups  are.  Take,  for  instance,  the  Polish 
population.  As  a  whole,  it  is  loyal  to  the  United  States.  But  a  small 
fraction  of  their  group  is  under  the  domination  of  the  Communists, 
especially  ever  since  Russia  took  over  Poland,  and  ever  since  the  end 
of  the  war. 

In  the  case  of  the  Hungarians  it  is  also  the  same  way.  I  wouldn't 
say  that  the  whole  Hungarian  population  in  the  United  States  is 
disloyal.  I  would  say  that  a  very  small  minority  is  disloyal.  The 
large  majority  of  the  Hungarian  population  in  the  United  States  are 
absolutely  loyal  American  citizens. 

Mr.  Arens.  Wliat  I  was  driving  at  is  this :  To  be  a  little  bit  more 
specific,  are  the  Communists  making  disproportionate  inroads  among 
the  foreign-language  groups  which  originated  in  those  countries 
which  are  now  behind  the  iron  curtain  as  distinguished  from  people 
who  have  come  from  other  nations,  or  other  lands  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Yes,  they  are  making  inroads. 

Mr.  Arens.  On  a  proportionate  basis,  are  they  making  more  in- 
roads ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  They  are  making  more  inroads  now  because,  in  my 
opinion,  of  two  reasons : 

Let  us  say,  for  instance,  that  John  has  relatives  in  Hungary.  If  he 
doesn't  abide  by  the  decisions  of  the  Communists,  of  the  organization 
that  the  Communists  are  working  in,  he  is  afraid  that  his  relatives 
will  be  harmed  in  Hungary  through  terror  and  through  intimidation. 
Therefore,  the  Communists  are  making  more  inroads  amongst  the 
people  from  those  countries  where  they  control  at  the  present  time 
than  they  did  before. 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       493 

Mr.  Arens.  What  is  the  total  membership  of  the  Communist  Party 
ill  the  United  States  at  this  time? 

Mr.  Malkin.  The  card-carrying  members  would  be  about  75,000 
to  100,000. 

Mr.  Arens.  How  many  persons  in  the  United  States  are  under  the 
Communist  discipline,  control,  or  direction  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Under  the  Communist  discipline,  I  would  actually 
figure,  throughout  the  United  States,  about  4,000,000. 

Mr.  ScHROEDER.  Four  million? 

Mr.  Malkin.  That  is  right. 

Mr.  Arens.  What  do  you  mean  by  under  Communist  discipline? 
I  know  that  I  used  the  term,  but  I  would  like  to  have  you  describe  it. 

Mr.  Malkin.  For  example,  the  International  Workers  Order  has 
135,000  members.  That  is  controlled  by  the  Communist  Party.  That 
is,  the  organization  is  controlled  by  the  Communist  Party.  The  fur- 
riers' union  is  controlled  by  the  Communist  Party.  That  is  16,000. 
The  United  Electrical  and  iiadio  Workers  has  locals  controlled  by  the 
Communist  Party  with  a  minimum  membership  of  about  75,000.  The 
hotel  and  restaurant  workers,  I  would  estimate,  have  about  75,000 
members.  If  you  figure  them  all  up,  you  can  see  how  I  arrive  at  my 
figure. 

Mr.  Dekom.  You  don't  say  that  the  individuals  themselves  are  under 
party  discipline,  but  rather  that  they  are  members  of  organizations 
whose  leaders  are  under  the  party's  discipline  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  They  have  to  carry  out  the  decisions  formulated  by 
the  leaders.  For  example,  in  the  Eobeson  affair,  I  would  not  say 
that  all  of  them  were  Communists.  Most  of  them  are  dumb,  but  are 
carrying  out  the  discipline  of  the  organization  that  ordered  them  to 
go  there. 

Mr.  Schroeder.  How  many  of  them  are  conscience  members  in  the 
International  Workers  Order? 

Mr.  Malkin.  I  would  say  that  that  all  depends  on  what  you  consider 
the  conscience  member,  because,  if  you  talk  to  one  of  the  members  there, 
even  though  he  is  not  a  member  of  the  party,  he  will  be  afraid  to  talk 
against  the  Communist  Party  because  he  is  liable  to  lose  out  in  the 
organization,  so  he  will  never  tell  you  whether  he  is  against  them 
or  for  them.     Most  will  speak  for  them. 

Mr.  Dekom.  How  many  know  that  the  IWO  is  an  affiliate  of  the 
Communist  Party? 

Mr.  Malkin.  I  would  say  that  95  percent  of  them  know,  because 
that  organization  was  organized  by  the  Communist  Party  and  has 
been  publicized  in  every  paper  in  the  country  like  the  Jewish  Daily 
Forward  and  other  foreign-language  papers.  It  is  a  known  fact  that 
Communists  were  leading,  that  they  were  under  the  leadership  of 
Max  Bedacht,  William  Weiner,  and  all  the  others,  who  are  known 
as  Communist  members,  members  of  the  central  party. 

William  Weiner  used  the  alias  of  Warszover  and  was  held  on  false 
passport  charges  during  the  war,  and  I  think  was  pardoned  by  Presi- 
dent Roosevelt. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Please  go  on. 

Mr.  Malkin.  One  of  those  that  went  to  Moscow  and  spent  quite  a 
few  years  there  is  a  dentist  known  as  J.  Mindel.  I  think  he  is  a 
naturalized  citizen  of  the  United  States.      He  is  known  as  "Pop" 


494       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

Mindel.  He  is  one  of  the  directors  of  the  Workers'  School.  He 
taught  at  the  Lenin  School  for  quite  a  few  years,  and  was  known  as 
a  Red  professor  from  1929  to  1934,  at  the  Lenin  School.  He  is  at 
present  one  of  the  directors  of  the  Workers'  School  in  New  York. 

Another  one  is  A.  Pomerantz,  a  Polish-born  naturalized  citizen,  who 
M'orks  on  the  Jewish  Morning  Freiheit  and  who  is  also  known  in  Mos- 
cow as  a  Red  professor. 

William  Weinstone,  one  of  the  members  of  the  central  committee  of 
the  Communist  Party,  is  a  former  graduate  of  City  College  of  New 
York.  To  my  knowledge,  he  derived  citizenship  from  his  father.  He 
was  a  district  organizer  of  the  New  York  Communist  Party  from  1926 
to  1929.  He  was  district  organizer  in  Detroit,  and  a  former  director 
of  the  New  York  Workers'  School.  That  is  the  official  Communist 
Party  school.  He  was  the  American  representative  to  the  Communist 
International  from  1929  up  to  about  1933  or  1934,  and  was  known  in 
Moscow  as  Randolph.  Randolph  was  the  name  of  all  American  repre- 
sentatives in  Moscow. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Regardless  of  what  their  real  names  were? 

Mr.  Malkin.  That  is  right. 

Mr.  Dekom.  If  their  name  was  Randolph  there,  they  knew  that  he 
was  the  American  representative  from  the  American  Party  to  the 
Comintern  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  That  is  right. 

Another  one  is  Beatrice  Siskind,  alias  Beatrice  Johnson.  She  has 
never  even  declared  her  intention  of  becoming  an  American  citizen. 
She  was  in  Moscow  on  a  false  American  passport  and  spent  a  few 
years  there  with  the  Lenin  School.  On  her  return  to  the  United 
States  in  1929,  sJie  resumed  her  Communist  activities  as  director  of  the 
Chicago  Red  School  and  other  subversive  activities.  This  Beatrice 
Siskind,  alias  Johnson,  is  under  deportation  proceedings  at  the  pres- 
ent time,  and  I  think  she  is  now  on  $10,000  bond.  I  think  2  weeks  ago 
she  was  let  out  of  Ellis  Island. 

Beatrice  Siskind  has  a  brother  and  sister  who  are  also  members  of 
the  Communist  Party.  Her  brother  is  George  Siskind,  who  has  been 
a  member  of  my  branch  of  the  party  for  years  while  I  was  a  member 
of  the  party.  He  was  formerly  district  organizer  for  the  Communist 
Party  in  New  Haven  around  1927  and  1928.  In  1932,  he  became  agita- 
tion and  propaganda  director  in  New  York  City.  I  think  he  is  also 
an  alien.  I  don't  think  he  is  a  citizen ;  not  to  my  knowledge,  anyway. 
He  is  still  active  in  the  Communist  Party. 

His  younger  sister  is  also  a  member  of  the  party  and  is  married  to  a 
Communist  who  is  one  of  the  engineers  working  for  the  Board  of 
Transportation  in  New  York.      At  least  he  was  working  there. 

Mr.  Arens.  To  your  knowledge,  is  there  a  fund  contributed  to,  or 
created  by,  the  Communist  Party  in  this  country  which  is  used  for 
the  purpose  of  furnishing  bail  for  alien  Communists  in  deportation 
proceedings  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  To  my  knowledge,  there  has  never  been  such  a  fund 
established.  It  has  been  the  procedure  with  the  party  to  get  some 
close  sympathizer — ''sugar  daddy" — for  the  party  to  post  a  bond.  If 
the  respondent  or  the  defendant  jumps  bail,  the  Communist  Party 
usually  makes  good  for  that  through  the  Communist  International 
fund,  or  through  the  Amtorg,  or  through  some  other  channel. 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       495 

Another  person  who  is  traveling  at  the  present  time  for  the  GPU 
and  for  the  Communist  International — and  I  am  not  sure  whether  he 
is  naturalized  or  not — is  a  fellow  by  the  name  of  Philip  Ahrenberg, 
who  I  have  known  as  a  Communist  since  1919.  He  was  formerly  a 
mens'  clothing  worker  from  New  York.  He  has  been  traveling  for 
the  Comintern  and  the  GPU  since  1938. 

Mr.  Dekom.  The  GPU  is  now  called  the  MVD,  the  Ministry  of 
Internal  Affairs  ? 

JNIr.  Malkin.  Yes,  they  are  known  as  MVD. 

Another  person  who  entered  the  United  States  is  the  wife  of  Earl 
Browder,  Arisa  Beckman.  She  is  the  wife  of  Earl  Browder,  formerly 
director  of  the  Lenin  School  in  Moscow,  working  in  the  discipline 
section  of  the  GPU  for  foreign  students  in  the  Lenin  School.  She  was 
in  charge  of  putting  foreign  students  who  rebelled  against  the  Com- 
munist International  policy  at  the  Lenin  School  in  line. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Did  she  do  any  work  with  the  foreign  language  groups 
in  the  United  States  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  She  did  some,  but  officially,  I  don't  know.  To  my  in- 
formation, this  wife  of  Earl  Browder,  through  the  intervention  of 
Mrs.  Roosevelt,  came  into  the  United  States  legally  after  leaving  the 
country  and  going  to  Montreal,  Canada. 

Another  person  traveling  in  Europe  is  a  former  wife  of  Earl 
Browder,  that  is,  the  wife  before  the  one  I  have  just  mentioned,  whose 
name  is  Kitty  Harris.  Kitty  Harris  has  traveled  under  the  name  of 
Catherine  Harrison.  She  has  been  working  for  the  CI  and  for  the 
GPU  for  years. 

Mr.  Arens.  What  did  she  do  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  She  worked  as  an  agent,  or  as  a  courier  for  the  Com- 
munist International,  gathering  information  that  is  relayed  from  one 
country  or  another  to  her  superiors. 

Another  one  is  a  sister  of  Earl  Browder,  Margaret  Browder,  known 
as  Jeanne  Montgomery.  She  has  been  doing  the  same  work  as  Kitty 
Harris. 

The  third  one  who  has  traveled  for  the  CI  was  Otto  Hoiswood,  alias 
Billings.  He  is  colored.  I  think  he  is  back  in  the  United  States,  but 
he  traveled  for  quite  a  few  years  for  the  GPU. 

Mr.  Arens.  Did  you  have  some  further  names  you  wish  to  give, 
Mr.  Malkin? 

Mr.  IVIalkin.  Rudolph  Baker,  former  district  organizer  of  the 
Communist  Party,  former  member  of  the  IWW,  charter  member  of 
the  Communist  Party,  was  district  organizer  of  the  Communist 
Party  in  Detroit  in  1925  and  1926,  went  to  the  Lenin  School,  Moscow, 
1927,  and  has  been  traveling  for  the  GPU  and  for  the  Communist 
International  since  then.  His  citizenship  is  doubtful  in  my  mind.  I 
am  not  sure  that  he  is  an  American  citizen,  but  that  can  be  checked 
with  the  Immigration  Department. 

B.  Finkelbeig,  charter  member  of  the  Communist  Party  and  the  Rus- 
sian Federation  in  the  United  States,  former  director  of  World  Tour- 
ists, Inc.,  and  coworker  of  J.  Golos,^  former  boy  friend  of  Eliza- 
beth Bentley,  member  of  the  central  control  commission  of  the  Com- 
munist Party  for  years,  and  has  been  traveling  as  a  representative  of 

^  For  the  story  of  Jacob  Golos,  see  testimony  of  Elizabeth  Bentley,  p.  106. 


496       COMMTJN"IST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

the  Communist  International  and  the  GPU.  He  has  been  working 
with  Charles  Dirba,  chairman  of  the  all-powerful  central  control  com- 
mission of  the  Communist  Party  of  the  United  States,  gathering  in- 
formation of  industrial  plants,  shipyards,  et  cetera,  to  be  transmitted 
to  the  Soviet  Government  in  Moscow. 

Alexander  Trachtenberg,  director  of  International  Publishers,  a 
Communist  publishing  house,  member,  joined  the  Communist  Party 
in  1920-21,  former  member  of  the  Socialist  Party,  and  came  to  the 
United  States  in  1906.  He  was  naturalized  in  1912.  He  is  a  member 
of  the  central  control  commission,  and  to  my  knowledge  chief  of  the 
party's  GPU  section.  Trachtenberg  has  made  numerous  trips  to  the 
Soviet  Union. 

Ben  Gold  of  the  United  Fur  ^nd  Leather  Workers  Union  has  been 
a  member  of  the  Communist  Party  since  1920.  He  is  a  naturalized 
American  citizen.  He  went  to  Russia  in  1929-30  and  he  carries  out 
the  party  line  strictly  according  to  orders  of  the  party. 

Max  Bedacht,  recently  so-called  officially  expelled  from  the  Com- 
munist Party,  one  of  the  top  heads  of  the  International  Workers 
Order,  a  member  of  the  national  executive  committee  of  the  Com- 
munist Party  since  1919,  since  its  inception  in  the  United  States,  has 
made  between  five  and  six  trips,  to  my  knowledge,  to  Russia. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Was  he  a  delegate  to  the  Comintern  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Yes,  sir;  he  went  to  numerous  conventions  or  con- 
gresses of  the  Comintern. 

Mr.  ScHROEDER.  Is  lie  now  residing  in  New  Jersey  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  That  is  right. 

AVilliam  Weinstone  has  been  named  before  as  having  been  to  Mos- 
cow on  numerous  occasions,  and  he  has  been  a  representative  to  the 
Communist  International  for  a  few  years  at  Moscow.  He  is  a  citizen 
and  a  graduate  of  City  College  of  New  York. 

Max  Weiss  is  one  of  the  members  of  the  national  committee  of  the 
party  who  has  made  numerous  trips  to  the  Soviet  Union  and  perjured 
himself  on  statements  in  getting  passports  to  go  there. 

Mr.  Arens.  How  do  you  know  that? 

Mr.  Malkin.  He  admitted  it  at  Foley  Square  where  he  appeared 
as  a  witness  and  the  question  was  asked  of  him :  Why  did  he  make 
different  statements  on  his  application  for  passports,  and  he  admitted 
that. 

Alexander  Bittelman,  member  of  the  Communist  Party,  alien, 
theoretician  of  the  American  Communist  Party  who,  to  my  knowl- 
edge, went  to  the  Soviet  Union  five  or  six  times  under  names  that  I 
knew  him  as,  such  as  Spielberg,  Goldstein,  et  cetera.  He  is  now  under 
deportation  proceedings. 

Jack  Stachel,  agitation  and  propaganda  director  in  the  Communist 
Party  in  America,  joined  the  party  in  1922,  in  the  Young  Workers 
League,  at  208  East  Twelfth  Street,  New  York  City. 

Mr.  Dekom.  What  are  the  functions  of  the  agitation  and  propa- 
ganda department  ? 

Mr,  Malkin.  They  are  to  distribute,  publish,  and  to  see  that  every 
member  of  the  party  is  acquainted  with  the  party  line  and  the  party 
literature,  that  every  member  of  the  party  understands  the  structure, 
aims,  and  principles  of  the  party,  and  the  aims  and  principles  of  the 
party  the  way  they  were  taught.     The  ultimate  aim  is  to  overthrow 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       497 

the  American  Government  by  force  and  violence  and  to  establish  a 
dictatorship  of  tlie  proletariat  in  the  United  States.  That  is  the  ulti- 
mate aim. 

Mr.  ScHROEDER.  In  these  large-scale  operations  which  you  cited 
in  the  party,  what  is  the  source  of  money  for  these  members  to  travel 
around  ? 

Mr.  ]\1alkin.  From  1919  up  to  1926  and  1927,  the  Comintern  and  the 
Soviet  Government  used  to  finance  the  American  party,  either  through 
a  shipment  of  jewels  for  conversion  to  cash  in  the  United  States  in 
1920  and  1921 — that  is,  the  crown  jewels — or  through  Amtorg,  or 
through  some  "sugar  daddies"  who  would  give  the  American  party 
money  and  would  be  repaid  by  the  Soviet  Government. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Was  this  during  a  period  when  millions  of  Russians 
were  starving  because  there  was  not  enough  food  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Yes;  that  was  during  the  period  when  the  Hoover 
Relief  Administration  was  out  in  Russia  giving  the  Russians  relief. 
It  was  called  the  American  Relief  Administration. 

IMr.  Dekom.  At  the  same  time  the  Soviet  Government  was  spending 
money  abroad  for  propaganda  and  agitation;  is  that  right? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Yes.  In  fact,  there  used  to  be  special  funds  for  the 
Daily  Worker,  because  the  Daily  Worker  is  always  losing  money.  It 
was  mainly  established  through  funds  that  were  given  by  the  Soviet 
Government  and  the  Comintern  through  different  channels,  either 
through  couriers  or  through  Amtorg  representatives,  or  people  who 
would  come  here  with  jewels  and  English  pounds  for  conversion  to 
American  dollars. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Would  you  identify  the  Daily  Worker? 

Mr.  Malkin.  The  Daily  Worker  was  established  in  1922  as  the 
Weekly  Worker.  In  1923-24,  it  was  established  as  the  daily  paper  in 
the  English  language.  That  is  the  official  organ  of  the  Communist 
Party  in  the  United  States  and  up  to  1939-40,  it  used  to  have  on  its 
masthead:    "Section  of  the  Communist   InteriiMtioiuil. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Is  it  still  the  official  organ  of  the  Communist  Party? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Yes. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Even  though  they  have  removed  that  from  their  mast- 
head? 

JNIr.  Malkin.  That  is  right. 

John  Williamson,  alien,  joined  the  Young  Workers  League  in 
1921-22,  formerly  resided  at  Seattle,  a  former  member  of  the  national 
executive  committee  of  the  Young  Workers  Communist  League,  now  a 
member  of  the  Politburo  of  the  Communist  Party,  United  States  of 
America,  is  at  present  one  of  the  11  people,  together  with  Stachel  on 
trial  at  Foley  Square,  New  York  City,  on  the  charge  of  advocating  the 
overthrow  of  the  Government  by  force  and  violence. 

John  Williamson  has  made  numerous  trips  to  Russia  to  different 
congresses  of  the  Communist  International  under  different  aliases  and 
passports.  He  has  never  even  bothered  to  formally  file  a  declaration 
of  intention.  Together  with  the  Immigration  and  Naturalization 
Service,  we  established  that  he  was  alien-born.  I  think  he  was  born 
in  England. 

Irving  Potash,  manager  of  the  New  York  joint  council  of  the  Fur 
and  Leather  Workers  Union,  also  one  of  the  11  on  trial  at  Foley 
Square.     He  spent  some  time  in  the  Soviet  Union  during  the  early 


498       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

1930's.  He  went  there  on  a  forged  passport  because  he  was  an  alien. 
He  is  now  under  deportation  proceedings. 

Mr.  ScHROEDER.  Is  WilliaiTison  under  deportation  proceedings? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Yes. 

Herbert  Benjamin,  who,  to  my  knowledge,  is  Ben  Herbertson,  joined 
the  Communist  Party  in  1919.  He  is  an  alien  who  did  not  register  for 
the  draft  in  the  First  World  War.  He  has  made  numerous  trips  to  the 
Soviet  Union.  In  the  early  1930's  he  was  the  leader  of  the  Unemployed 
Council  and  the  National  Hunger  Marchers  to  Washington.  He  be- 
came very  friendly  with  the  deceased  Harry  Hopkins  and  Aubrey 
Williams. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Would  you  identify  Aubrey  Williams  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  He  was  the  national  administrator  of  the  National 
Youth  Administration  under  President  Roosevelt  and  Harry  Hopkins 
was  the  close  adviser  to  President  Roosevelt,  and  also,  I  think,  he  was 
the  Administrator  of  the  WPA. 

Herbert  Benjamin  was  district  organizer  for  the  Workers  (Com- 
munist) Party,  w^hich  is  the  Communist  Party,  at  Cleveland  in  1925-26. 
In  1927,  he  was  district  organizer  at  Philadelphia,  Pa.  He  is  now  one 
of  the  national  directors  of  the  International  Workers  Order,  which  is 
the  Communist  fraternal  front. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Do  you  know  of  any  principal  officer  of  the  Interna- 
tional Workers  Order  who  was  not  a  member  of  the  Communist  Party? 

Mr.  Malkin.  No  ;  not  to  my  knowledge,  because  most  of  the  national 
officers  of  the  Communist  Party — and  I  say  this  through  my  personal 
knowledge  of  having  been  with  them  in  the  party — have  been  members 
of  the  Communist  Party  and  are  still  members  of  the  party. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Is  the  international  Workers  Order  ever  used  as  a 
means  of  finding  financial  support  for  the  Communist  Party  personnel  ? 
In  other  words,  to  give  them  jobs  in  the  IWO  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Yes ;  people  who  are  in  danger  of  being  deported,  or 
whose  names  have  been  in  the  public  eye  too  much,  are  sometimes 
removed  from  positions  of  the  party  and  placed  in  positions  in  the 
International  Workers  Order,  such  as  a  person  by  the  name  of  Shim- 
shom  Milgrim,  alias  Sam  Mills,  who  was  formerly  held  for  deportation 
around  1935-36  as  an  alien,  and  whom  I  have  known  in  the  party  since 
he  came  from  Poland  in  1922  with  a  transfer  from  the  Polish  Com- 
munist youth  organization  to  the  United  States. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Have  IWO  positions  ever  been  used  to  give  financial 
support  to  Communist  Party  sympathizers? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Well,  it  has  been  used  to  give  financial  support  to  the 
Communist  Party  as  such  in  an  indirect  way  by  placing  page  adver- 
tisements in  the  Daily  Worker,  and  the  amount  would  ordinarily  be 
around  $5,000  or  more.  The  IWO,  in  order  to  show  that  they  spend 
money  for  publicity,  would  pay  the  Daily  Worker  $10,000  for  a  $500 
page  to  show  that  they  paid  for  publicity. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Do  they  do  that  for  foreign-language  Communist 
papers  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Yes ;  they  do  do  that. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Is  that  an  extensive  practice  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Yes. 

Mr.  Dekom.  To  support  the  Communist  press? 

Mr.  Malkin.  The  Communist  press  and  the  Communist-front  press. 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       499 

Mr.  Dekom.  That  is,  those  papers  and  organizations  which  are 
sympathetic  to  the  Communists  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  That  is  right. 

Mike  Obermeier,  a  leader  in  the  Hotel  and  Eestaurant  Workers 
Union  in  New  York,  representative  of  the  labor  union  known  as  the 
Profintern,  who  spent  sometime  in  Moscow  during  1930,  1931,  and 
1932,  and  came  back  to  the  United  States  as  the  Profintern  representa- 
tive. He  lias  ,ti;aveled  Europe  extensively  and  is  now  under  deporta- 
tion proceedi;ijs. 

B.  K.  GebertJ  whom  I  mentioned  previously  as  one  of  the  originators 
of  the  American  Slav  Congress  and  one  of  the  members  of  the  national 
executive  committee  of  the  Communist  Party,  took  numerous  trips  to 
liussia  on  different  false  passports.  He  is  now  in  Poland  as  chief  of 
the  labor  department  of  the  Polish  Government. 

William  Weiner,  alias  Bill  Blake,  also  known  as  Welwel  Warzover, 
who  was  convicted  by  the  United  States  Government  on  a  false-pass- 
port charge  during  1939,  and  who  is  an  alien.  He  has  never  even 
declared  his  intention  of  becoming  a  citizen  and  he  traveled  on  false 
passport  from  the  United  States  to  Russia  on  numerous  occasions. 
He  was  later  released  by  orders  or  by  interference,  or  whatever  you 
might  call  it,  from  President  Roosevelt. 

Bill  Simmons  joined  the  Communist  Party  in  1919;  he  is  a  clothing 
worker.  He  was  a  former  district  organizer  in  New  Haven,  1925-26, 
and  spent  some  time  in  Mexico  as  the  American  Communist  repre- 
sentative in  Mexico  during  the  early  twenties,  and  became  somewhat 
of  an  expert  for  the  Communist  Party  on  Latin- American  affairs. 
He  was  an  organizer  of  the  Anti-Imperialist  League  in  1924-25,  and 
has  been  traveling  in  Europe  and  this  country  since  1928.  He  is  still 
out  on  the  road. 

Of  these  I  have  mentioned  just  a  few  examples  of  how  the  Com- 
munists misuse  their  citizenship  and  passports  by  violating  our  laws. 
Our  Government  could  do  very  little  to  stop  it  due  to  our  lack  of 
proper  immigration  and  naturalization  laws. 

AVlien  a  Communist  comes  up  for  a  citizenship,  and  especially  one 
that  is  known  as  such,  he  is  able  to  bring  character  witnesses  for  him- 
self that  the  Government  might  temporarily  think  are  unimpeachable, 
like  fehe  recent  case  of  Susi,^  United  States  District  Court  {United 
States  V.  Susl) .  On  the  basis  of  character  witnesses,  citizenship  was 
granted  because  of  certain  restrictions  in  the  law.- 

Mr.  Dekom.  Was  deportation  pending  against  Susi  at  that  time? 

Mr.  Malkin.  No,  there  was  a  question  of  citizenship.  The  Govern- 
ment claimed  that  he  was  a  member  of  the  Communist  Party. 

Mr.  Arens.  As  of  the  time  he  was  up  for  his  naturalization,  were 
there  also  any  other  proceedings  pending  in  regard  to  deportation  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  I  don't  think  so,  but  maybe  there  were. 

1  have  testified  for  the  Immigration  and  Naturalization  Service  on 
numerous  deportation  hearings  as  an  expert  witness,  and  I  became 
somewhat  acquainted  with  some  of  the  procedures.  These  are  the 
reasons  why  I  claim  that  some  of  the  laws  that  are  in  effect  at  the 
present  time  are  inadequate. 

'  Archiilio  Snsi. 

2  The  Government  failed  to  produce  the  chief  witnesses  against  Susi. 

98330— 50— pt.  2 8 


500       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

I  also  refer  to  the  dragged-out  hearings  on  procedures  and  appeals 
during  which  time  the  alien  is  able  to  carry  on  subversive  activities 
and  help  subversive  elements  to  advocate  the  overthrow  of  the  Gov- 
ernment by  force  and  violence. 

There  is  the  case  of  Gerhart  Eisler,  who  was  out  under  bond  pend- 
ing an  appeal  on  deportation  proceedings  and  was  able  while  on  bond 
to  carry  on  lectures  and  propaganda  against  our  Government  during 
that  hearing. 

Irving  Potash,  Jack  Stachel,  Mike  Obermeier,  John  Williamson, 
Claudia  Jones,  Beatrice  Siskind,  George  Pirinsky,  are  some  of  the 
cases  that  have  been  held  under  deportation  proceedings  in  the  Gov- 
ernment and  who  were  able  to  carry  on  propaganda  while  out  on 
bond. 

The  only  way  to  enable  us  to  get  rid  of  a  great  many  of  these  alien 
agitators  and  to  tighten  our  naturalization  and  deportation  laws  is  to 
overhaul  our  administrative  department  laws  to  enable  the  Immigra- 
tion and  Naturalization  Service  to  put  the  laws  into  effect  and  prop- 
erly execute  them  and  expedite  the  deportation  of  these  dangerous 
aliens. 

Senator  O'Conor,  We  are  certainly  obliged  to  you  for  your  very 
clear-cut  and  intelligent  presentation  of  the  situation.  I  would  like 
to  say  that  for  the  record  because  it  has  been  very  intelligent. 

May  I  ask  you  if  you  could  be  more  specific  in  regard  to  the  last 
statement  as  to  the  necessity  for  the  amendatory  legislation  and  also 
with  regard  to  the  administrative  practices  ?  Could  you  give  us  some 
details  as  to  just  what  you  think  might  be  done  to  correct  this  very 
alarming  situation  ? 

Mr.  Mai.kin.  The  present  laws  do  not  allow  the  Department  of  Jus- 
tice and  the  Immigration  and  Naturalization  Service  to  give  a  hearing 
to  an  alien  who  has  been  in  this  country  and  who  has  beeii  a  member 
of  a  subversive  organization,  to  give  him  a  hearing  as  to  the  evidence, 
and  deport  him  immediately.  Under  the  present  laws  he  is  allowed 
to  appeal  and  appeal  and  appeal,  and  that  proceeding  is  dragged 
out  for  years. 

Meanwhile,  the  appeals  are  going  on,  and  he  is  able  to  carry  on  this 
subversive  work.  The  proper  thing  to  do  would  be  to  give  the  Im- 
migration and  Naturalization  Service  actual  authority  to  have  a  hear- 
ing on  a  case  with  proper  evidence  against  the  respondent  and  give 
him  one  hearing.  If  it  is  proved  he  is  a  member  of  a  certain  organ- 
ization, he  should  be  deported  without  further  hearings  of  any  sort. 

Because  of  my  knowledge  of  the  Immigration  and  Naturalization 
Service,  they  are  actually  in  charge  when  the  person  comes  into  this 
country.  I  do  not  see  why  they  should  not  be  fully  in  charge  to  get 
rid  of  him  if  he  is  subversive,  instead  of  dragging  out  a  hearing  and 
giving  the  alien  all  that  liberty  and  democratic  procedure  Avhich  is 
accorded  United  States  citizens,  when  he  is  trying  to  destroy  our 
freedom. 

I  know  we  are  not  like  other  countries.  We  are  a  democracy.  We 
must  not  practice  any  Fascist  or  dictatorial  laws,  or  totalitarian  laws 
tliat  are  practiced  in  the  other  countries,  but  still  on  this  question 
these  people  come  into  our  country  and  they  do  not  bother  to  even 
declare  their  intention  of  becoming  citizens  for  many  years.  They 
get  their  education  here,  make  their  livelihood  here.     They  are  given 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       501 

all  the  freedom  in  the  world,  freedom  they  would  never  get  in  their 
former  homes,  and  still  they  do  not  see  fit  to  declare  their  intention 
of  becoming  citizens ;  some  of  them  for  25  and  30  years. 

Mr.  Arens.  If  Congress  should  pass  a  law  in  effect  outlawing  the 
Communist  Party,  what,  in  your  judgment,  would  be  the  effect  of  that 
statute  on  the  Communist  apparatus  and  Communist  activities  in  the 
United  States? 

Mr.  Malkin.  In  my  opinion,  if  the  Communist  Party  is  outlawed 
that  would  insure  the  ultimate  destruction  of  the  party  in  this  country 
and  provide  the  necessary  statutes  to  apprehend  and  punish  foreign 
espionage  agents  who  are  now  operating  in  this  country. 

Senator  O'Conor.  The  question  was  asked  you  along  a  different  line, 
and  very  much  in  point.  The  subject  matter  is  of  intense  interest  to  all 
the  members  of  the  Senate  as  to  what,  in  your  opinion,  would  be  the 
result  of  the  passage  of  a  statute  outlawing  the  Communist  Party? 

Mr.  Malkin.  That  would  smash  the  Communist  Party,  in  my 
opinion. 

Senator  O'Conor.  Do  you  have  any  fears  at  all  that  it  would  drive 
them  underground  as  a  result,  which  would  be  bad? 

Mr.  Malkin.  No,  due  to  my  former  experience  in  1920  and  1921, 
when  the  American  Communist  Party  was  underground,  when  we 
split  away  from  the  Socialist  Party  and  formed  the  Communist  Party. 
Then  we  were  about  87,000  members. 

Three  years  of  underground  illegality  deprived  the  party  of  open 
.propaganda  through  the  press,  leaflets,  open  demonstrations,  attrac- 
tion of  youth,  attraction  of  other  elements  of  the  party,  which  cut  off 
all  of  that  source  and  practically  stifled  the  party.  Within  a  2-year 
period,  the  party,  was  only  3,500  members  strong,  because  even  those 
people  who  supported  the  Communist  Party  financially  who  were  not 
members  of  the  party  ran  away. 

Senator  O'Conor.  After  it  then  regained  a  legal  status,  so-called, 
to  what  total  figure  did  the  party  grow  prior  to  your  severance? 

Mr.  Malkin.  It  took  quite  a  few  years  after  the  letter  from  Lenin 
to  the  American  party.  Lenin  stated  the  following,  and  I  am  quoting 
verbatim : 

The  American  Communist  Party  must  strive  to  get  out  from  underground  as 
fast  as  possible.  If  not,  it  will  be  stifled  to  death. 

It  was  after  quite  a  few  years  of  building  up  the  Daily  Worker,  open 
education  of  trade  unions,  open  education  of  mass  organizations,  and 
everything  else,  that  the  prestige  of  the  party  was  regained.  But 
actually,  underground,  the  illegality  kills  a  Communist  movement,  just 
like  it  did  in  Germany  as  soon  as  Hitler  drove  it  underground;  just 
like  it  did  for  a  certain  period  in  Canada  in  1939  and  1940.  I  had  a 
little  experience,  having  helped  out  the  Canadian  Government  during 
that  period  for  a  short  while,  in  driving  some  of  it  underground. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Is  it  not  a  fact  also  that  the  espionage  and  much  of 
their  subversive  activity  is  already  underground  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Actually,  the  way  they  work  underground  now  is 
that  they  took  away  all  forms  of  identification  material  from  the 
party  members,  party  membership  books,  and  so  forth.  They  hid  the 
records  of  the  party,  and  leadership  is  kept  in  the  background,  but 
still  they  are  able  to  carry  on  an  open  propaganda  campaign;  carry 
on  open  meetings,  mass  meetings;  open  speech  making,  and  everything 


502       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

else,  demonstrations  in  Washington,  demonstrations  in  Poughkeepsie, 
and  others. 

Underground  they  would  not  be  able  to  do  that.  It  would  kill  them. 
Once  the  party  is  driven  underground,  once  that  happens,  there  is  a 
lack  of  effort  and  they  are  out  of  breath.  That  is  the  time  they  are 
dead. 

Mr.  Arens.  May  I  ask  this  question?  It  is  undoubtedly  naive  to 
the  Senator  here,  because  he  has  been  conducting  hearings  on  the 
other  subversive  bills,  but  I  would  like  to  ask  what,  if  a  statute 
were  passed  saying  that  the  Communist  Party  as  such  were  outlawed, 
would  you  do  then  to  subdue  the  other  organizations  which  the  Com- 
munists would  undoubtedly  form?  How  w^ould  3'OU  designate  the 
organizations  wdiich  would  be  outlawed  in  addition  to  just  the  name 
"Communist  Party?" 

Mr.  Malkin.  The  name  of  Communist  Party  does  not  mean  a  thing 
because  the  Communist  Party  has  had  numerous  names. 

Mr.  Arens.  How  are  you  going  to  outlaw  it  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Any  party  that  is  organized,  whether  under  a  differ- 
ent name,  as  Communist  Party,  or  Workers"  Party,  or  any  other  name, 
as  long  as  its  ultimate  aim  is  the  overthrow  of  the  Government  by 
force  and  violence. 

Senator  O'Conor.  Also,  of  course,  the  pending  bill  before  this  com- 
mittee provides  that  any  such  movement  which  is  directed  from 
abroad,  which  has  any  foreign  sponsorship  or  control,  is  deemed  to  be 
inimical  to  the  interests  of  the  United  States. 

Mr.  Malkin.  Yes,  but  there  is  also  a  clanger  to  that,  too.  The 
Communist  Party  of  the  United  States  could  pull  a  trick  like  they 
pulled  during  the  Roosevelt  administration:  "Wq]1,  w^e  disaffiliate 
from  the  Communist  International.  We  are  no  longer  with  them."' 
How  will  you  prove  that  ?  The  only  way  would  be  to  realize  that  as 
long  as  the  Communist  Party  has  never  in  its  history  openly  repudi- 
ated its  conditions  of  admission  to  the  Communist  International,  the 
21  conditions,  it  is  still  affiliated  in  spite  of  all  statements  that  they 
might  make. 

Any  organization  that  is  left  in  any  way,  shape,  or  form  by  the 
party,  or  through  its  membership,  or  any  Communists  of  the  organiza- 
tion, should  also  be  outlawed.  That  is,  such  as  a  trade  union.  You 
cannot  outlaw  all  trade  unions,  but  you  could  disband  the  trade  unions 
and  get  a  person  like  Ben  Gold  out  and  democratically  supervise  the 
election  of  a  real  democratic  leadership  for  that  union. 

Mr.  Arens.  Do  you  have  difficulty  in  proving  a  man  is  a  Communist 
now  ?  How  do  you  prove  a  man  is  a  Communist  now  ?  Let  us  assume 
that  Mr.  X  has  been  indicted,  or  is  up  under  deportation  proceedings 
as  a  Communist,  and  he  does  not  admit  that  he  is  a  Communist.  How 
do  you  prove  that  he  is  a  Communist  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  By  former  comrades  of  his  in  the  party,  and  by  dif- 
ferent petitions  and  statements  that  he  signs,  so-called  nominating 
petitions.  Most  Communists  in  New  York  or  other  parts  of  the  coun- 
try have  been  arrested  on  demonstrations  on  and  off,  and  w^e  could 
use  that  method. 

Mr.  Arens.  Can  a  court  conclude  from  the  fact  that  somebody  signs 
a  petition  nominating  a  known  Communist  for  a  public  office,  that 
he  participated  in  a  demonstration  which  was  sponsored  by  the  Com- 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       503 

munist  organization,  and  that  he  belonged  to  an  organization  which 
has  been  designated  by  the  Attorney  General  as  communistic;  can 
the  court  conclude  from  all  that  that  he  must  be  a  Communist? 

Mr.  Malkin.  That  is  right,  because  any  person  with  any  common 
sense  would  know  that  after  he  has  attended  five  or  six  demonstra- 
tions by  Communists  and  he  is  impressed  with  them,  that  he  is  a  Com- 
munist, but  that  member  does  not  have  to  carry  a  membership  book. 
He  is  an  official  member  regardless.  He  is  a  practicing  Communist. 
Those  Communists  are  more  dangerous  than  the  party  members, 
actually. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Can  you  name  some  people  who  have  been  prominent 
in  the  Communist-front  movement  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  I  could  name  quite  a  few — Archibald  MacLeish,  Theo- 
dore Dreiser,  Waldo  Frank,  Robert  Sherwood,  Olin  Downes,  of  the 
New  York  Times,  and  many  Hollywood  writers.  A  lot  of  them  are  not 
definitely  members  of  the  party. 

Harry  Hopkins  was  never  a  member  of  the  Communist  Party,  but 
still  he  catered  to  Herbert  Benjamin  to  a  certain  degree.  So  did  Au- 
brey Williams.  He  was  a  member  of  the  League  Against  War  and 
Fascism,  which  was  a  Communist  front.     So  did  Mr.  Ickes. 

Mr.  Dekom.  How  about  Sidney  Hillman? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Sidney  Hillman,  to  my  knowledge,  although  I  was 
never  at  a  party  meeting  with  him,  has  been  a  member  of  the  Com- 
munist Party  since  1921. 

Mr.  Arens.  Does  the  Communist  Party  embrace  a  code  of  ethics 
or  morality  which  would  induce  them  to  commit  what  we  would  nor- 
mally call  deceit,  misi-epresentation,  or  fraud? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Yes.  The  Communist  Party,  according  to  the  writj 
ings  of  the  party,  and  according  to  Lenin's  teachings,  and  a  pamphlet 
that  we  introduced  as  evidence,  called  Left-wing  Communism  an 
Infantile  Disorder  and  State  and  Revolution.  In  that  pamphlet^ 
Lenin  says  that  the  Communist  Party  must  practice  in  order  to  pene- 
trate mass  organizations,  trade-unions,  and  other  organizations,  where 
Communists  would  not  be  allowed  to  enter,  must  practice  deceit, 
fraud,  perjury,  and  everything  else  in  order  to  get  in.  He  must  use 
all  means  to  gain  their  ends. 

Mr.  ScHROEDER.  Do  you  know  anything  about  the  activities  in 
Central  and  South  America  of  the  Communist  Party  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  I  have  known  for  quite  a  while  of  the  way  the  Com- 
munist Party  directs  its  apparatus. 

In  Central  America  and  South  America,  the  Communist  Party  has 
been  concentrating,  since  the  early  1920's,  and  during  the  Sandino 
uprising  in  Nicaragua,  1927,  of  the  South  American  section  of  Latin 
America.  Why?  Because  of  their  low  living  standards  and  because 
they  are  more  gullible  for  everyday  revolution  and  they  are  easily 
attracted  toward  revolutionary  uprisings  through  the  manipulations 
of  the  Communist  Party,  and  through  propaganda  on  the  part  of 
the  Communists  on  their  low  standard  of  living. 

For  instance,  we  will  say  Cuban  sugar  workers  and  tobacco  workers, 
and  so  forth.  Lately  the  Communist  Party  has  been  concentrating 
on  the  Marshall  plan,  and  the  United  States  has  given  the  Soviet 


504       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

Union  a  great  set-back  with  the  Marshall  plan.  So,  they  are  trying 
to  concentrate  around,  here,  and  also  through  China. 

Mr.  Arens.  May  I  ask  this :  I  understood  you  to  say  earlier  today 
that  you  had  broken  with  the  party  because  you  realized  that  the 
party  was  controlled  from  Moscow.    Has  that  always  been  the  case? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Yes. 

Mr.  Arens.  How  come  you  did  not  break  with  it  sooner  ?  Did  you 
just  arrive  at  that  conclusion  after  you  were  further  enlightened, 
or  what  was  the  series  of  facts  w^hich  made  your  mind  evolve  to  the 
conclusion  that  it  was  controlled  and  directed  by  Moscow  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  I  have  known  that  it  was  controlled  by  Moscow 
throughout  my  membership  in  the  party,  but  it  took  a  couple  of  years 
behind  prison  walls  to  give  me  a  little  further  education. 

Mr.  Arens.  Do  you  care  to  elaborate  on  that? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Yes.  I  was  convicted  in  1926  in  New  York  for  my 
activities  in  the  furriers'  strike.  I  was  sentenced  to  2^  years  at 
Sing  Sing  State  prison,  charged  with  felonious  assault.  While  in 
prison,  I  was  able  to  restudy  some  of  the  party  literature.  I  also 
borrowed  quite  a  few  books  on  American  history  in  the  prison  library, 
and  between  the  two  of  them,  I  became  more  enlightened  toward 
Americanism  and  away  from  communism. 

Then,  when  I  came  out  of  prison,  and  I  went  back  into  the  party, 
I  began  my  revolt  against  the  party.  I  attempted  to  organize  within 
the  party  so  that  there  would  be  a  split,  to  break  away  from  the 
party.  I  was  not  successful,  of  course,  because  some  of  the  people 
notified  the  party  of  my  heresy,  so  that  is  how  I  came  to  be  out. 
It  took  quite  a  few  years  for  me  to  decide,  because  it  takes  a  member 
who  joins  the  party  and  throws  himself  energetically  into  all  of  the 
party's  affairs  and  work,  quite  a  bit  of  time.  He  has  to  be  convinced 
of  a  certain  principle,  what  he  thinks  is  a  principle,  and  it  takes  quite 
a  long  time  to  break  away  from  it. 

Mr.  Arens.  Did  the  rank  and  file  of  your  Communist  members  in 
the  United  States,  or  persons  under  Communist  discipline,  realize 
that  the  party  is  controlled  and  directed  from  Moscow  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Most  party  members  who  have  been  in  the  party  less 
than  a  period  of  6  months  realize  that. 

Senator  O'Conor.  Were  there  any  efforts  of  reprisal  made  against 
you  when  you  left? 

Mr.  Malkin.  There  were  plenty  of  them.  In  fact,  every  time  I 
appear  at  a  deportation  hearing  I  usually  get  threats  and  telephone 
calls,  12  to  15  times  a  night,  telling  me  to  increase  my  insurance  on 
my  family,  et  cetera.  We  all  go  through  that.  We  all  go  through 
that  who  have  cooperated  withl:he  Government  and  broken  from  the 
party.  We  almost  all  must  go  through  that  stage.  Some  weaken, 
and  some  do  not. 

Mr.  ScHROEDER.  Are  there  any  activities  in  Puerto  Rico  to  organize 
those  people  into  the  Communist  Party  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Yes ;  the  Communist  Party  has  been  active  in  Puerto 
Rico  and  throughout  that  section. 

Senator  O'Conor.  How  about  the  Canal  Zone? 

Mr.  Malkin.  That,  too.  In  fact,  I  remember  a  party  man  by  the 
name  of  William  Penning  who  was  sent  there  as  an  engineer  on  the 
Canal  in  1925,  and  he  was  carrying  on  party  work  there. 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       505 

agents  who  are  organizing  the  party  there  were  in  an  organization 
called  the  Federation  of  Architects,  Engineers,  Chemists,  and  Tech- 
nicians, under  the  leadership  of  a  fellow  by  the  name  of  Marcel  Sherer, 
who  is  a  charter  member  of  the  party. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Did  the  United  Public  Workers'  Union  go  down  there, 
too  'i 

Mr.  Malkin.  That  is  right,  after  the  ground  work  was  laid  by  the 
Federation  of  Architects,  Engineers,  Chemists,  and  Technicians. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Is  that  a  Communist-controlled  union  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Yes. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Do  you  know  who  is  its  president  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Abram  Flaxer.  I  have  known  him.  It  was  orig- 
inally organized  in  the  home-relief  set-up  known  as  the  Home  Relief 
Employees'  Association. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Thank  you. 

Mr.  Arexs.  We  have  information  to  the  effect  that  persons  are 
arriving  in  the  United  States  from  Puerto  Rico  at  the  rate  of  a  little 
in  excess  of  1,000  a  week,  persons  who  are  technically  American  cit- 
izens. Do  you  have  any  information  respecting  those  persons  who 
are  arriving  and  who  may  be  subversive  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Lately  it  has  been  the  party  policy  of  getting  South 
American  agents.  Communist  agents,  or  Communists,  Chilean  or 
Argentinians.  They  will  go  to  Puerto  Rico  and  reside  there  for  a 
few  months.  They  make  out  papers  that  they  were  born  in  Puerto 
Rico,  and  since  they  are  natives  of  Puerto  Rico  they  are  American 
citizens.  That  is  how  they  entered  the  United  States.  Actually  they 
are  Argentinians  or  Chilean  Communists. 

Mr.  Arens.  \Vliat  is  your  source  of  information  on  that  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  My  sources  of  information  are  from  a  couple  of  officers 
of  merchant  ships  and  people  from  unions. 

Mr.  Arens.  How  extensive  is  that  practice  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  It  is  quite  extensive. 

Mr.  Arens.  Does  your  information  indicate  that  that  process  or 
practice  is  used  currently? 

Mr.  Malkin.  That  is  right. 

Mr.  ScHROEDER.  Ill  other  words,  somebody  in  the  Puerto  Rican  Gov- 
ernment issues  birth  certificates  that  these  people  are  natives  of  Puerto 
Rico? 

Mr.  Malkin.  There  must  be  some  clerical  workers,  or  somebody 
higher  up  in  the  government,  who  issues  these  certificates.  Other- 
wise, if  they  cannot  get  certificates,  they  get  what  they  call  secondary 
evidence  of  their  birth,  because  there  is  such  a  thing  as  secondary  evi- 
dence of  proving  birth  without  a  birth  certificate. 

Mr.  Arens.  What  connections,  if  any,  do  the  Communists  in  Canada 
have  with  the  Communists  in  the  United  States  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  The  Communist  Party  of  Canada  and  the  Communist 
Party  in  the  United  States  are  brother  parties.  They  are  under  the 
same  discipline,  and  they  are  supposed  to  exchange  information  and 
advice,  financial  and  every  other  way. 

Mr.  Arens.  To  what  extent  is  there  transportation  of  Commu- 
nists between  the  two  countries  ? 

Mr.  Arens.  Communists  just  walk  across  the  border  by  proving 
American  citizenship  with  a  certificate,  and  even  a  chauffeur's  license. 


506       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

You  could  walk  into  Canada  and  you  could  come  back  with  all  kinds 
of  reports. 

Mr.  Arens.  Where  all  did  you  operate  in  the  course  of  your  services  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  I  operated  all  over  the  United  States. 

Mr.  Arens.  Were  you  in  the  full  time  pay  of  the  Communists? 

Mr.  Malkin.  At  times.  I  worked  in  a  shop,  and  at  times  I  was  a 
full  time  functionary  of  the  party. 

Mr.  Arens.  What  was  the  nature  of  the  remuneration  that  you 
received  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Actually,  it  was  a  ruling  in  the  party  at  that  time  that 
a  single  man  was  supposed  to  get  from  $25,  $35,  to  $50  a  week.  That  is, 
plus  traveling  expenses,  of  course. 

The  party  then  paid  $15  weekly  for  every  child  and  $20  extra  for 
a  wife  if  she  was  unemployed. 

Mr.  Arens.  What  did  you  do,  specifically  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  I  was  actually  in  the  organization  in  every  way,  in 
the  trade-unions  and  mass  organizations. 

Mr.  Arens.  Can  you  tell  us  more  specifically  what  you  did  within 
the  unions,  or  within  the  groups  that  you  contacted  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  I  went  to  organize  m  the  field  where  there  were  no 
unions  during  the  early  period  from  1930  up  to,  say,  1935.  I  went 
to  organize  in  the  places  where  there  were  no  trade-unions.  I  would 
send  in  Communists  within  that  industry  and  build  up  the  local  union. 

Mr.  Dekom.  They  were  not  identified  as  Communists,  were  they? 

Mr.  Malkin.  No,  they  were  not. 

Mr.  Arens.  After  the  union  was  organized,  what  did  you  do  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  We  placed  Communists  in  control  of  that  union,  of  the 
finances,  of  the  organization,  and  anything  else.  Any  member  who 
did  not  toe  the  line  was  told  about  it,  and  it  was  just  too  bad. 

Mr.  Schroeder.  What  is  the  nature  of  the  Progressive  Labor  Party 
of  Canada? 

Mr.  Malkin.  That  is  a  Communist  Party.  That  is  the  official  Ca- 
nadian Communist  Party.  That  is  a  section  of  the  Communist  Inter- 
national, the  same  as  the  American  Communist  Party  is  a  section  of 
the  Communist  International. 

Mr.  Arens.  Do  you  have  any  information  respecting  the  atom 
spy  ring  operating  in  Canada,  and  presumably,  in  the  United  States? 

Mr.  Malkin.  I  am  a  little  bit  acquainted  with  it.  One  person  I 
knew  was  a  fellow  by  the  name  of  Sam  Novick,  of  the  Wholesale 
Radio  Corp.  He  used  to  run  the  LaFayette  Radio  Corp.,  and  Whole- 
sale Radio.  He  later  became  president  of  the  Electronic  Corp.  of 
America,  the  outfit  that  provided  a  "cover"  for  Russian  espionage 
agents  in  this  country  during  the  last  war.  How  I  got  acquainted 
with  him  was  that  I  was  supposed  to  leave  for  the  Soviet  Union  and 
a  banquet  was  given  in  my  honor  at  the  Hotel  Albert  in  1932.  That  is 
how  I  got  acquainted  with  Sam  Novick. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Was  he  at  the  banquet  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Yes. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Was  that  a  Communist  banquet  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  It  was  not  official,  but  it  was  called  the  Comrades  of 
Malkin  and  he  came  there.  I  also  met  him  at  his  office  a  few  times,  at 
100  Sixth  Avenue,  New  York,  N.  Y. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Do  you  know  whether  he  was  a  party  member? 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       507 

Mr.  Malkin.  No  ;  I  don't  think  he  was. 

Mr.  Dekom.  How  did  he  get  involved  in  this  dinner  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  I  was  acquainted  with  him  through  a  fellow  by  the 
name  of  Irving  Koenig,  who  used  to  buy  some  material  from  him  for 
the  Stewart-Warner  Corp.,  and  who  made  numerous  trips  to  Russia. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Is  he  a  Communist? 

Mr.  Malkin.  No. 

Mr.  Arens.  Do  you  have  information  respecting  any  persons  in 
the  Government  of  the  United  States  who  are  at  the  present  time, 
to  your  knowledge,  either  Communists,  or  directly  under  Communist 
discipline  ? 

Mr,  Malkin.  No  ;  not  now. 

Mr.  ScHROEDER.  Do  you  know  any  in  your  own  State  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  In  a  State ;  yes. 

Mr.  SciiROEDER.  In  a  State  government? 

Mr.  Malkin.  The  teachers,  and  I  have  given  affidavits.  In  fact, 
these  are  now  in  possession  of  the  board  of  regents. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Is  that  in  New  York  State  ? 

Mr.  Malkin.  Yes. 

Mr.  Arens.  I  would  like  again  to  remind  you  that  we  have  asked 
you  and  you  have  agreed  to  transmit  to  the  subcommittee  a  list  of 
these  papers  which  you  feel  are  Communist  papers. 

Mr.  Malkin.  Yes. 

Mr.  Arens.  I  have  no  further  questions. 

Senator  O'Conor.  Thank  you  very  much,  Mr.  Malkin. 

Mr.  Malkin.  Thank  you,  sir. 

Senator  O'Conor.  We  will  recess  at  this  time. 

(Whereupon,  at  3  p.  m.,  the  subcommittee  recessed,  to  reconvene 
at  10 :  30  a.  m.,  September  8, 1949.) 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  AMONG  ALIENS 
AND  NATIONAL  GEOUPS 


THURSDAY,   SEPTEMBER   8,   1949 

United  States  Senate, 
Special  Subcommittee  To  In\t:stigate 
Immigration  and  Naturalization  of  the 

Committee  on  the  Judiciary, 

Washington,  D.  G. 
The  subcommittee  met,  pursuant  to  recess,  at  10 :  30  a.  m.,  in  room 
424,  Senate  Office  Building,  Senator  Forrest  C.  Donnell  presiding. 
Present:  Senator  Donnell  (presiding). 

Also  present:  Messrs.  Richard  Arens,  staff  director  of  the  special 
subcommittee ;  Frank  W.  Schroeder  and  Otto  J.  Dekom,  professional 
staff. 

Senator  Donnell.  The  hearing  will  now  come  to  order. 
Mr.  Arens,  will  you  proceed  ? 

Mr.  Arens.  This  is  a  continuation  of  the  hearings  on  S.  1832  to  pro- 
vide for  the  exclusion  and  deportation  of  subversives. 
Our  next  witness,  Mr.  Chairman,  is  Mr.  John  J.  Huber. 
Senator  Donnell.  Mr.  Huber,  do  you  solemnly  svrear  that  the  testi- 
mony you  are  about  to  give  will  be  the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and 
nothing  but  the  truth,  so  help  you  God? 
Mr.  Huber.  I  do.^ 

TESTIMONY  OP  JOHN  J.  HUBER 

Mr.  Arens.  Mr.  Huber,  is  it  agreeable  with  you  for  all  or  any  part 
of  your  testimony  today  and  your  identity  to  be  released  publicly? 

Mr.  Huber.  Yes,  sir. 

Senator  Donnell.  Pardon  me,  Mr.  Huber,  it  is  now  about  7  min- 
utes before  the  time  the  Senate  convenes,  and  I  am  wondering  whether 
you  would  be  willing  to  go  right  ahead  with  your  statement,  and  then 
respond  to  questions  of  Mr.  Arens,  or  his  assistants.  I  will  ask  that 
I  be  excused  from  attendance.  Are^you  willing  to  go  right  ahead, 
Mr.  Huber? 

Mr.  Huber.  Yes,  sir. 

Senator  Donnell.  Very  well.     I  am  glad  to  have  met  you. 

Mr.  Arens.  Will  you  please  state  your  name  and  give  us  an  outline 
of  your  background  and  experience  ^ 

Mr.  Huber.  My  name  is  John  J.  Huber.  I  was  born  in  New  York 
City  and  have  lived  in  that  city  and  its  environs  all  of  my  life.  In 
1937,  I  was  employed  in  a  supervisory  capacity  in  the  WPA  in  New 

*  The  witness  appeared  under  subpena. 

509 


510       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

York  City,  where  I  came  in  contact  with  fellow  workers  who  were 
members  of  the  Communist  Party. 

My  superiors  in  WPA  knew  that  I  did  not  share  the  Communist 
ideology  and  suggested  to  me  that  I  could  be  of  service  to  our  Nation 
and  our  democratic  way  of  life  if  I  would  cooperate  with  Government 
officials  in  identifying  the  leaders  in  the  Communist  Party  in  this 
country.  I  offered  my  services  in  any  manner  that  the  Government 
saw  fit  to  use  them.  Accordingly,  I  was  requested  to  go  to  the  local 
office  of  the  Federal  Bureau  of  Investigation  in  New  York  City  for  in- 
structions. I  did  this  and  was  asked  whether  or  not  I  would  be  willing 
to  join  the  Communist  Party  in  order  that  I  might  be  ke])t  informed  on 
party  matters  and  report  them  to  the  FBI.  I  told  the  FBI  officials  that 
I  would  endeavor  to  join  the  Communist  Party  on  behalf  of  the  United 
States  Government  and  would  report  to  the  FBI  office  or  its  agents 
the  information  I  gained  from  such  membership. 

Thereafter,  I  continued  on  friendly  relations  with  my  coworkers  in 
the  WPA  office  and  within  a  few  weeks  was  invited  to  join  the  Com- 
munist Party  of  the  United  States.  After  the  invitation  was  repeated 
two  or  three  times  within  a  short  period  of  time,  I  agreed  to  and  did 
join  the  Communist  Party.  It  was  under  these  circumstances  that  I 
became  a  member  of  the  Communist  Party  of  the  United  States  in  the 
latter  part  of  1938  and  held  membership  until  the  middle  part  of  1947, 
at  which  time  I  ceased  my  work  with  the  FBI  of  my  own  volition. 

Mr.  Dekom.  To  what  extent  did  you  devote  yourself  to  party  work? 

Mr.  HuBER.  During  my  period  of  membership  in  the  Communist 
Party,  I  gave  my  full  time  to  party  activities.  I  did  not  miss  a  meet- 
ing of  my  unit  of  the  party  in  8  years.  I  was  a  member  of  the  Teamster 
Branch  of  the  Water  Front  Section  of  the  Communist  Party,  which 
was  the  most  powerful  and  militant  section  of  the  party  in  the  United 
States.  I  progressed  through  various  stages  in  my  work,  from  distrib- 
uting leaflets  and  the  Daily  Worker  to  active  participation  in  such 
Communist  front  organizations  as  the  American  Slav  Congress,  the 
■Committee  for  a  Democratic  Far  Eastern  Policy,  the  Joint  Anti- 
Fascist  Refugee  Committee,  the  Council  on  African  Affairs,  the  Span- 
ish Action  Committee,  and  the  Veterans  of  the  Abraham  Lincoln 
Brigade. 

I  was  in  close  contact  with  the  leaders  of  Communist  Party  as  well 
as  these  various  front  organizations  and  was  admitted  to  the  closed 
executive  meetings.  I  have  an  intimate  acquaintance  with  many  of 
the  leaders  of  the  Communist  Party,  particularly  in  the  New  York 
City  area,  and  stand  ready  to  make  such  information  available  to  the 
Senate  Judiciaiy  Committee. 

Mr.  Dekom.  During  your  work  as  an  under-cover  agent  in  the  Com- 
munist Party,  did  you  maintain  any  continuing  record  of  your  own 
activities  and  of  party  activities  with  which  you  had  connection? 

Mr.  HuBER.  Yes,  I  did.  I  not  only  made  periodic  reports  to  the 
FBI,  but  I  also  kept  a  continuous  diary  over  a  period  of  about  8  years. 
1  have  this  material  here  with  me  and,  as  you  can  see,  it  is  contained  in 
two  large  notebooks,  running  into  nearly  1,000  typewritten  pages.  I 
will  be  happy  to  turn  this  information  over  to  you. 

Mr.  Dekom.  With  the  permission  of  the  chairman,  we  will  receive 
that  in  evidence  and  mark  it  "Huber  Exhibit  1." 

(Tlie  documents  referred  to  were  marked  "Huber  Exhibit  1,"  and 
filed  for  the  information  of  the  subcommittee.) 


COlVnVIUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       511 

Mr.  Dekom.  As  a  member  of  the  Communist  Party,  were  you  issued 
i:)eriodic  membership  books  or  cards? 

Mr.  HuBER.  Yes,  I  was.  I  have  them  here  with  me  and  will  be  glad 
to  submit  them  to  you. 

Mr.  Dekom.  With  the  permission  of  the  chairman,  these  member- 
ship books  and  cards  will  be  received  in  evidence  and  marked  "Huber 
Exhibit  2." 

(The  documents  referred  to  were  marked  "Huber  Exhibit  2,"  and 
appear  following  p.  512.) 

Mr.  Dekom.  I  notice  that  your  Communist  Party  membership  cards 
are  made  out  to  three  different  units :  "Connolly  Branch,"  "Eleventh 
Assembly  District,"  and  "Unity  Center."  Would  you  please  explain 
the  difference  in  names? 

Mr.  Huber.  There  is  no  difference;  they  are  all  one.  The  names 
were  changed  from  time  to  time,  but  these  are  all  the  same  unit.  The 
unit  is  located  at  2744  Broadway,  New  York.  In  July  1943,  for  ex- 
ample, every  branch  of  the  Communist  Party  changed  the  name  it  had 
been  using  and  became  known  as  the  assembly  district  club  in  which  it 
was  located.  For  example,  the  James  Connolly  Branch  and  the  Earl 
Browder  Branch  became  known  as  the  Eleventh  Assembly  District 
Club.  The  Seamen's  Branch,  located  at  230  Seventh  Avenue,  became 
known  as  the  Seamen's  Club.  That  change  occurred  throughout  all  the 
Communist  Party  branches  in  the  New  York  area.  The  reasons  given 
for  that  change  were  that  the  name  Assembly  District  Club  would  add 
prestige  and  would  aid  in  drawing  new  members,  and  that,  in  time, 
these  clubs  would  take  their  places  beside  the  Republican,  Democrat, 
and  American  Labor  Party  clubs  in  their  respective  neighborhoods. 
It  was  pointed  out  that  the  Communist  Party  commanded  more  respect 
in  neighborhoods  where  those  clubs  were  situated  since  the  substitu- 
tion of  the  term  "club"  for  that  of  "branch."  The  fact  that  a  recent 
recruiting  drive  had  added  5,500  new  members  to  the  party  ranks  was 
given  in  justification  of  that  change  in  terms.  The  only  branches  of 
the  Communist  Party  which  had  not  changed  to  the  use  of  the  term 
"assembly  district  club"  are  those  attached  to  the  industrial  section. 
That  designation  would  not  fit  those  clubs  since  their  branches  were 
among  needleworkers,  some  of  which  were  located  in  shops  where  com- 
rades worked. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Go  ahead,  please. 

Mr.  Huber.  I  would  also  like  to  submit  to  the  committee  a  num- 
ber of  letters,  papers,  and  testimonials  which  give  a  picture  of  my 
services  in  the  party  and  of  my  connection  with  party  members  and 
activities. 

Mr.  Dekom.  We  will  receive  these'  and  mark  them  "Huber  Ex- 
hibit 3." 

(These  documents  were  marked  "Huber  Exhibit  3"  and  appear  fol- 
lowing p.  512.) 

Mr.  Dekom.  In  the  course  of  your  party  activity,  Mr.  Huber,  did 
you  attend  any  schools  or  courses  of  instruction  ? 

Mr.  Huber.  Yes.  When  new  members  were  taken  into  the  Com- 
munist Party,  they  were  given  about  10  lessons  in  training  sessions 
designed  to  teach  the  new  members  the  principles  of  communism. 
Thereafter,  the  new  members  were  assigned  to  sections  where  they 
were  taught  the  principles  of  Marxism-Leninism. 


512       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

Mr.  Dekom.  What  was  the  nature  of  the  teaching  you  received  ? 

Mr.  HuBER.  Let  me  give  you  an  example.  On  March  6,  1940,  I 
attended  a  new-members  class  at  131  East  Seventeenth  Street,  New 
York  City,  led  by  Charles  Cook.  His  topic  of  discussion  was  Struggle 
for  Peace.  Cook  said  in  this  class  that,  "if  this  country  becomes  in- 
volved in  an  imperialist  war,  a  civil  war  will  ensue  to  stop  such  a  war, 
because  the  capitalists  will  arm  the  masses  who  will  then  turn  their 
guns  on  them."  Cook,  in  his  talk  to  the  new  class,  stated  that  the 
policy  of  the  Communist  Party  was  the  overthrow  of  the  United  States 
Government  by  force  and  violence. 

Mr.  Dekom.  On  the  basis  of  your  years  of  work  in  the  Communist 
Party,  your  observation  of  party  activity,  and  your  contact  with  party 
leaders,  what  is  your  evaluation,  your  judgment  of  the  Communist 
Party  in  the  United  States  ? 

Mr.  Huber.  In  my  opinion,  the  Communist  Party  of  the  United 
States  is  the  most  dangerous  and  vicious  organization  that  has  ever 
existed  within  the  borders  of  this  country. 

Despite  the  alleged  dissolution  of  the  Communist  International  in 
1943,  the  Communist  Party  in  this  and  every  other  country  in  the  world 
still  takes  orders  from  Moscow.  That  was  proven  beyond  a  doubt  by 
the  complete  repudiation  of  Earl  Browder  and  his  policies,  upon 
direction  of  Jacques  Duclos,  French  member  of  the  Comintern. 

The  Communist  Party  will  stop  at  no  lengths  to  achieve  its  avowed 
purpose  of  overthrowing  our  existing  Government  by  force  or  other- 
wise, in  order  to  establish  a  communistic  regime  in  its  stead.  It  is 
true  that  the  constitution  of  the  Communist  Party  no  longer  contains 
the  phrase  pertaining  to  the  revolutionary  overthrow  of  the  Govern- 
ment, but  that  phrase  is  engraven  in  the  hearts  of  all  Communists  and 
is  merely  omitted  from  their  printed  matter  in  order  to  prevent  the 
party  from  being  declared  illegal.  The  party  will  use  the  weapon  of 
revolution,  through  ordering  general  strikes,  through  creating  social 
unrest,  through  propagandizing  against  capitalism  as  the  root  of  the 
evils  suffered  by  the  masses,  and  through  golden  promises  of  an  Utopia, 
where  everyone  will  share  alike  and  be  equal. 

Further,  the  party  will  use  its  best  weapon,  that  of  boring  from 
within,  joining  democratic  coalitions,  until  the  Communist  members 
gain  control  of  the  leadership,  and  by  getting  large  numbers  of  Com- 
munists elected  or  appointed  to  Government  agencies. 

The  membership  of  the  Communist  Party  consider  it  their  sacred 
duty  to  work  diligently  every  waking  hour,  to  accomplish  something 
for  the  improvement  and  advancement  of  the  party  and  its  aims. 
Comrades  hold  key  positions  in  all  city.  State,  and  Federal  agencies. 
They  never  cease  their  efforts  to  achieve  the  accomplishment  of  the 
party  line  as  outlined  for  them  by  the  national  committee.  They 
thrive  on  the  discontent  of  the  masses,  and  unflaggingly  operate  to 
sow  seeds  of  dissatisfaction,  resulting  in  the  successful  recruiting  of 
thousands  of  malcontents. 

In  conducting  their  Communist  activities,  members  of  the  Commu- 
nist Party  are  apparently  given  free  rein  in  this  country.  They  are 
permitted  to  hold  public  meetings,  mass  demonstrations,  distribute 
literature  criticizing  and  denouncing  our  Government  and  its  foreign 
and  domestic  policies — all  openly  conducted  under  the  auspices  of  the 
Communist  Party  and  its  front  organizations. 


„ Party  of 

iT*  worklnx  claaa  political  p«rty  CArrrlBi 
"""  -A*  TnA^r  tbt  trmditlona  of  JoScraon.  Fain*. 
'•'••™  Vjjuoooln.    aod    or   th.   OM^IantloD   of 


■ou«h  a  Bovernm»nt  of  th*  p«o- 
and   for   the   p«opl«;    th*  aboll- 

race.  and  th«rebr  the  abolttton 


HuBER  Exhibit  2 
Communist  Party  meinbersliip  l)(x>k,  1943 

NECESSARY  READING 


(•nee  your  fellow  work<^r.  trade  union  brother  or 
slater,  nelcbbor  or  friend— every  Communist  abould 
get  the  habit  of  readlaa  rrsBUrly,  each  day — THE 
DAIbT    WORKER. 


Vorktr  NOW  and  EV 


advanced  thinktnr  and  atudyliis  by 
■tartlnc  with  the  Branch 
I'arly— THE  COMMUNIST. 


Of  the  I.  S.  A 


N?       B4B5 


19  4  3 
MemberaUpBook 

u^me  Aod/Y....^ H±:A.€.IL 

(PRINT) 

state /{e.:..y..:. District../)f.t/- 

Cotrntir  lll...:...y..:. Cit!i^...^jf..:.JL:. 

S«;Uon  (AJJ.  or;yar<l) 2.7..*.:.//.. 

Branch 


1942  DUES  ARREARS 


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Ouu  Ouis  DuM  Omi 


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COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIE  S  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS     5 1 2 A 


HuBEE  Exhibit  2 


No.  10235 

(Somnuu^t  f^olitical  .^ASociat 


1944 


irOn 


MEMBERSHIP    DUES 

July 

August 

September 

(Xtober    I Novcmberl  December 

Initiation 
Stamp 


DUES     RATES 

Effective  July  1st,  V)\\  to  December  31st,  1944 

S5  for  last  6  months  ot   10  i  i  p^p  ^o. 

Regular  dues  (for  those  earning  over  $S(>(M)  per  week) $1.00 

Earning  from  $20.00  to  S30.()()  per  meek 50 

Earning  less  than  $20.00  per  week  .  .25 

Communist  Political  Association  membership  card,  1944. 


512b    communist  activities  in  alien  and  national  groups 


HuBER  Exhibit  2 


^™_ 

'IHI 

■m 

./ 

^.OO^  i 

c. 

f  m  « ifi 

'-^^"     - 

C.<y.^^v.^Aj 

^       V, 

^    ^ 

K.^« 

\ 

Sv-v4S5»^-v.»«,       ■>, 

i^ 

i| 

..^?f^'<^^^ 

m 


mm 


Conimnnist  Political  Association  membership  cai'd,  1945. 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS     512C 


HUBER  Exhibit  2 


Ta  *?  »?}  J^i«  ?<W»Sst  <fc?f««xS  ^*^  ?«?«?«¥»$ 
?!»   %»?   f<S<<  Pti   f-^  psxiaK   !p«?J«e«?  x>«« 

{JSiJ*^^S>«!*«*  H  «(jit  »*«*■  ^§J>«r  j}j>siv,  ««ifry- 
i»§  {>t;?  t**  <i<«iiS)<K<l  yi^j^  «^piNsJ  )t  j>«;si^^. 


_J 


Communist  Party  membership  card,  1946. 


98330— 50— pt. 


512d    communist  activities  in  alien  and  national  groups 


HUBER  Exhibit 


1  t  4  1    D  ^i  1  S 

MifL 

s 

! 

**Sti 

UAX 

Mm 

mi.-^ 

f^m. 

i^.\ 

oct. 

m^f^ 

t^S£L 

1^44  0  y  E  $ 

1 

! 

1 

S^Ai=    **    f.4$^    f^f 


Party 


,  1947. 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS     512e 


HUBER  Exhibit  3 


MM  um  m^  umui  tmwtuu 


0.<V,t  *«&•■;<«,  lN<v  < 


ihmKt  tSmVM.  txoKfix 


,^^^^-■s  !^<-  ''■v^  &.<>:•.'' i  >;.'*i'.o;<r  ■u>  s^t.^  jj^it-  ji^'.uisa  cr  i/-s.j4» 


rf?  -cu.:;***.  (K!.t«»n'  ani.  la  iftj» -srj./  c«iefc  ?0';f  ^;*ji'ii-ix 


L<,'ttcT  fiom  Dave  <Jiueuo,  InteruiUional  Workers  Order. 


512f    communist  activities  in  alien  and  national  groups 


HUBER  Exhibit  3 


:i!IG  ? R M\y^, N  7' '?  '^*"'  .> 


1 

;? 

ȴ 

|sfet..r  Jfe^-.&f*' 

(•  (..iKliiLM,  li'iiili  Divitauiii,  lutonialional  Woikerh  Order. 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS     512g 


HUX5ER  Exhibit  3 


taaiffwijfii 


4m?  sails*  »>«,i4  of  Sfcp«fi*«Y»  s«kf  *»  ^«  Jea&w,  %%  tH» 
in  %h9  j>A«s?;^    t  (?*&  t'it.'^s&  »^  fx>  swtf'jr  «.sy  «vat  y>?si.  caaa 

-?■«!»  «>?<  ,sll  l.fe*'^  yiffi.  fe&?^  5#».*  ifro  siA  tfe«»> 


Letter  from  Dorothy  Parker,  Spanish  Refugee  Appeal. 


51  2h   communist  activities  in  alien  and  national  groups 


HuBEE  Exhibit  3 


lOiNT  ANTI-FASCJST  R-.FUGBt>  CC<MMiTTBB 


Vo^vOfrX/     f^ltC-KC-^f    ^-NfJMO^ 


f^AilChAl  S^<^.J\'>OX> 


Sir.  ^^hutJj'  <»i^J« 


■&S-  i<- 


'   ^.'sf  r^u  ii&>8t  <s»-rs  t»«.s  <'«*y  !«    ^ 
ftsto-arv.  t>*^  te^  <.f>>!'  b«.n  >Ai«  »t  «<;•> 

%«  iS/JO"  «iil  s«a,«Ki44U>'(^  Hsu  ^ 


i,t«    f:<x.f»T 

''4j»js  S.;».srf 

rit<.-;(.  M  fc. 

S-.  f   Ml/.r-,..'^ 

n^x^    X< 

«>!«•>;,.'  I 

t>i.y.>y  Sfoc 

/<■>,., 

i->    >■.>%•   H- 

«j'»  i.  !>Axws<^ 

>»  ;'<oxxj« 

txi 

v>mV) 

Dk    iHAXCj: 

}A.   S>>iy(ONOSt 

Vx«»,.-«»,  Crf 

f  A<  .  S<-s« 

•j-ff  f«*?-^sy 

D^>««   fx 

1  v»o 

,«.)A^f 

r>\Ki>  ^J^i 

Vf.i-rr>- 

/(,.v,„ 

0<    .V^»v   ?    Wn^-is-^ 

(^-  ;»/ 

"•«<.  ^^l   il»}%iif 

Ci^Uit 

f»  *<:>x  yw«A« 

^oxwj,'  <«  ^V'.-«  .4»^< 

Letter  from  Helen  R.  D*.van,  Joint  Anti-Fascist  Refugee  Committee. 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS      512l 


HucER  Exhibit  3 


COUNCIL  ON  Af mCAN  AFFAIRS,  Int 


li  var  2e  tt^tn 


Kiv  ro«t 


«l«ttAT    »tlL    4-<)4» 


WW.  ifcr  s«^asw»JN 


CJcto^er  «fc,  i%5 


COUNCIL  A^EMSWS 

MRS.  CKAiaCSTW  A.  WH 


»Jt.   ''oyiioa,  Ke'*  Tori: 

XC~ti  tV'jre  CRe   :>f   the   fafincipal   perTfions 
r»s?.OT&Ibl6  for  ■&*  auCi;o53  oi*  lasrt   3vyjday«ft  »f- 

ynrlXtL  fe  you  to  tterik  .v'>a  sisct  stacej-elit'   r<tf   "hat 
YQu  cf.tdj  for  the  fine  &tjl>-it  of  cooji-fcratl on  rfiidi 
you  sb-css«iS,     Ali  or  tt(>  thiftk  of  rva  «s  part  Si'    ■^«- 
CouR<ll'f<  L^fc^-Ci  &.-<:?  -.(^sre  isi'ii'^  hiip-i-y   '-(i  inoX-4i'::  "C  • 


»*»?.  XWXifi  P,  SfcfJ.V 


Letter  from  Max  Yergan,  Council  on  African  Afifairs. 


51 2j      COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 


HUBER  Exhibit  3 


, ^,4X4l^^~™>«~-.~^     s      ^>o 


> 


ItVAX'^^-V'-t 


r% 


fy^^  ^^.  ^,  ^  -  ,,i^^<^  tji^ 


Post  card  from  Sam  Kenin. 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS     512k 


HUBER  Ex  II 1 1 


ijsi»  »s  est  at  »  r«<j«5>ti(!«s  t&*  «<aio*l  Is  t«B:5«s>i!ftg  te  s»»  r^lSx 
i?*  sse-tJj-i  3:<j:*-«  to  iaSr*  yci  Ji'iii^  'i£  .it  ifc<j  ssr  a;^:^  xsstii*  fe;   jsai:* 


Sa2*!sa?«  Ai&i:>*->! 


Letter  I'rom  Barbara  Aroiisou,  Jefferson  School  of  Soci 


.512l    communist  activities  in  alien  and  national  groups 


HUBER  Exhibit  3 


III  iiiiiiw  immi  ./\74.«>/^fc^^ 


A   ' 


Letter  from  Regina  Wilson,  Jefferson  School  of  Social  Science. 


COA'IMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       513 

The  party  is  given  the  status  of  a  legal  political  party,  similar  to 
the  Democratic  and  Republican  Parties,  is  permitted  to  nominate 
candidates  and  place  them  on  election  ballots.  In  New  York  City,  the 
council  contains  two  elected  Communists,  while  a  number  of  other 
jDast  or  present  councilmen  are  known  to  be  closely  tied  up  with  the 
party. 

The  mistake  this  country  is  making  by  allowing  them  such  free- 
dom is  that  we  do  not  face  the  fact  that  the  foremost  allegiance  of  all 
Conniiunists  is  to  the  Soviet  Union.  They  prove  this  constantly  by 
continually  denouncing  and  criticizing  the  United  States  and  all  its 
policies,  while  at  the  same  time  revering  the  virtues  and  correctness  of 
all  Soviet  actions  and  policies. 

There  is  no  doubt  in  my  mind  but  that,  in  a  war  involving  the  United 
States  and  any  foreign  coinmunistically  controlled  country,  the  Com- 
munist members  in  the  armed  forces  in  this  country  would  actively 
become  foreign  agents,  utilizing  every  unprincipled  and  unscrupulous 
means  available  to  sabotage  the  defense  of  the  United  States. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Are  you  familiar  with  the  statement  recently  made 
by  the  heads  of  Communist  Parties  in  various  western  countries,  in- 
cluding the  United  States,  concerning  what  they  would  do  in  the  event 
of  a  war  between  the  United  States  or  their  own  countries  and  the 
Soviet  Union  ? 

Mr.  HuBER.  Yes;  that  they  owed  their  allegiance  to  Russia,  and 
that  they  would  not  fight  for  this  country,  because  this  country  con- 
sists of  just  a  bunch  of  capitalists.  At  all  of  our  meetings,  it  was, 
"Stalin  says  this"  and  "Stalin  says  that;  it  must  be  right."  It  was 
always  Stalin  and  the  Soviet  Union. 

Loyal  Americans  do  not  take  the  Communist  Party  seriously  enough, 
for  they  feel  that  it  is  but  a  minority  party  consisting  of  a  small 
membership  and  "it  can't  happen  here." 

While  it  is  true  that  there  is  a  yearly  turn-over  of  thousands  of 
members,  it  must  be  emphasized  that  this  does  not  mean  these  thou- 
sands have  renounced  communism.  They  may  no  longer  be  dues-pay- 
ing and  registered  party  members,  but  they  retain  their  homage  and 
allegiance  to  the  principles  of  communism.  This  boosts  the  number 
of  Communist  believers  in  this  country  up  past  the  million  mark,  a 
fact  which  the  party  is  well  aware  of,  but  cleverly  disguises  in  its 
unceasing  recruiting. 

It  is  a  misconception,  which  the  party  will  not  try  to  correct,  but 
-will  rather  try  to  increase,  to  have  us  believe  that  the  Communist 
Party  is  not  as  strong  today  as  it  was  10  years  ago.  The  party  is  noc 
only  stronger,  but  it  is  growing  steadily,  by  reason  of  the  steady  influx  • 
of  members  from  communistically  controlled  labor  unions,  from  for- 
eign-language-speaking groups,  from  the  theatrical  and  entertainment 
fields,  from  veterans'  groups,  from  the  youth  of  America,  from  among 
the  Negro  people,  and  from  consumer  and  community  groups.  The 
day-to-day  recruiting  of  comrades  has  yielded  the  Communist  Party 
handsome  dividends  in  increasing  their  numbers. 

Cornrnunists  have  infiltrated  into  mass  organizations  and  into  civic 
and  citizens'  groups.  They  were  even  instructed  to  move  into  the 
American  Legion  and  the  Veterans  of  Foreign  Wars.  They  hope, 
work  for,  and  expect  some  day  to  get  their  policies  accepted  and  put 
into  action  by  these  organizations. 


514       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

In  New  York  City  they  have  organized  tenants'  leagues  in  every 
community,  and,  on  the  basic  and  vital  issues  of  housing,  rents,  and 
landlords,  have  duped  innocent  people  into  joining  and  working  for 
the  party. 

In  my  close  association  with  front  organizations  (excluding  Com- 
munist-controlled unions),  which  are  used  as  transmission  belts  to 
disseminate  the  party  line,  I  have  seen  just  how  many  people  are  beings 
taken  in  and  fooled  by  the  innocence  of  front  organizations.  Fron^ 
organizations  are  formed  by  the  party  to  publicize  and  campaign  on 
specific  issues,  and  these  issues  can  be  traced  back  to  the  Communist 
Party  for  their  origin.  They  are  one  of  the  richest  sources  of  re- 
cruiting members  into  the  party  and  collecting  funds  with  which 
the  party  can  carry  on  campaigns. 

The  Communist  fronts  are  increasing  in  number  today,  and  can 
boast  of  such  well-known  figures  as  Dashiell  Hammett,  Lillian  Hell- 
man,  Dorothy  Parker,  Herman  Shumlin,  Norman  Corwin,  Harlow 
Shapley,  Ella  Logan,  Charlie  Chaplin,  Edward  G.  Kobinson,  and  Jolin 
Garfield  as  just  a  few  of  the  drawing  cards  which  attract  the  general 
public  to  their  meetings  and  into  eventually  becoming  members  there. 
Such  meetings  invariably  revolve  around  Communist  campaigns  and 
disseminate  Communist-inspired  propaganda. 

In  my  opinion,  these  front  organizations  should  be  publicly  exposed 
and  their  danger,  true  nature,  make-up,  and  origin  shown  for  what 
they  really  are. 

In  the  field  of  education,  there  are  a  few  hundred  members  of  the 
Connnunist  Party  who  are  teaching  the  children  of  New  York  City 
in  our  public  schools.  The  party  realizes,  more  than  do  most  Amer- 
icans, that  it  is  in  the  schools  and  by  teaching  youngsters  the  Com- 
munist distortions  of  history  and  the  principles  of  revolution,  that 
they  have  their  ripest  fields  for  propaganda  and  future  members. 
That  they  are  correct  in  this  ISIarxist  realization  is  more  than  proven 
by  the  numbers  of  students  who  join  students'  leagues  and  youth  or- 
ganizations controlled  by  Communists. 

Mr.  ScHROEDER.  Did  you  yourself  become  well  known  in  Communist 
Party  circles  ? 

Mr.  HuBER.  I  did.  I  was  present  at  so  many  meetings,  and  served 
drinks  at  so  many  others,  that  I  got  to  be  known  by  hundreds  of  party 
members.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  Mr.  Schroeder,  I  made  it  a  special  point 
to  be  conspicuous,  because  I  wanted  to  be  well  known  in  party  circles 
so  that  I  could  get  as  much  information  and  get  to  know  as  many 
members  as  possible.  I  made  it  my  job.  It  was  the  best  way  I  knew 
of  carrying  out  my  assiirnment  for  ithe  Government. 

Mr.  "Dekom.  Did  you  get  to  know  top  officials  of  the  party? 

Mr.  HuBER.  Yes ;  in  the  same  way.  I  even  got  to  know  the  drinking 
habits  of  the  party  leaders.  Paul  Kobeson,  for  example,  used  to  like 
the  way  I  mixed  rum  and  coke  for  him  and  he  would  often  come  over 
to  me,  after  a  Communist  Party  meeting,  and  thank  me  for  the  drinks 
I  had  made  for  him. 

Mr.  Dekom.  How  higli  did  you  get  in  attending  party  meetings,  to 
which  levels  of  party  authority  ? 

Mr.  HuBER,  To  ail  levels,  cit,y,  State,  and  national.  As  a  matter  of 
fact,  I  was  one  of  the  few  people  to  ever  sit  in  on  a  meeting  of  the 
National  Committee  of  the  Communist  Party. 


COIVCVIUISriST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       515 

Mr.  Dekom.  Isn't  that  one  of  the  most  secret  meetings  of  the  party 
high  command? 

Mr.  HuBER.  Yes;  it  certainlj^  is. 

Mr.  Dekom.  How  did  you  happen  to  get  in  on  that  meeting? 

Mr.  HuBER.  I  knew  the  guard  at  the  door,  and  he  was  a  good  friend 
of  mine  in  the  party,  and  he  did  not  question  me  when  I  walked  into 
the  meeting.  That  was  one  of  the  chief  advantages  that  I  gained  from 
becoming  so  well  known  in  party  circles,  I  was  often  able  to  attend 
closed  meetings  to  which  I  was  not  supposed  to  come,  but  I  got  in 
anyway  and  nobody  questioned  me. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Because  of  the  secrecy  and  importance  attached  to  the 
meeting  of  the  national  committee,  I  want  you  to  give  us  as  detailed  a 
report  on  the  meeting  as  you  can  reconstruct  from  your  memory  and 
your  notes. 

Mr.  HuBER.  This  was  the  meeting  of  the  national  committee  of  the 
Communist  Party  at  the  Albert  Hotel,  on  November  15,  1945. 

The  entire  national  committee  was  present,  having  come  from  all 
over  the  United  States.  This  particular  meeting  was  one  of  the  most 
important  meetings  of  the  party  and  was  attended  by  the  top  leader- 
ship. 

The  meeting  was  opened  by  Saul  Wellman,  who  made  the  following 
speech : 

Leadership  is  an  important  thing.  In  the  main,  our  party  has  a  strong  and 
healthy  leadership,  but  some  bad  and  negative  features  have  been  noted.  We 
have  carried  over  many  people  about  whom  we  know  too  little,  exactly  who 
they  are,  how  they  make  their  living,  their  union  connections,  activities,  and 
so  forth.  We  must  complete  the  review  of  them  rapidly.  Residence  committee 
members  have  started  to  go  out  into  the  districts  to  acquaint  themselves  with 
the  details  there.  We  are  bringing  many  new  problems  closer  to  the  com- 
mittee— how  our  enemies  are  working  in  the  party. 

The  committee  interested  itself  in  the  case  of  Comrade  Donchin  in  Phil- 
adelphia. He  had  presented  charges  against  Comrade  [Eugene]  Dennis  for 
slander  and  character  violation.  Our  review  committee  heard  Donchin  and 
rendered  the  opinion  that  it  was  his  intent  to  weaken  the  party.  The  com- 
mittee characterized  Comrade  Donchin's  behavior  as  arrogant,  and  decided  to 
dismiss  these  charges  against  Comrade  Dennis  by  Comrade  Donchin  on  the 
ground  that  his  charges  were  not  solely  against  Dennis,  but  were  against  every 
member  of  the  board.  This  is  just  one  example  of  the  upsurge  of  weak  leader- 
ship  during  the  period  of  revisionism,  but  the  leadership  has  been  taken  away 
from  the  groups  trying  to  cause  trouble.  In  addition,  we  have  noted  a  number 
of  serious  problems  in  Chicago  and  Detroit.  We  have  had  to  correct  corruption 
among  some  of  our  trade-union  comrades.  We  know  there  are  operating  in  our 
midst  enemy  forces,  such  as  the  FBI,  Government  intelligence  agents,  foreign 
government  agents,  who  are  attempting  to  turn  the  people  against  our  interests. 

Regarding  the  case  of  Sam  Darcy,  this  was  turned  over  to  the  review  commit 
sion.  They  called  upon  Comrade  Darcy  to  appear  before  them  for  a  hearing 
sending  him  two  letters.  To  the  first  letter  we  got  no  response;  to  the  second 
letter,  we  received  a  polite  response  saying  that  at  this  time  he  was  not  interested 
in  returning  to  the  party.     I  believe  we  should  tnhle  this  matter  at  present. 

One  of  the  things  which  must  be  corrected  is  the  keeping  in  many  offices  ol 
party  lists,  names,  and  address  records.  This  is  not  a  good  procedure,  becaust 
we  do  not  know  too  much  about  some  of  the  comrades  who  are  being  broughl 
into  our  movement.  Many  have  been  accepted  as  party  members  and  elected 
to  office  solely  on  the  basis  of  having  been  a  veteran  of  the  Spanish  Civil  Wai 
and  of  this  war,  and  no  further  background  investigation  has  been  made. 

Another  thing,  there  is  too  mucli  gossiping  and  rumoring  going  on,  with  com- 
rades talking  too  freely.  There  must  be  a  general  tightening  "up  all  around 
The  struggle  to  preserve  the  unity  of  the  party  cannot  be  stressed  too  strongly 


516       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

In  the  main,  the  old  leadership  was  connected  with  the  Browder  line,  but  it 
no  longer  holds  today.  New  leadership  must  be  scrutinized  and  weighed.  There- 
must  be  greater  sensitivity  of  members  of  the  party  on  the  question  of  leadership. 
We  still  find  too  much  dissatisfaction  in  the  ranlis  of  the  party.  We  must  estab- 
lish and  maintain  prestige  with  the  working  class.  Budenz  and  people  of  his 
type  must  be  removed. 

There  must  be  refreshing  of  the  leadership  and  the  execution  of  a  policy  of 
very  careful  fusing  of  the  old  and  new.  This  question  of  comrades  being  without 
assignments  of  party  work  must  be  taken  care  of  immediately.  It  has  been  over 
3  montlis  since  the  convention — too  long  for  it  to  have  dragged  on,  especially 
when  there  is  urgent  need  for  every  shoulder  being  put  to  the  wheel,  when  every 
comrade  should  be  at  work. 

A  considerable  number  of  the  membership  was  not  reached  with  the  decisions 
of  the  convention.  Some  are  still  not  aware  of  the  question  of  [Earl]  Browder 
and  why  we  rejected  revisionism ;  also,  what  is  disturbing,  in  a  number  of  dis- 
tricts we  do  not  know  who  the  people  are  who  voted  against  our  resolution. 
There  is  not  a  full  appreciation  of  the  fact  that  enemies  are  working  within  our 
ranks.  There  are  serious  leaks  in  our  organization.  Stories  have  appeared  in 
the  capitalistic  press  which  show  there  are  leaks.  The  work  of  tlie  Trotskyites 
lias  been  most  energetic  in  the  last  few  years,  but  we  feel  that  whatever  inroads 
they  have  made  we  will  be  able  to  smash.  However,  in  the  last  2  years  there 
have  been  no  exposures  of  known  Trotskyites,  although  there  are  definite  indi- 
cations tliat  there  are  some  working  within  our  party.  They  are  trying  to  asso- 
ciate themselves  with  mass  questions  on  which  they  were  delinquent  in  the  past. 
They  have  made  great  progress  among  the  Negroes  in  Detroit  and  Chicago.  It 
appears  that  Detroit  is  becoming  the  national  point  of  Trotskyites.  There  is 
a  greater  flood  of  their  printed  material  than  at  any  other  period.  Their  first 
concentration  is  New  York  ;  second,  Los  Angeles  ;  third,  Detroit ;  fourth,  Chicago  ; 
and  fifth,  Philadelphia.  They  have  organizations  in  most  of  the  important  indus- 
ti'ial  cities  in  the  United  States  and  their  activities  are  increasing  in  the  concen- 
tration points.  At  no  time  in  the  past  has  there  ever  existed  such  a  liberal 
attitude  toward  Trotskyites  as  at  this  time.  Some  of  our  comrades  cannot  recog- 
nize the  antiworking,  anti-Soviet  sentiments  of  the  Trotskyites  and  great  danger 
lies  here — we  must  expose  this  danger  before  more  damage  is  inflicted  to  our 
party. 

Our  next  problem  is  the  police,  the  FBI,  and  the  intelligence  agents  active  in 
the  party.  Here,  too,  are  sufiiciently  concrete  indications  in  New  York,  Chicago, 
and  Detroit  that  should  make  us  vigilant  of  this  problem  and  increase  our 
efforts  to  drive  them  out.  The  most  effective  method  for  making  it  extremely 
diflicult  and  impossible  to  work  within  the  ranks  of  the  party  is  to  create  basic 
vigilance  in  the  party,  to  fight  to  know  as  much  as  possible  about  all  the  com- 
rades, down  to  the  newest  rank  and  file  members. 

Gossip  and  rumor  must  be  stopped.  Such  matters  as  require  discipline  and 
action  should  be  brought  before  responsible  party  committees.  Police  agents 
and  the  FBI  have  representatives  all  over — maybe  these  walls  have  ears,  even 
here,  too.  The  luncheonette  at  Twelfth  Street  and  University  Place  is  a  spot 
where  anyone  can  pick  up  information  which  should  be  kept  to  ourselves.  Im- 
mediately after  the  business  of  Budenz,'  there  was  a  hell  of  a  lot  of  talk  going 
on  there — this  must  be  stopped. 

What  is  necessary  is  that  our  leadership  and  the  membership  must  become 
sensitive  to  these  problems.  Our  party  has  always  been  an  example  for  or- 
ganization and  work.  We  must  fight  now  to  really  make  it  such — to  meet  the 
struggle  ahead. 

Wlien  Wellman  concluded  I  left  the  room  in  order  not  to  draw  any 
suspicion  on  me.     The  meeting  went  on  for  2  days  altogether. 

Mr.  Dekom.  I  notice  in  Wellman's  speech  that  he  expresses  concern 
over  the  presence  of  FBI  and  intelligence  agents  in  the  party.  Weren't 
you  at  that  time  an  undercover  agent  of  the  FBI  ? 

Mr.  HuBER.  I  certainly  was.  Wellman  would  have  been  very  un- 
happy to  know  that.     I  hope  he  reads  this. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Approximately,  how  many  members  were  in  the 
Connolly  branch  of  the  Communist  Party? 

>  For  the  testimony  of  Louis  Budenz,  see  p.  217. 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       517 

Mr.  HuBER.  There  were  330  members  in  the  James  Connolly  Branch. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Can  you  give  us  the  names  of  any  of  these  persons  who 
were  in  your  branch  of  the  Communist  Party,  the  Connolly  Branch? 

Mr.  HuBER.  Yes,  I  have  a  partial  list  of  the  names  and  addresses 
of  members  of  the  Connolly  Branch  which  I  would  like  to  read.  I 
will  be  glad  to  submit  additional  names  for  the  record. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Go  ahead  please. 

Mr.  Huber.  Following  is  the  list  of  names  and  addresses  of  mem- 
bers of  the  Eleventh  assembly  district,  Communist  Party,  known  as 
the  James  Connolly  Branch,  located  at  2744  Broadway,  New  York 
City: 

Gladys  Alstadt,  150  West  Ninety-fifth  Street 

Edbert  Anderson,  417  West  One  Hundred  and  Eighteenth  Street 

Aza  Bard,  150  West  One  Hundred  and  Sixth  Street 

Phil  Bard,  150  West  One  Hundred  and  Sixth  Street 

Eva  Belloch,  514  West  One  Hundred  and  Tenth  Street 

Augusta  Berler,  411  West  One  Hundred  and  Fourteenth  Street 

Oscar  Berler,  411  West  One  Hundred  and  Fourteenth  Street 

Harriet  Black,  210  West  One  Hundred  and  Seventh  Street 

Anna  Bloom,  4500  Broadway 

Harry  Bloom,  4500  Broadway 

Sarah  Bloom,  107  West  One  Hundred  and  Sixth  Street 

Betty  Betowin,  65  West  One  Hundred  and  Sixth  Street 

Hertz  Bourgln-Gordon.  248  West  One  Hundred  and  Fifth  Street 

Lillian  Bi'andon,  420  Riverside  Drive 

Christine  Brown,  61  West  One  Hundred  and  Fifth  Street 

James  Brown,  61  West  One  Hundred  and  Fifth  Street 

Amy  Castle,  301  West  One  Hundred  and  Eighth  Street 

Aurora  Carter,  485  Central  Park  West 

Gus  Collins,  536  West  One  Hundred  and  Eleventh  Street 

Fanny  Cooper,  201  West  One  Hundred  and  Eighth  Street 

Minnie  Cooper,  562  West  One  Hundred  and  Thirteenth  Street 

Robert  De  Saulmier,  318  West  One  Hundred  and  Fifth  Street 

Rebecca  Discant,  533  West  One  Hundred  and  Twelfth  Street 

Frances  Drake,  in  care  of  Dora  Kurtz,  62  West  Ninety-third  Street 

Ethel  Ellis,  13  West  One  Hundred  and  Sixth  Street 

Fred  Ellis.  13  West  One  Hundred  and  Sixth  Street 

Miriam  E^dns.  310  West  Ninety-third  Street 

Allan  Folk.  629  West  One  Hundred  and  Fifteenth  Street 

Helen  Fox.  600  West  One  Hundred  and  Eleventh  Street 

Harry  P.  Friedman,  508  West  One  Hundred  and  Fourteenth  Street 

Manny  Gale.  77  West  One  Hundred  and  Fourth  Street 

Mary  Gale,  77  West  One  Hundred  and  Fourth  Street 

Pearl  Glauberman.  433  Central  Park  West 

Anna  Glembot,  14  West  One  Hundred  and  Seventh  Street 

Stella  Glembot.  14  West  One  Hundred  and  Seventh  Street 

Esther  Goldman,  in  care  of  F.  Kopf,  1800  Seventh  Avenue 

Bella  Goldway,  467  Central  Park  West 

Julius  Goldway.  467  Central  Park  West 

Tillie  Goldway.  467  Central  Park  West 

Eda  Goodwin.  120  West  One  Hundred  and  Fifth  Street 

Sonia  Gordon.  532  West  One  Hundred  and  Thirteenth  Street 

Luba  Green,  in  care  of  Bertha  M'Uer.  467  Central  Park  West 

Renee  Gross,  448  Central  Park  West 

Joel  Gutman.  110  West  Ninety-fourth  Street 

Graf'e  Hanover,  415  Central  Park  West 

Rutb  Hickerson.  .506  West  One  Hundred  and  Thirteenth  Street 

Joe  Hiffbkin.  58  West  One  Hundred  and  Fifth  Street 

Louise  Hovt.  in  en  re  of  Devine.  161  Manhattan  Avenue 

Sonnv  Jobe.  138  West  O'^^  Hundred  and  Fourth  Street 

Cora  .Jordan,  in  care  of  Zara  Shakow,  910  West  End  Avenue 

^thr-l  .Tui'i°t.  375  "Rlvprside  Drivf^ 

Dorothy  rs:a.'2;an.  53  West  Fifty-sixth  Street 


518       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

Sanders  Kastenbaum,  350  West  One  Hundred  and  Tenth  Street 

Sylvia  Katz,  420  Central  Park  West 

Sara  Kaye,  care  of  Reynolds,  418  West  One  Hundred  and  and  Sixteenth  Street 

Jean  Kling,  2115  Davidson  Avenue 

Paul  Klot,  care  of  Wolf,  532  West  One  Hundred  and  Eleventh  Street 

Fanny  Kopf,  1800  Seventh  Avenue 

Irene  Kraft,  102  West  One  Hundred  and  Third  Street  , 

Lillian  Kramer,  51  Manhattan  Avenue 

Kay  Lascelle,  50  West  One  Hundred  and  Sixth  Street 

Basha  Lessin,  65  West  One  Hundred  and  Sixth  Street 

Harry  Lessin,  65  West  One  Hundred  and  Sixth  Street 

Sophie  Levine,  885  West  End  Avenue 

Bertha  Levowe,  66  West  One  Hundred  and  Seventh  Street 

Margaret  Lipkin,  587  Riverside  Drive 

Elsie  Machauer,  840  West  End  Avenue 

Blanche  Margolies,  51  Manhattan  Avenue 

Hortense  Marks,  315  West  One  Hundred  and  Sixth  Street 

Alice  Martin,  300  Riverside  Drive 

Allan  Max,  14  West  One  Hundred  and  Seventh  Street 

Ellen  Max,  14  West  One  Hundred  and  Seventh  Street 

Marge  Clark  Messner,  629  West  One  Hundred  and  Fifteenth  Street 

Anna  Miller,  865  West  End  Avenue 

Charlotte  Muller,  150  West  One  Hundred  and  Sixth  Street 

Anita  Newman,  312  West  One  Hundred  and  Ninth  Street 

Marion  Oberstein,  485  Central  Park  West 

Bessie  Oches,  45  Tieman  Place 

Maria  Olinsky,  210  West  Twenty-first  Street 

Ruth  Orme,  404  West  One  Hundred  and  Sixteenth  Street 

Janice  Paneth,  501  West  One  Hundred  and  Thirteenth  Street 

Danny  Persell,  51  Manhattan  Avenue 

Pauline  Persell,  51  Manhattan  Avenue 

Mary  Peterson,  545  West  One  Hundred  and  Eleventh  Street 

Victoria  Peterson,  545  West  One  Hundred  and  Eleventh  Street 

Sarah  Panis,  120  West  One  Hundred  and  Fifth  Street 

Natalie  Pressman,  403  West  57th  Street 

Beatrice  Ratowsky,  33  Manhattan  Avenue 

Harry  Rnymond,  care  of  Perlman,  488  Central  Pai-k  West 

Elizabeth  Rigrod,  314  West  One  Hundredth  Street 

Paula  Robinson,  299  Riverside  Drive 

Ray  Rosen,  255  West  95th  Street 

Sydney  Rowen,  299  Riverside  Drive 

Agnes  Sailor,  50  West  One  Hundi-ed  and  Sixth  Street 

Mary  Schaier,  385  Central  Park  West 

Helen  Schneider,  381  Central  Park  West 

Sonia  Schneider,  321  West  One  Hundred  and  Third  Street 

Sylvia  Schwartz,  467  Central  Park  West 

Frances  Sheiner,  526  West  One  Hundred  and  Thirteenth  Street 

Max  Sheiner,  526  West  One  Hundred  and  Thirteenth  Street 

Gertrude  Smith,  449  East  Eightieth  Street 

Norma  Smith,  600  West  One  Hundred  and  Eleventh  Street 

Ruth  Smith,  316  West  One  Hundred  and  Twelfth  Street 

Virginia  Stern,  50  Manhattan  Avenue 

Dan  Sullivan.  146  West  One  Hundred  Street 

Mary  Brown  Urgenia,  125  West  One  Hundred  and  Sixth  Street 

Emanuel  Vomcas,  519  AVest  One  Hundred  and  Thirty-eighth  Street 

Sara  Walsky,  515  West  One  Hundred  and  Eleventh  Street 

Ann  Weisman,  548  West  One  Hundred  and  Sixty-fourth  Street 

Herman  Weinblat,  78  Manhattan  Avenue 

Dorothy  West,  533  West  One  Hundred  and  Twelfth  Street 

Ann  Wharton,  536  West  One  Hundred  and  Thirteenth  Street 

Regina  Wilson,  320  West  Eighty-Third  Street 

Frances  Witlin,  6  West  One  Hundred  and  Seventh  Street 

Raymond  Witlin.  6  West  One  Hundred  and  Seventh  Street 

Adolf  Wolf.  532  West  One  Hundred  and  Eleventh  Street 

Grace  Woodruff,  307  West  One  Hundred  and  Fifth  Street 

Terry  Woodruff,  307  West  One  Hundred  and  Fifth  Street 

Irving  Zimmerman,  2115  Davidson  Avenue 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       519 

Mr.  Dekom.  Did  you  become  well  acquainted  with  the  members  of 
your  branch? 

Mr.  HuBER.  Yes,  I  did.  It  was  part  of  my  job  to  study  the  people, 
their  way  of  thinking,  their  characteristics,  and  their  attitudes.  I 
made  the  most  detailed  reports  possible  on  every  member  of  my  party 
unit,  includiuj^  their  appearances  and  their  character. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Who  were  some  of  the  persons  who  served  on  the 
executive  committee  of  the  Connolly  Branch  of  the  Communist  Party  ? 

Mr.  HuBER.  These  are  the  names,  as  of  1944 : 

Bernard  Weller,  chairman,  2.50  West  One  Hundred  and  Third  Street 

Beatrice  Weiss,  executive  secretary,  110  West  One  Hundredth  Street 

Valerie  Robinson,  education  director,  323  West  One  Hundred  and  Twelfth  Street 

Amy  Castle,  financial  secretary,  201  West  One  Hundred  and  Third  Street 

Florence  Sharp,  legislative  director,  254  West  One  Hundred  and  Third  Street 

Sara  Ornstein,  membership  director,  230  West  One  Hundred  and  Fifth  Street 

Stephanie  Iliedel,  recording  secretary,  429  East  Seventy-ninth  Street 

Agnes  Sailor,  vpar  activities  director,  50  West  One  Hundred  and  Sixth  Street 

Aaron  Harris,  press  director,  65  West  One  Hundred  and  Sixth  Street 

Sarah  Stein,  literature  director,  1240  Parli  Avenue 

Archie  Maskin,  labor  director,  925  West  End  Avenue 

On  Friday,  February  15,  194(),  the  following  were  nominated  and 
elected  for  the  execittive  committee  of  the  James  Connolly  Branch : 

Harold  Hieherson,  president 

Betty  Aiken,  membership  director 

Manny  Gale,  educational  and  literature  director 

Mary  Sharp,  executive  secretary 

Lena  Cohen,  treasurer 

Sarah  Stein,  press  director 

Mr.  Dekom.  Were  any  of  the  members  of  your  branch  of  the  Com- 
munist Party  Government  employees? 

Mr.  HuBER.  Yes;  a  Mrs.  Penny  M.  Patt,  who  was  a  member  of  the 
executive  committee  at  Unity  Center  Branch,  2744  Broadway.  My 
notes  of  March  30,  1945,  reflect  that  she  was  recruited  into  the  party 
by  Goldie  Young  and  that  she  immediately  devoted  all  of  her  spare 
time  to  party  work.  As  a  reward  for  her  work,  she  was  elected  to  the 
position  of  literature  director.  She  was  employed  at  that  time  in  the 
finance  department  of  the  Army  regional  accounting  office,  located  at 
63  Vesey  Street,  New  York  City.  She  was  about  24  years  of  age  at 
tliat  time. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Can  you  give  us  examples  of  the  activities  and  work  of 
some  of  the  officers  or  members  of  vour  branch  of  the  Conmiunist 
Party? 

Mr.  HuBER.  Manny  Gale  and  his  wife,  Mary  Gale,  are  both  mem- 
bers of  the  Unity  Center  Branch  of  the^Communist  Party.  He  resides 
at  84  Manhattan  Avenue.  Gale  is  called  upon  by  the  comity  com- 
mittee. Communist  Party,  to  go  to  clubs  where  a  member  is  being 
ousted,  in  order  to  take  photographs  of  the  comrade  being  expelled. 

Elizabeth  (Betty)  Aiken  was  the  membership  director  of  the  Unity 
Center  Branch,  and  resided  at  30  West  One  Hundred  and  Fifth  Street, 
New  York  City.  She  formerly  worked  in  the  office  of  her  brother-in- 
law,  John  J.  Anthony,  the  radio  counsellor,  347  Madison  Avenue. 
She  left  this  employment  on  January  15,  1945,  and  worked  for  the 
Jefferson  School  of  Social  Science  for  2  months.  After  that,  she  was 
employed  by  Consolidated  Management  Consultants,  521  Fifth  Ave- 
nue, on  March  20,  as  a  stenographer  and  typist.     She  obtained  this 

98330— 50— pt.  2 5 


520       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

position  through  the  United  Office  and  Professional  Workers  Unions 
of  which  she  is  a  member.  Speaking  to  me  about  her  job,  she  said 
the  majority  of  employees  of  Consolidated  Management  Consultants 
are  Communist  Party  members.  ^ 

Mr.  Dekom.  Before  you  go  on,  would  you  identify  the  Jefferson 
School  of  Social  Science? 

Mr.  HuBER.  It  is  the  leading  Communist  school,  teachnig  Commu- 
nist doctrine. 

Mr.  Dekom.  To  what  extent  do  aliens  and  foreign-bom  persons  con- 
trol the  Communist  Party? 

Mr.  HuBER.  In  my  contact  with  members  of  the  Communist  Party, 
I  have  learned  that  a  majority  of  the  executives,  on  a  national.  State, 
city,  and  community  level,  are  aliens  or  foreign-born  people  who  have 
become  cittizens  of  the  United  States.  They  have  not  become  citizens 
in  order  to  work  for  the  general  welfare  of  all  our  people  or  to  provide 
for  our  common  defense ;  they  have  not  contributed  to  the  growth  or 
preservation  of  our  democratic  form  of  government ;  instead,  they  have 
used  every  weapon,  fair  and  unfair  means,  to  undermine  our  Govern- 
ment  and  our  way  of  life,  particularly  exercising  their  constitutional 
rights  as  American  citizens.  I  believe  these  people  should  be  deprived 
of  their  citizenship  and  deported  from  this  country. 

The  Communist  Party  concentrates  on  organizing  persons  of  foreign 
origin,  and  they  constitute  a  large  number  in  the  party,  particularly 
in  large  cities.  One  point  of  concentration  is  among  the  people  of 
the  Slavic  nationalities  engaged  in  heavy  and  basic  industries.  At  one 
time,  all  other  organizational  activity  virtually  ceased  to  concentrate 
on  heavy  and  basic  industries.  We  received  special  orders  from  party 
headquarters  to  do  so,  late  in  1944  and  early  in  1945. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Mr.  Huber,  are  there  a  large  number  of  aliens  in  the 
Communist  Party  of  the  United  States  ? 

Mr.  Huber.  Yes,  sir,  a  very  large  proportion  are  aliens.  In  my 
party  branch,  there  were  at  least  70  percent  aliens  or  foreign-born 
persons. 

Mr.  Schroeder.  That  is  the  American  Communist  Party  ? 

Mr.  Huber.  That  is  right. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Has  any  effort  been  made  by  the  party  to  cover  that 
fact  up  ? 

Mr.  Huber.  Yes.  The  alien  Communist  Party  members  were  di- 
rected not  to  come  to  meetings,  but  to  keep  paying  their  dues  and  to 
take  instructions  in  order  to  obtain  their  citizenship.  The  instructions 
were  given  by  Communist  public  school  teachers  in  New  York. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Do  you  mean  instructions  to  alien  Communists  on  how 
to  obtain  citizenship  in  the  United  States  ? 

Mr.  Huber.  That  is  right.  Most  of  them  did  receive  their  citizen- 
ship. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Does  the  Communist  Party  maintain  any  educational 
facilities  for  the  indoctrination  of  new  immigrants  ? 

Mr.  Huber.  Yes,  this  is  a  very  important  part  of  their  work,  recruit- 
ing of  party  members  from  among  immigrants.  I  know,  for  example, 
that  the  Jefferson  School  of  Social  Science  gave  special  classes  for 
immigrants.  A  good  deal  of  work  in  this  field  was  done  by  the  Amer- 
ican Committee  for  the  Protection  of  Foreign  Born,  a  very  well-known 
Communist-front  organization.    This  committee  even  provided  teach- 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       521 

ers  for  groups  of  willing  immigrants  who  could  be  gotten  together  at 
any  Communist  Party  branch.  They  would  send  teachers  to  do  the 
indoctrination  without  any  cost  to  the  party. 

Mr.  Dekom.  What  Communist  Party  activities  have  come  to  your 
knowledge  in  relation  to  getting  aliens  and  others  who  are  unqualified 
to  vote  ? 

Mr.  HuBER.  The  Communist  teachers  within  the  teachers'  union 
volunteered  at  election  time  to  appear  at  all  schools  in  New  York  City 
to  give  literacy  tests  to  the  alien  element.  Whether  those  people 
actually  passed  the  tests  or  not,  they  were  passed  on  through. 

Mr.  ScHROEDER.  Do  you  mean  that  these  teachers  appeared  as  ex- 
aminers for  the  election  authorities,  and  then  passed  people  through 
regardless  of  whether  or  not  they  were  literate  ? 

Mr.  HuBER.  Yes;  regardless  of  whether  or  not  they  were  literate. 
Those  teachers  were  members  of  the  Communist  Party.  They  volun- 
teered for  that  activity.  Teachers  are  used  by  the  election  authorities 
and  these  Communists  volunteered  for  the  work. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Were  they  successful  in  qualifying  many  aliens  as 
voters  ? 

Mr.  HuBER.  Yes;  everj^one  who  appeared  before  them  was  passed. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Of  whom  did  these  groups  consist  ? 

Mr.  HuBER.  Largely  Puerto  Ricans  and  Spanish  people.  The 
majority  of  them  were  Puerto  Ricans. 

Mr.  Dekom.  They  could  not  read  or  write  English,  and  the  way 
they  circumvented  the  election  law  was  by  fraudulently  passing  liter- 
acy tests  with  the  collusion  of  Communist  teachers  from  New  York 
schools. 

Mr.  HuBER.  That  is  right. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Can  you  name  any  teacher  who  participated  in  this 
fraudulent  activity  ? 

Mr.  HuBER.  Yes ;  Rhetta  Friedman  of  Hunter  College. 

Mr.  Dekom.  To  your  knowledge,  is  she  a  member  of  the  Communist 
Party? 

Mr.  Htjber.  Positively. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Will  you  discuss  the  tactics  that  the  Communist  Party 
used  in  propagandizing  minority  groups  and  nationality  groups  ? 

Mr.  HuBER.  Well,  the  Communist  Party  technique  is  the  same  one 
that  they  always  use  in  working  among  any  groups  of  people,  includ- 
ing minorities  and  nationalities.  They  seize  any  pretext  to  propa- 
gandize minority  groups  and  to  undermine  or  discredit  the  Govern- 
ment or  existing  institutions.  Their  most  common  tactic  is  to  pose 
as  the  friend  and  champion  of  the  aliens  or  foreign-born,  just  as  they 
try  to  pose  as  champions  of  any  group  in  order  to  make  their  propa- 
ganda reach  an  audience. 

By  way  of  illustration,  let  me  cite  to  you  the  weekly  meeting  of  the 
teamster  branch,  waterfront  section  of  the  Communist  Party,  Tues- 
day, March  18,  1941,  at  48  East  Twenty-ninth  Street,  New  York. 
After  the  meeting  was  called  to  order,  all  comrades  wrote  letters  to 
their  Senators  and  Congressmen,  demanding  that  they  defeat  the 
Hobbs  "concentration  camp  bill."  Sam  (Kappy)  Kaplan,  organizer 
of  the  waterfront  section  of  the  Communist  Party,  said  we  should 
stress  in  the  letters  that  such  a  law  would  be  a  deliberate  attack  on 
the  civil  rights  of  all  foreign-born  Americans.     We  were  also  in- 


522       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

structed  to  ask  our  representatives  in  Congress  to  ignore  the  proposal 
of  Attorney  General  Robert  Jackson  that  there  should  be  a  law 
providing  for  a  concentration  camp. 

I  can  give  you  a  number  of  these  illustrations  from  the  record  of 
the  party. 

Mr.  Dekom,  I  wish  you  would,  Mr.  Huber.  This  phase  of  the 
investigation  is  one  of  the  most  important  questions  before  the  sub- 
committee.    Please  discuss  the  question  in  full. 

Mr.  Huber.  Another  illustration  I  can  give  you  is  a  Communist 
Party  mass  meeting  held  for  the  Irish  people  of  the  third  and  fifth 
assembly  districts  of  the  waterfront  section  on  Thursday,  February  29, 
1940.  According  to  Charles  Keith,  who  was  chairman,  the  meeting 
was  called  to  denounce  the  murders  of  Barnes  and  Eichards,  tw^o  IRA. 
men  executed  in  Birmingham,  England.  As  you  will  see  from  the 
tone  of  the  meeting,  this  was  just  another  one  of  the  pretexts  that  the 
Communists  used  to  get  an  audience  for  their  party  line.  Keith  was 
followed  by  Pauline  Rogers,  organizer  of  the  Communist  Party  in  the 
third  and  fifth  assembl}^  districts.  (I  might  say  that  she  had  a  very 
good  record  as  an  organizer  after  conducting  a  house-to-house  canvass 
over  a  2-month  period,  to  recruit  new  members.)  She  spoke  about 
National  Women's  Day  which  was  to  be  celebrated  on  March  8. 

Mrs.  Mary  Noonan,  accompanied  by  her  daughter  Mary  at  the 
piano,  sang  Irish  songs  in  which  the  audience  joined. 

Henry  Winston  (colored),  national  leader  of  the  Young  Communist 
League,  compared  the  difficulties  of  the  Irish  people  with  those  of  the 
African  Negroes,  saying  that  both  were  being  suppressed  and  mis- 
treated by  the  British  Empire,  He  spoke  so  logically  that  the  au- 
dience appeared  willing  to  accept  his  opinions.  He  denounced  Presi- 
dent Rooseveh  for  condoning  most  anything  Chamberlain  ^  did  against 
the  Irish  people.  He  discussed  the  Soviet  Union,  saying  that  when 
the  Germans  invaded  Poland  and  committed  their  atrocities,  it  had 
been  the  Soviet  Union  who  stopped  them  by  taking  over  part  of 
Poland ;  that  the  Polish  people  had  welcomed  the  Soviet  troops,  which 
was  not  the  case  when  Germany  had  invaded  Poland.  In  conclusion, 
Winston  said  that  the  only  people  who  sympathized  with  and  fought 
for  the  Irish  were  Communists,  who  would  continue  their  fight  as 
never  before.  Elizabeth  Gurley  Flynn  of  the  national  committee  spoke, 
referring  to  her  Irish  ancestry,  saying  that  she  was  a  direct  descendant 
of  two  martyred  Irish  revolutionists  who  died  in  an  uprising  in  the 
eighteenth  century.  She  said  that  Britain  had  always  hanged  Irish- 
men when  entering  a  war,  because  the  Irish  always  refused  to  partici- 
pate in  imperialist  wars.  She  urged  that  Irish  Americans  fight  against 
British  imperialism  and  for  the  freedom  of  Ireland  by  keeping  the 
United  States  out  of  the  war.  She  also  said  that  Wall  Street  propa- 
ganda was  trying  to  draw  America  into  the  war  on  the  side  of  Cham- 
berlain and  the  Finnish  butcher,  Baron  Mannerheim.-  She  said  that 
people  were  being  misled  by  the  capitalist  press,  which  lied  about  the 
facts  concerning  religion  in  Russia.  She  spoke  about  a  Catholic  priest 
who  had  gone  to  Russia  and  who  then  had  a  big  congregation,  as  proof 
that  there  was  religion  in  Russia  today. 

1  Neville  Chamberlain,  Prime  Minister  of  Great  Britain. 

'Baron  Knrl  G.  Mannerheim,  commander  of  the  Finnish  armies  fightine  the  Soviet 
Invasion  of  1940. 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       523 

Another  instance  in  which  the  Communist  Party  used  a  minority 
group  for  its  propaganda  was  a  meeting  on  March  15,  1940,  held  at 
Public  School  43,  One  Hundred  and  Thirty-Sixth  Street  and  Brown 
Place  in  the  Bronx. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Is  that  a  public  school  of  the  city  of  New  York? 

Mr.  HuBER.  Yes;  it  is. 

The  meeting  was  held  by  the  Elizabeth  Gurley  Flynn  branch  of  the 
Communist  Party  and  the  chairman  was  Kate  Fredericks.  Pat 
Touhey,  a  member  of  national  committee,  spoke  of  Britain's  bitter  op- 
pression of  Ireland  during  the  last  eight  centuries.  He  assailed  the 
de  Valera  ^  govermnent  as  a  stooge  of  British  imperialism.  He  related 
a  story  of  an  old  Irisliman,  living  in  his  home  town  in  Pennsylvania, 
who  stopped  him  one  day  and  said  that  he  was  confused  about  the 
situation  between  the  Reds  and  Finland  at  first,  but  "when  I  read  in 
the  papers  about  Hoover  wanting  to  help  Mannerheim,  I  figured  I 
better  get  on  the  side  that  Hoover  was  against."  Touhey  concluded 
by  saying  that  the  best  way  to  help  Ireland  was  to  keep  the  United 
States  out  of  war,  which  could  best  be  done  by  writing  the  President 
and  their  Congressmen,  asking  them  to  keep  this  country  out  of  war. 

Mrs.  Mary  Noonan  and  her  daughter  again  sang  Irish  songs,  in 
which  the  audience  was  asked  to  join.  This  was  the  same  Mrs.  Noonan, 
introduced  at  this  meeting  as  a  "neighbor,"  who  was  introduced  as  a 
"neighbor"  in  the  Chelsea  district  at  another  Communist  rally  in  that 


Fredericks  announced  that  members  of  the  committee  would  circu- 
late in  the  audience  with  slips  of  paper  and  anyone  interested  in  know- 
ing about  the  Communist  Party  should  sign  the  slips,  which  the  com- 
mittee immediately  collected  and  returned  to  the  chairman.  She  said 
that  the  people  who  did  not  sign  these  slips  were  invited  to  attend 
regular  Communist  Party  meetings  at  631  East  One  Hundred  and 
Forty-first  Street,  every  Monday  night. 

The  principal  speaker  was  Elizabeth  Gurley  Flynn,  who  opened  with 
the  announcement  that  she  was  not  a  stranger  in  that  section  but  was 
well  acquainted ;  that  she  had  come  here  from  Massachusetts  and  was 
raised  at  One  Hundred  and  Thirty-fourth  Street  and  St.  Anne  Avenue. 
Flynn  had  said  the  same  thing  at  a  Chelsea  meeting,  where  she  told 
of  being  raised  at  Twenty-third  Street  and  Ninth  Avenue.  She  spoke 
of  her  association  with  Connolly  and  of  their  joint  work  in  organizing 
the  Irish  in  this  section.  She  told  of  the  danger  to  civil  rights  and 
the  attacks  on  the  Communist  Party,  comparing  them  with  her  own 
experiences  during  World  War  I  when  the  Government  had  arrested 
her.  She  assailed  the  drive  of  American  warmongers  and  their  at- 
tempt to  silence  the  voice  of  Earl  Browder,  because  it  was  the  loudest 
raised  against  United  States  participation  in  the  war.  She  said  that 
if  there  were  any  party  to  which  the  Irish  people  should  belong  it 
was  the  Communist  Party.  When  speaking  about  religion  in  Russia, 
Elizabeth  Gurley  Flynn  said  it  was  a  false  rumor  that  the  Catholic 
Church  was  not  allowed  in  Russia.  She  said  that  in  Moscow  there 
was  a  Catholic  Church  with  a  very  large  congregation,  and  various 
Catholic  churches  were  to  be  found  throughout  the  rest  of  that  coun- 
try.    She  denounced  the  de  Valera  government,  which  contrasted 

1  Eamon  de  Valera,  Prime  Minister  of  Ireland. 


524      COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

sharply  with  her  former  speech  in  the  Chelsea  district  where  she  had 
praised  the  de  Valera  government.  Concluding,  Flynn  asked  if 
there  were  any  questions  from  the  audience.  One  man  asked  why  she 
had  not  mentioned  Eamon  de  Valera,  who  he  believed  had  done  much 
for  Ireland.  She  apologized,  saying  she  was  sorry  but  that  she  had 
skipped  over  it  because  she  was  working  against  time.  She  said  she 
knew  personally  how  much  he  had  done  for  Ireland  in  the  way  of 
education,  housing,  etc.  A  woman  asked  for  the  floor,  saying  she  was 
of  Irish  extraction,  born  in  Scotland,  and  that  "the  Irish  people  don't 
want  the  Communist  Party,  have  no  need  for  the  hammer  and  sickle, 
and  what  they  really  want  is  the  cross."  Flynn  answered,  "It  is 
not  for  the  purpose  of  trying  to  form  a  Communist  Party  in  Ireland, 
for  they  already  have  one  there,  but  to  show  we  are  giving  them  our 
moral  support."  During  Flynn's  and  Touhey's  speeches,  they  were 
loudly  booed,  but  the  police  evicted  the  hecklers  and  the  meeting 
continued. 

These  meetings  were  part  of  the  drive  at  that  time  to  bring  Irish 
people  into  the  Communist  Party.  They  needed  Irish  people  for  show 
purposes.  In  August  1941,  all  sections  of  the  Communist  Party  were 
instructed  by  the  State  commission  to  get  their  membership  to  contact 
as  many  Irish  Catholics  as  possible,  in  an  effort  to  recruit  them  into 
the  party.  The  reason  for  this  was  because  a  vast  number  of  promi- 
nent members  of  the  Catholic  Church  were  expressing  their  approval 
of  all-out  aid  to  the  Soviet  Union.  The  Communist  Party  felt  that 
such  utterances  by  well-known  Catholic  laymen  would  cause  people  to 
listen  more  readily  to  the  comrades. 

Irish  Catholics  are  the  only  people  the  party  had  had  difficulty  in 
recruiting  in  numbers  into  the  ranks.  This  was  the  opportunity  the 
Communist  Party  had  been  waiting  for,  to  make  inroads  into  the  Irish 
masses,  as  every  other  plan  to  recruit  Irish  Catholics  had  failed  due  to 
the  incessant  attacks  made  by  the  Catholic  Church  on  the  Communist 
Party.  As  soon  as  anyone  joined  the  party,  it  was  the  duty  of  the 
recruiting  comrade  to  break  the  hold  of  the  church  on  him.  This 
was  done  with  caution  and  often  required  a  long  period  of  time  in 
order  not  to  arouse  any  suspicion. 

My  association  and  teachings  received  from  the  Communist  Party 
lead  me  to  believe  it  is  the  desire  of  every  Communist  Party  member 
to  see  the  Catholic  Church  destroyed.  They  made  good  use  of  the 
strained  relations  between  England,  which  was  at  war  with  Germany 
at  the  time,  and  Ireland,  which  insisted  on  remaining  neutral,  so  that 
Irish  sympathy  in  this  country  was  used  and  Irish  antagonism  to  the 
British  was  stirred  up. 

The  concentration  on  the  Irish  element  was  also  evident  from  a 
party  at  the  home  of  Margaret  McLean,  Saturday,  July  19,  1941,  at 
418  West  Twentieth  Street.  About  60  people  were  present.  The 
purpose  of  the  party  was  to  interest  guests  in  becoming  active  in  a 
campaign  to  increase  subscriptions  to  a  newspaper  called  Shamrock. 
Most  of  the  guests  were  not  members  of  the  party,  but  had  been 
brought  together  by  Irish  members  of  the  water-front  section  through 
a  house-to-house  canvass  with  this  paper. 

McLean  told  me  that  it  was  hoped  by  the  party  that  a  large  circu- 
lation for  the  Shamrock  could  be  obtained  to  help  break  the  grip 
of  the  Catholic  Church  on  their  Irish-American  members.     I  believe 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       525 

the  majority  of  these  people  were  unaware  of  the  true  plans  behind 
this  campaign.  Each  person  was  to  be  handled  individually  until 
he  or  she  became  familiar  with  and  accepted  the  principles  of  com- 
munism. Mrs.  McLean  was  a  recent  arrival  from  the  west  coast, 
where  she  had  taught  philosophy  at  a  girls'  college.  Since  coming 
to  New  York,  she  had  become  very  active  at  the  water-front  section. 

An  appeal  to  the  German  minority  in  New  York  occurred  on 
Wednesday,  April  16, 1941.  It  was  a  "JFree  Ernst  Thaelmann  Rally," 
held  at  the  Mecca  Temple,  Fifty-fifth  Street  between  Sixth  and  Sev- 
enth Avenues,  with  Al  Lannon  as  chairman.  George  Lohr,  organizer 
of  the  German  section,  Communist  Party  in  Yorkville,^  speaking  with 
a  thick  German  accent,  stated  that  the  Social  Democrats  of  this  coun- 
try had  formed  an  organization  whose  purpose  was  to  bring  into  its 
ranks  all  workers  of  German  descent.  The  initiation  fee  to  join  this 
Social  Democratic  organization  was  $1,  for  which  members  received 
a  large  white  button  which,  it  was  said,  eliminated  the  holder  from 
persecution  by  agents  of  the  FBI.  This  caused  much  hilarity  in  the 
audience.  Lohr  concluded  by  noting  that  the  German  working  class 
was  joining  the  Communist  Party  in  large  numbers. 

William  Z.  Foster,  chairman  of  the  Communist  Party  and  principal 
speaker,  discussed  the  German  Communist  Party,  and  how  the  capital- 
ists were  working  to  suppress  the  workers  as  though  they  had  previ- 
ously rehearsed  their  plans : 

But  war  or  the  jailing  of  Communist  leaders  will  not  save  their  decaying 
capitalistic  system.  Hitler  thought  he  could  destroy  the  Communist  Party  by 
jailing  Thaelmann,  and  now  Roosevelt  thinks  he  can  do  the  same  by  jailing  Earl 
Browder.  Both  have  yet  to  learn,  and  what  a  sad  lesson  it  will  be  to  discover 
how  mistaken  they  are. 

On  Tuesday,  September  7,  1943,  an  executive  meeting  was  called  by 
the  upper  West  Side  section  of  the  Communist  Party.  All  executive 
committee  of  the  seventh,  ninth,  and  eleventh  assembly  district  clubs 
were  present;  Goldie  Young  presided;  Abe  Chapman  was  the  princi- 
pal speaker.  The  meeting  was  called  to  make  plans  for  a  campaign  to 
get  the  Jewish  membership  of  the  Communist  Party  to  join  mass  Jew- 
ish organizations  for  the  purpose  of  changing  and  formulating  the 
policies  of  the  American  Jewish  Congress.  Chapman  said  that  the 
Communist  Party  presently  had  no  voice  in  that  organization,  but 
that  if  our  comrades  joined  mass  Jewish  organizations,  it  should  not 
be  long  before  the  policy  of  the  Communist  Party  could  make  itself 
felt. 

Mr.  Dekom.  We  will  now  suspend,  Mr.  Huber,  until  tomorrow. 

FEIDAY,  SEPTEMBER  9,  1949 

Mr.  Dekom.  You  made  the  statement,  Mr.  Huber,  that  in  your 
many  years  of  work  with  the  Communist  Party  you  took  an  active  part 
in  the* Communist  Party's  network  of  front  organizations. 

Mr.  Huber.  Yes,  sir ;  that  is  true.  I  have  attended  dozens  of  front 
meetings.  I  knew  from  the  inside  that  they  were  Communist  Party 
fronts.  It  was  discussed  in  party  meetings  and  we  were  given  assign- 
ments to  work  with  the  fronts  through  the  party.  In  other  cases,  I 
was  able  to  know  about  the  nature  of  fronts  from  the  people  who  took 


1  Torkville  is  the  German  section  of  New  York  City. 


526       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

the  leadership.  I  kiiew  them  as  party  members.  I  had  worked  with 
them  and  had  seen  them  at  party  meetings. 

Mr.  Dekom.  On  the  basis  of  your  knowledge,  would  you  identify* 
the  Communist  Party's  fronts  which  are  most  actively  and  most  exten- 
sively working  among  aliens,  nationality,  and  foreign-language  groups 
in  the  United  States  ? 

Mr.  HuBER.  There  are  two  that  have  been  most  active :  The  Inter- 
national Workers  Order  and  the  American  Slav  Congress.  There  were 
a  few  others,  like  the  United  Committee  of  South  Slavic  Americans, 
the  American  Committee  for  Yugoslav  Relief,  the  Hungarian-Ameri- 
can Council  for  Democracy,  and  others.  These  are  not  as  important 
on  an  over-all  basis,  but,  of  course,  if  you  put  them  all  together,  they 
make  up  a  sizable  network. 

There  are  two  others  that  I  would  like  to  mention:  the  American 
Committe  for  the  Protection  of  Foreign  Born  and  the  Joint  Anti- 
Fascist  Refugee  Committee.  These  two  Communist  Party  fronts  are 
not  directly  in  the  business  of  organizing,  but  are  working  to  support 
and  defend  alien  and  foreign-born  Communists. 

Mr.  Dekom.  How  would  you  class  the  Veterans  of  the  Abraham 
Lincoln  Brigade  in  this  connection? 

Mr.  HuBER.  Well,  I  think  that  they  might  be  classed  as  being  part  of, 
or  at  least,  having  a  close  connection  with,  the  alien  and  foreign-born 
Communist  movement.  This  front  had  many  aliens  and  foreign- 
born  in  it  and  it  also  worked  among  Spanish  Communists.  It  is  not 
exclusively  a  nationality  front  like  the  American  Slav  Congress,  but 
it  worked  closely  in  connection  with  alien  Communists,  particularly 
those  who  were  involved  in  the  Spanish  revolution. 

Mr.  Dekom.  We  would  like  to  get  more  details  on  this  subject. 
First  of  all,  would  you,  please,  discuss  the  American  Slav  Congress? 

Mr.  HuBER.  All  right.  As  I  have  already  explained,  the  Communist 
Party's  high  command  ordered  us  to  concentrate  on  foreign-language 
groups  late  in  1944  and  early  in  1945.  We  were  ordered  to  concentrate 
in  this  field.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  we  almost  came  to  a  standstill  in 
other  fields.  As  we  were  told,  the  purpose  of  this  concentration  was 
to  get  Communist  Party  units  and  Communist  Party  fronts  set  up  in 
the  industrial  sections  of  the  country.  This  was  to  be,  and  is  con- 
sidered to  be,  one  of  the  stfongholds  of  the  Communist  movement. 

Mr.  ScHROEDER.  Why  was  this  concentration  in  industrial  areas? 

Mr.  HuBER.  The  purpose  was,  of  course,  to  have  a  powerful  party 
hold  where  they  could  do  the  most  damage  to  the  United  States.  In 
industrial  areas,  they  could  organize  and  lead  very  damaging  strikes, 
strikes  that  could  ruin  us.  Then,  in  case  of  war  with  Russia,  they 
could  break  down  our  war  production,  our  ability  to  make  armaments, 
both  by  strikes  or  slow-downs  and  by  sabotage.  It  is  a  very  dangerous 
situation,  which  has  to  be  controlled  or  there  will  be  serious  trouble 
for  us. 

That,  you  see,  is  why  the  Communist  Party  ordered  us  to  work 
among  foreign-born  people,  particularly  the  Slavs.  They  make  up  a 
large  percentage  of  the  workers  in  industrial  areas.  The  job  of  organ- 
izing them  was  made  easier  by  the  fact  that  so  many  could  not  speak 
or  read  English  properly  and  the  Communists  sent  in  organizers  who 
spoke  their  language  and  knew  their  ways.  The  organizers  were 
experts  in  rousing  the  foreign-language  people  against  this  country 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       527 

and  against  our  Government.  Then,  tliey  had  very  active  foreign- 
language  papers  which  were  controlled  by  the  Communist  Party.  In 
Pittsburgh,  Detroit,  Chicago,  New  York,  and  many  other  industrial 
cities,  the  party  controlled  foreign-language  newspapers,  which  were 
very  effective  in  indoctrinating  foreign-born  elements. 

The  American  Slav  Congress  was  the  central  organization  of  the 
Communist  Party  among  Slavs,  especially  those  in  industrial  sections. 
Although  it  didn't  originally  start  out  as  a  party  organization,  it  was 
infiltrated  from  the  very  beginning.  Some  of  the  top  party  organ- 
izers took  part  in  the  setting  up  of  the  American  Slav  Congress  and, 
in  short  order,  following  their  well-developed  tactics,  they  took  over 
completely.  They  just  infiltrated  until  the  whole  organization  was 
theirs,  a  Communist  Party  front,  completely  controlled  and  dominated 
by  the  party. 

Mr.  Dekom.  In  September  1046  the  American  Slav  Congress  held 
its  third  national  convention  in  New  York.  Did  you  attend  any  of 
its  sessions? 

Mr.  HuBER.  Yes,  I  did.  I  attended  the  so-called  Kally  to  Win  the 
Peace  on  September  22,  1946. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Can  you  describe  the  meeting  to  us?  Can  you  give  a 
report  on  what  transpired  ? 

Mr.  HuBER.  Yes,  I  can ;  not  only  from  memory,  but  from  my  notes 
that  I  took  at  the  meeting. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Let  us  establish  one  fact  here.  You  yourself  took  notes 
on  the  meeting  which  you  are  using  to  refresh  your  memory  here  ? 

Mr.  HuBER.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Dekom.  That  is  fine.    Please  go  ahead  now. 

Mr.  HuBER.  A  rally  to  win  the  peace,  sponsored  by  the  Third  Amer- 
ican Slav  Congress,  was  held  at  Madison  Square  Garden,  with  about 
12.000  people  attending.  The  cochairmen  were  Louis  Adamic,  author 
of  Dinner  at  the  White  House,  and  Leo  Krzycki,  president  of  the 
American  Slav  Congress.  Speakers  included  Father  Frantisek  Fiala, 
of  Czechoslovakia;  Tsola  Dragoicheva,  secretary  of  the  Bulgarian 
Fatherland  Front ;  Prof.  Timofei  Gorbunov,  Soviet  deputv  and  execu- 
tive minister  of  the  Moscow  All-Slav  Committee;  Gen.  Karol  Swier- 
czewski,  Polish  Vice  Minister  of  National  Defense;  Yugoslav  Am- 
bassador Sava  Kosanovic;  Polish  Ambassador  Oscar  Lange;  Soviet 
Consul  General  Jacob  Lomakin ;  Paul  Robeson,  chairman  of  the  Win 
the  Peace  Committee ;  William  Gailmor,  radio  commentator ;  Lawrence 
Winters ;  and  Betty  Garrett,  of  the  Broadway  hit.  Call  Me  Mister. 

The  majority  of  the  speakers  spoke  in  their  native  tongues,  which 
were  not  translated  into  English  for  the  audience.  During  the  rally 
the  chairman  read  a  message  to  the  rally  received  from  Joseph  Stalin, 
following  which  everyone  present  arose  and  demonstrated  for  about 
5  minutes  with  the  clenched-fist  salute.  This  was  one  of  the  noisiest 
demonstrntions  I  ever  witnessed  at  the  Garden. 

Mr.  Dekom.  The  clenched-fist  salute  is,  of  course,  the  salute  of  the 
Communist  Party. 

Mr.  Huber.  Yes,  sir. 

The  chairman  of  the  Win-the-Peace  Rally  referred  to  Henry  Wal- 
lace as  a  true  follower  of  the  principles  laid  down  by  President 
Roosevelt,  which  set  off  another  demonstration.  Adamic  mentioned 
the  anti-Slav  policy  of  Secretary  of  State  Byrnes,  who,  he  said,  "ap- 


528       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

pears  to  be  hell-bent  on  making  Joseph  Goebbels'  dream  come  true."' 
Byrnes'  name  resulted  in  loud  booing  from  the  audience.  Paul  Robe- 
son sang  Song  of  the  Fatherland  and  Hymn  of  the  United  Nations. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Is  the  Song  of  the  Fatherland  a  Soviet  hymn  ? 

Mr.  HuBER.  Yes,  sir. 

Robeson  stated  that  America  must  get  along  with  the  Slavic  people, 
who  are  led  by  Communists  in  many  parts  of  the  world,  and  invited  all 
who  could  to  participate  in  the  American  crusade  against  lynching. 

William  Gailmor  made  the  collection  speech,  stating  that  every  time 
the  Russians  lose  a  diplomatic  skirmish  at  Lake  Success  or  Paris,  they 
win  victories  among  the  peoples  of  the  world.  This  statement  was 
well  received.  During  the  collection,  Betty  Garrett  turned  in  $300 
collected  from  the  cast  of  Call  Me  Mister;  a  pledge  of  $10,000  was 
received  from  the  International  Ladies'  Garment  Workers  Union,  with 
$1,000  paid  immediately  and  the  remainder  promised  shortly.  Ap- 
proximately $20,000  was  collected.  The  Jefferson  School  of  Soda! 
Science  chorus  sang  songs,  and  folk  dances  were  presented  by  the 
Radishev  and  Volga  dancers. 

There  were  telegrams  received  from  Senator  Joseph  B.  GufFey,  of 
Pennsylvania,  who  begged  off  from  attending  because  of  illness.  Con- 
gratulatory messages  were  also  received  from  Marshal  Tito  and  George 
iJimitrov  of  Bulgaria.  There  were  several  Russian  generals  among 
the  Soviet  delegation.  After  Paul  Robeson  sang,  he  was  warmly  em- 
braced and  kissed  on  both  cheeks  by  one  of  the  Russian  generals.  In 
conclusion,  there  were  songs  by  Ivan  Patorzhinsky  and  Zoya  Haidai, 
both  of  whom  sing  in  the  opera  in  the  Soviet  Union. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Will  you  now  proceed  to  discuss  the  International 
Workers  Order  ? 

Mr.  HuBER.  The  International  Workers  Order  is  a  Communist-con- 
trolled organization  which  masquerades  as  an  insurance  society.  It 
offers  cheap  insurance  to  get  people  into  the  organization,  I  was  a 
member  in  the  IWO,  the  so-called  Irish  Lodge.  I  know  that  the  or- 
ganization follows  the  Communist  Party  line  100  percent  and  that  its 
leadership  is  exclusively  recruited  from  the  Communist  Party. 

The  IWO  is  the  greatest  transmission  belt  that  the  Communist 
Party  has.  Its  work  is  concentrated  among  persons  of  foreign  birth, 
being  divided  into  14  nationality  groups,  including  Russian,  Jewish, 
Polish,  Hungarian,  Rumanian,  Yugoslav,  and  so  forth.  Although 
many  of  the  people  who  joined  the  IWO  were  not  Communists,  they 
have  been  worked  on  by  the  leaders  and  have  been  sold  the  Communist 
Party  line.  It  is  a  process  of  slow  indoctrination;  they  present  a 
one-sided  picture,  they  swamp  their  members  with  propaganda,  and, 
in  many  cases,  they  are  successful. 

Mr.  Dekom.  To  what  extent  does  the  Communist  Party  control  the 

r^^o. 

Mr.  HuBER.  Completely.  You  cannot  be  an  officer  of  the  IWO  with- 
out being  a  Communist.  Every  officer  of  the  IWO  is  a  member  of  the 
Communist  Party.  I  have  been  in  the  IWO  headquarters  hundreds 
of  times,  and  every  official  that  I  met  was  a  party  member, 

Mr.  Dekom.  Did  you  know  them  to  be  party  members  from  your 
own  experience? 

Mr.  HuBER.  Yes.  Take  Dave  Green,  the  executive  secretarv  of  New 
York  State.    He  is  one  of  the  most  powerful  men  in  the  IWO.    He 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       529 

once  brought  up  one  of  the  lodge  members  on  charges  and  I  was  to 
be  his  witness.    He  said  to  me,  "Are  you  a  member  of  the  party  ?" 

I  said,  "Yes." 

I  then  asked  him,  "Are  you  a  member  of  the  party?" 

He  said,  "Sure." 

Mr.  Dekom.  How  about  some  of  the  other  IWO  officials  that  you 
know  to  be  Communist  Party  members  ? 

Mr.  HuBER.  There  are  Herbert  Benjamin,  Max  Bedacht,  William 
Weiner,  and  others. 

INIr.  Dekom.  Wliat  is  the  American  Committee  for  the  Protection 
of  Foreign  Born? 

Mr,  HuBER.  The  American  Committee  for  the  Protection  of  Foreign 
Born  is  a  Communist-front  organization,  used  to  contact  foreign-born 
people,  and  invariably  leads  these  people  into  the  ranks  of  the  Commu- 
nist Party.  This  organization  gives  help  in  obtaining  citizenship,  and 
assists  in  obtaining  visas  for  relatives  of  its  membership  who  are  still 
in  foreign  countries.  It  also  gives  legal  assistance  in  any  matter  which 
may  arise,  through  the  Civil  Eights  Congress,  a  Communist  front 
established  to  give  legal  aid  to  Communists  who  get  in  trouble  with 
the  law.  Formerly  this  legal  service  was  given  by  the  International 
Labor  Defense,  and  the  Civil  Eights  Congress  is  the  successor. 

The  American  Committee  for  the  Protection  of  Foreign  Born 
is  one  of  the  most  important  Communist  fronts,  particularly  to- 
day, when  the  United  States  Government  is  trying  to  deport  alien 
Communists  from  the  country.  The  American  Committee  for 
the  Protection  of  Foreign  Born  was  organized  to  defend  alien  Com- 
munists who  might  be  deported  or  who  might  otherwise  violate  the 
law. 

Second,  the  American  Committee  for  the  Protection  of  Foreign 
Born  is  used  by  the  Communist  Party  to  indoctrinate  immigrants 
in  this  country.  As  I  have  told  you,  the  committee  provided  teachers 
for  immigrants  at  Communist  Party  units. 

Mr.  Dekom.  We  have  received  from  Mr.  Huber  two  press  releases 
issued  by  the  American  Committee  for  the  Protection  of  Foreign 
Born.  The  first  announces  special  citizenship  classes  for  aliens.  The 
second  announces  the  granting  of  an  award  to  Louis  Adamic.  These 
will  be  marked  "Huber  Exhibits  4A,  and  4B,"  respectively. 

(The  documents  were  received  in  evidence  and  are  as  follows :) 

INITIATE    SPECIAL    CLASSES    FOB    NON-CITIZENS 

A  series  of  special  classes  for  non-citizens  on  English  and  citizenship  will  be 
started  next  month  by  the  American  Committee  for  Protection  of  Foreign  Born, 
it  was  announced  today.  The  classes  are  t)eing  conducted  in  order  to  prepare 
applicants  for  American  citizenship  to  meet  the  educational  and  literacy 
requirements  of  the  naturalization  laws. 

The  committee  stated  that  each  class  will  be  limited  to  10  members,  in  order 
to  enable  the  instructor  to  give  proper  personal  guidance  and  assistance  to  each 
member  of  the  class.  Additional  information  concerning  the  classes  on  citizen- 
ship can  be  obtained  by  writing  to  the  American  Committee  for  Protection  of 
Foreign  F.orn,  23  West  Twenty-sixth  Street,  New  York  10,  N.  Y.,  or  calling 
Murray  Hill  4-3457. 

The  citizenship  classes,  which  will  begin  on  October  3,  will  be  held  at  the 
Institute  for  International  Democracy,  23  "West  Twenty-sixth  Street,  New  York 
City,  on  Tuesdays,  Wednesdays,  and  Thursdays.  There  will  be  three  different 
classes  :  Morning  class  (10  a.  m.  to  12  noon)  ;  afternoon  class  (2  p.  m.  to  4  p.  m.)  ; 
evening  class  (8  p.  m.  to  10  p.  m.).    The  term  for  each  class  will  be  8  weeks. 


530       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

The  first  classes  are  scheduled  to  begin  on  Tuesday,  October  2.    The  registration 
fee  for  the  8-week  course  is  $10. 

Those  desiring  to  attend  the  special  class  for  non-citizens  on  English  and 
citizenship  can  register  now  by  mail,  or  in  person  any  day  on  or  before  October 
2,  between  10  a.  m.  and  6  p.  m.,  at  the  oflSces  of  the  American  Committee  for 
Protection  of  Foreign  Born,  23  West  Twenty-sixth  Street,  New  York  City  (be- 
tween Broadway  and  Sixth  Avenue). 


Louis  Adamic  Selected  for  Annual  Award 

Louis  Adamic,  well-known  writer,  has  been  selected  by  the  national  board  of 
directors  of  the  American  Committee  for  Protection  of  Foreign  Born  to  receive 
the  committee's  annual  award,  it  was  announced  today. 

The  citation  for  the  award  this  year  is  :  "To  that  American  who  has  contributed 
most  during  the  last  year  to  the  mobilization  of  foreign-born  Americans  for  the 
victory  program."  Recipients  of  the  award  in  previous  years  have  been  former 
Commissioner  of  Immigration  and  Naturalization  Earl  G.  Harrison  (1943)  ; 
former  Congressman  Thomas  H.  Eliot  (1912)  ;  and  Congressman  Vito  Marcan- 
tonio  (1941). 

In  making  public  the  result  of  the  board  of  directors'  selection,  Hon.  Stanley 
Nowak,  national  chairman  of  the  American  Committee  for  Protection  of  Foreign 
Born,  stated  for  the  committee : 

"Louis  Adamic  has  been  selected  to  receive  the  annual  award  in  recognition 
of  the  unselfish  and  patriotic  contribution  he  has  made  to  our  victory  in  this 
war  by  taking  leadership  in  the  campaign  between  1942  and  1944  to  unite 
Americans  of  South-Slavic  extraction  in  support  of  the  war  effort,  thus  setting 
an  example  to  other  immigrant  groups. 

"Mr.  Adamic's  was  the  first  voice  raised  in  this  country  to  expose  the  Mikhail- 
ovitch  hoax.  His  untiring  efforts  to  acquaint  the  American  people  with  the 
facts  served  to  defeat  one  of  the  Fascist  conspiracies  against  our  national  unity 
and  total  victory  over  the  Axis. 

"In  his  work,  from  August  1943  to  April  1944,  as  president  of  the  United 
Committee  of  South-Slav  Americans,  Mr.  Adamic  gave  democratic  leadership  and 
inspiration  to  all  Americans.  We  feel  that  Mr.  Adamic  earned  the  gratitude  and 
appreciation  of  the  entire  American  people  as  a  result  of  his  outstanding  con- 
tributions to  our  victory  program  in  the  mobilization  of  Americans  of  foreign 
birth." 

Louis  Adamic  was  born  in  Yugoslavia  in  1899  and  came  to  the  United  States 
in  1913.  He  served  in  the  United  States  Army  during  the  First  World  War  and 
became  an  American  citizen  in  1918.  In  1940  and  1941,  he  served  as  a  consultant 
on  immigrant  problems  in  the  President's  Defense  Commission.  He  is  the  author 
of  The  Native's  Return,  My  America,  My  Native  Land,  and  many  other  well- 
known  books.  He  is  general  editor  of  The  Peoples  of  America  Series,  twenty-odd 
volumes  on  the  various  elements  of  the  American  population,  which  will  begin 
to  appear  in  1945 

Mr.  Dekom.  Now,  I  will  ask  you  to  take  up  the  Joint  Anti-Fascist 
Kef  ugee  Committee. 

Mr.  HuBER.  The  Joint  Anti-Fascist  Refugee  Committee  was  one  of 
the  most  important  and  influential  of  the  Communist-front  network 
during  the  early  1940's.  The  cry  of  "antif  ascism"  was  one  of  the  most 
useful  masks  for  Communist  Party  activity  and  movements.  It  pro- 
vided the  party  with  one  of  its  most  useful  disguises  for  operation. 

The  Joint  Anti-Fascist  Refugee  Committee  was  formed  in  1942 
as  a  result  of  the  coalition  of  other  Communist-front  organizations 
active,  to  a  large  extent,  on  behalf  of  the  Spanish  Communists. 
The  three  organizations  which  came  together  as  the  Joint  Anti-Fascist 
Refugee  Committee  were  the  United  American  Spanish  Aid  Com- 
mittee (which  was  previously  infiltrated  by  the  Commimists  and 
taken  over  by  them),  the  Exiled  Writers  Committee  of  the  League  of 
American  Writers,  and  the  American  Committee  to  Save  Refugees, 
the  latter  two  also  being  Communist  fronts. 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       531 

To  show  you  the  close  ties  of  this  front  with  the  Communist  Party, 
I  will  tell  you  about  the  organizational  drive  in  1946.  In  February 
1946,  the  Joint  Anti-Fascist  Refugee  Committee  (offices  at  192  Lex- 
ington Avenue)  inaugurated  an  intensive  cami^aign  among  Com- 
munist Party  branches  to  get  active  support.  Speakers  from  the 
committee  were  to  attend  branch  meetings  of  all  Communist  Party 
clubs  in  the  Greater  New  York  area,  to  appeal  for  membership  sup- 
port, and  to  set  up  action  committees.  These  action  committees  would 
regularly  receive  bulletins  from  the  Joint  Anti-Fascist  Refugee  Com- 
mittee, and,  in  turn,  would  transmit  the  information  contained  therein 
to  their  clubs.  This  procedure  was  begun  and  most  branches  were 
covered  during  that  month. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Are  there  many  of  the  officials,  sponsors,  and  sup- 
porters of  the  Joint  Anti-Fascist  Refugee  Committee  who  are  mem- 
bers of  the  Communist  Party  ? 

Mr.  HuBER.  Yes. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Will  you  name  some  of  them  who  are  members  of  tha 
Communist  Party  to  }- our  knowledge  ? 

Mr.  HuBER.  Yes,  I  will. 

Felix  Kusman,  Moe  Fishman,  Freddie  "Blackie"  Meyers,  Beth  Mc- 
Henry  (wife  of  Blackie  Meyers),  Sara  Gropper  (wife  of  William 
Gropper,  cartoonist  of  the  Daily  Worker) ,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  Engel, 
of  1240  Park  Avenue,  Linda  Ross,  Paul  Robeson,  Charlotte  Honig, 
and  Regina  Wilson.  I  have  been  told  by  other  Communists  that 
Edward  K.  Barsky,  national  chairman,  was  also  a  member  of  the 
Communist  Party. '' 

Mr.  Dekom.  Have  you  attended  meetings  of  this  organization  ? 

Mr.  Huber.  Yes,  I  will  give  you  several  instances.  I  might  repeat 
here,  if  I  may,  Mr.  Chairman,  that  I  kept  careful  notes  of  all  party 
activities  in  which  I  took  part,  including  meetings  of  fronts  such 
as  the  Joint  Anti-Fascist  Refugee  Committee.  For  example,  on  May 
19, 1942,  Margaret  Osborn,  237  East  Sixty-first  Street,  New  York  City, 
gave  a  benefit  party  for  this  Communist-front  organization.  About 
300  people  were  present,  with  an  admission  of  $1  per  person.  Games 
of  chance,  such  as  roulette  wheel,  bird  cage,  craps,  poker,  and  so  forth, 
were  all  covered  by  members  of  the  committee,  to  see  that  a  percentage 
was  donated  toward  the  "cause."  During  the  evening,  I  counted  11 
United  States  Army  officers  present,  1  captain  and  10  lieutenants. 
Many  other  service  personnel  were  present  in  their  United  States 
Army  uniforms.  Entertainment  was  furnished  by  Leon  Josephson's 
Cafe  Society  Uptown.  Among  the  prominent  guests  were :  Muriel 
Draper,  Annette  Rubinstein,  Bella  Dodd,  Mrs.  Regina  Wilson,  Moe 
Fishman,  Mrs.  Burkee,  Charlotte  Hoiiig,  Rev.  Ver  Lynn  Sprague,  Mrs. 
Vincent  Sheean,  Mrs.  Robert  Emmett,  Martha  Dodcl,  Mrs.  Robert 
Flaum,  Dave  Green,  Dr.  and  Mrs.  I.  Engel  Kaufman,  Dr.  Edward 
Kallman,  Doris  Green,  and  Alex  Guttman. 

On  February  14,  1943,  Regina  Wilson  gave  another  party  for  the 
Joint  Anti-Fascist  Refugee  Committee.  About  100  guests  were 
present.  The  party  was  to  raise  funds  for  the  release  of  30,000  mem- 
bers of  the  International  Brigade  held  in  concentration  camps  in 
Africa.  William  S.  Gailmor,  radio  commentator  on  Station  T^TIN, 
appealed  for  funds.  He  said  that  if  the  committee  could  raise  enough 
funds,  it  had  the  promise  of  a  person  high  up  in  the  State  Department 


532      COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

that  thousands  of  these  people,  then  in  concentration  camps  in  Africa, 
would  be  able  to  enter  the  United  States,  and  that  the  Mexican  Gov- 
ernment would  accept  as  many  as  we  could  bring  over.  Gailmor  pre- 
sented some  watches  to  the  vice  consul  of  the  Soviet  Union,  who  was 
present  at  that  party.  Those  watches  were  donated  to  the  boys  in  the 
Bed  Army  by  mothers  of  boys  who  died  fighting  with  the  Abraham 
Lincoln  Brigade  in  Spain. 

On  March  22,  1945,  the  Joint  Anti-Fascist  Refugee  Committee 
sponsored  a  dinner  opening  its  drive  for  $750,000.  The  opening  re- 
marks were  made  by  Dorothy  Parker,  who  turned  the  meeting  over 
to  Herman  Shumlin,  the  producer,  who  acted  as  chairman  for  the 
evening. 

The  principal  speaker  was  Lillian  Hellman,  who  had  recently  re- 
turned from  the  Soviet  Union  where  she  had  been  the  guest  of  Voks, 
Soviet  Cultural  Department.  She  stated  that  she  knew  everyone 
present  was  anxious  to  hear  about  her  4  months'  travel  through  the 
Soviet  Union.  She  denounced  William  L.  White's  book  on  the  Soviet 
Union,  warning  guests  that  this  was  the  first  of  many  books  which 
would  follow,  written  by  other  reactionary  people  like  him.  She 
stated  that  she  had  traveled  along  the  same  route  as  that  traveled  by 
William  L.  White  and  had  seen  an  entirely  different  picture.  She 
boasted  that  she  was  the  first  American  ever  to  be  permitted  in  the 
front  line  and  combat  area  with  the  Red  Army. 

A  collection  speech  was  made  by  Dr.  Edward  K.  Barsky,  chairman 
of  the  Joint  Anti-Fascist  Refugee  Committee.  In  less  than  half  an 
hour,  guests  numbering  approximately  800,  contributed  $63,000. 
Large  contributors  included  Joseph  Weinstein,  $5,000 ;  Charles  Gold- 
man, $5,000;  International  Fur  and  Leather  Workers  Union,  $8,500; 
Leverett  Gleason,  $3,000;  Sam  Novick,  $2,000;  Charles  Krumbein, 
$500;  Mrs.  Englander,  $500;  Hotel  and  Restaurant  Workers  Union, 
$2,400;  Herman  Shumlin,  $1,000;  Lilliam  Hellman,  $1,000;  and  eight 
anonymous  contributions  of  $1,000  each. 

Seated  on  the  speakers'  platform  were  Richard  Watts,  Carl  Van 
Doren,  Dr.  Charles  R.  Joy,  Soviet  Consul  General  Eugene  Kisselev, 
Dorothy  Parker,  Helen  Bryan,  Felix  Kusman,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Ostrow, 
and  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Leverett  Gleason. 

Mr.  Dekom.  In  your  testimony  and  in  other  material  obtained  by 
this  subconuTiittee,  the  name  of  William  S.  Gailmor  has  been  re- 
peatedly associated  with  Communist  organizations,  including  a  large 
number  of  those  which  operate  in  the  foreign-language  fields.  Do  you 
know  whether  or  not  he  is  a  member  of  the  Communist  Party? 

Mr.  HuBER.  I  know  that  he  is,  because  I  have  personally  seen  him  at 
many  closed  party  meetings,  meetings  to  which  only  party  people 
would  be  allowed  to  come.  Some  of  these  meetings  were  for  top  party 
people  and  Gailmor  was  among  them.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  I  remem- 
ber Gailmor  very  well,  because  I  used  to  have  charge  of  the  liquor  and 
Gailmor  was  quite  a  drinker;  he  loved  his  alcohol.  Many  times  he 
used  to  ask  me  for  "another  drink,"  particularly  when  the  meetings 
were  held  at  the  home  of  Yetta  Engel,  1240  Park  Avenue.  She  was 
pretty  "tight"  with  liquor  and  told  me  I  had  to  get  so  many  drinks 
out  of  each  bottle.  So,  the  drinks  were  sometimes  pretty  weak  and 
Gailmor  would  come  around  asking  for  more. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Is  Gailmor  his  real  name  or  is  it  an  acquired  name? 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       533 

Mr.  HuBER.  It  is  acquired.  His  real  name  is  Margolis,  I  believe. 
He  also  was  involved  in  car  theft  and  was  convicted  for  it. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Did  he  not  participate  in  the  Wallace  campaign  last 
year  ? 

Mr.  HuBER.  Yes,  he  was  one  of  the  money-raisers.  He  is  quite  a 
rabble  rouser ;  he  can  make  a  good  talk  and  can  whip  up  people  into 
giving  money. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Are  there  other  important  meetings  of  the  Joint  Anti- 
Fascist  Refugee  Committee  at  which  you  were  present  and  which 
you  can  report  ? 

Mr.  HuBER.  I  think  that  I  can  give  you  a  fairly  good  picture  of  the 
organization  by  reporting  to  you  the  meeting  of  September  24,  1945. 
This  meeting  was  called  the  Spanish  Refugee  Appeal,  and  was  put 
on  to  raise  funds  for  Spanish  Communists  Another  point  of  interest 
is  the  fact  that  Norman  Corwin,  about  whom  the  chairman  of  this 
committee  spoke  in  the  Senate  a  short  time  ago,  was  one  of  the  lead- 
ing speakers.  I  understand  that  Corwin  is  now  working  for  the  UN, 
writing  radio  scripts  for  x\merican  radio  stations.  That  is  very  sur- 
prising to  me,  because  Corwin  was  known  in  the  Communist  Party 
circles  as  a  person  who  would  always  follow  the  party  line.  He  ap- 
peared and  spoke  at  many  meetings  and  he  never  deviated  from  the 
party  line.  His  name  was  connet-ted  with  the  party's  biggest,  most 
useful  fronts.  That  is  why  I  am  surprised  that  the  UN  should  pick 
him  to  write  its  radio  scripts. 

Mr.  Dekom.  You  were  about  to  report  on  the  meeting  of  the  Joint 
Anti-Fascist  Refugee  Committee;  will  you  proceed? 

Mr.  Huber.  On  Monday,  September  24,  1945,  at  7:45  p.  m.  the 
Spanish  Refugee  Appeal  of  the  Joint  Anti-F.icist  Refugee  Committee 
(oflices  at  192  Lexington  Avenue)  held  a  Rally  for  Spanish  Democ- 
racy and  for  the  breaking  of  relations  with  the  Franco  government, 
at  Madison  Square  Garden.  This  rally  was  a:tended  by  an  estimated 
15,000  persons.  Admission  was  by  tickets  piiced  from  60  cents  to 
$3.60.  The  rally  was  opened  by  the  playing  of  the  National  Anthem 
by  the  Goldman  Band,  directed  by  Edwin  Franko  Goldman.  The 
narrator,  Jose  Ferrer,  stated  that  this  rally  was  to  remember  the 
heroic  struggle  of  the  Spanish  people  for  freedom  and  democracy. 
He  stated  that  actors,  singers,  and  dancers  of  Broadway  would  salute 
the  fighters  for  freedom. 

Sono  Osato,  from  the  show  On  the  Town,  was  the  first  speaker  of 
the  Broachvay  contingent.     She  said : 

Dorothy  Parker  asked  me  some  time  back  if  I  would  speak  for  this  wonderful 
occasion  and  I  said  "yes"  immediately,  for  1  felt  very  strongly  about  it.  Then 
I  said  "no"  and  then  "yes"  again.  I  was  sent  a  little  sp  'ech  and  now  I  have  for- 
gotten it,  so  the  only  thing  I  would  like  to  say  is  that  1  i  years  have  gone  by,  with 
the  Spanish  Republicans  starving,  murdered,  being  s'ck  and  hungry,  and  we  are 
10  years  behind  our  promise  to  help  them.  But  it  is  not  too  late,  and  tonight 
is  a  wonderful  occasion  to  prove  that  by  giving  mi:ney,  all  the  money  that  you 
can  spare,  to  the  Spanish  Refugee  Committee  so  that  they  may  send  medicine, 
clothing,  food,  and  all  the  essentials  to  these  people  who  have  been  so  weakened 
in  this  tremendous  struggle  for  so  many  years  that  it  is  unbelievable  to  think 
that  they  can  still  hold  out.  Let  us  remember  t'^at  we  are  united  for  a  purpose. 
Tears  do  not  help;  you  have  to  do  something  about  it.  I  hope  that  we  will  all  do 
as  much  as  we  can  for  these  people. 

Betty  Comden  was  next.     She  stated : 

Miss  Osato  has  expressed  everything  very  well.  I  just  want  to  say  that  we 
must  all  remember  that  for  six  long  years  the  Spanish  refugees  have  been  living 


534      COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  EN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

in  concentration  camps  in  France.  All  of  them  are  fighters ;  all  of  them  are 
unbroken.  They  have  been  starved,  tortured,  and  shot.  We  cannot,  we  must 
not,  and  we  will  never  forget  them. 

Jean  Darling,  from  the  show  Carousel,  was  next.     She  stated : 

I  am  proud  and  happy  to  have  been  selected  to  tell  you  that  we  in  Carousel 
deem  it  an  honor  and  a  privilege  to  add  our  voices  to  the  admiration  of  the 
number  of  Spanish  Republicans  who,  for  6  years,  have  carried  forward,  with 
such  great  sacrifice,  their  unending  fight  against  facism  and  for  a  free  world. 
We  of  the  theater  are  accustomed  to  dreams  and  make-believe,  but  we  know  the 
real  thing  when  we  see  it,  and  so  we  say  to  remember  the  Spanish  anti-Facist 
fighters.     We  will  never  forget  you.     Salute. 

David  Brooks,  from  the  show  Bloomer  Girl,  appeared  next.  He 
said: 

I  came  down  here  tonight  for  two  reasons.  One  of  them  was  to  salute  the 
Anti-Facist  Refugee  Committee  and  the  other  is  to  prove  that  actors  are  people 
although  a  lot  of  them  don't  realize  it.  It's  a  damned  shame.  I'd  just  like  to 
leave  you  with  one  thought — the  actors  who  are  here  know  it,  those  who  are  not 
here  don't  know  it.  Actors  and  music  do  not  thrive  under  Fascism,  so  on  behalf 
of  the  Bloomer  Girl  company  and  on  behalf  of  the  artists,  I,  too,  say  salute. 

She  said: 

Despite  the  prison  camps,  the  forced  labor  camps  and  all  the  hunger  and 
disease,  the  morale  of  the  Spanish  refugees  is  high.  They  have  been  denied  the 
right  to  live  peacefully  for  six  long  years,  yet  they  still  maintain  their  faith 
in  the  Spain  that  fought  for  democracy.  What  else  can  we  say  to  these  beautiful 
people?  What  else,  than  to  say  how  can  we  free  you?  As  a  Russian  and  Ameri- 
can actress,  I  would  like  to  pay  tribute  to  a  great  Spanish  actress  who  is  here 
with  us  tonight — Miss  Rosita  Dios  Negrin.  (Spotlight  on  latter,  and  applause 
from  the  audience.)     Salute. 

Margo,  from  the  show  A  Bell  for  Adano  was  next.     She  stated : 

It  is  with  the  deepest  emotion  that  I  bring  to  you  the  greetings  of  every  single 
person  in  the  cast  of  A  Bell  for  Adano.  I  simply  have  not  the  words  to  say  in 
English,  or  in  Spanish,  the  depth  of  emotion  that  I  feel  tonight,  so  I  won't  try. 
I  would  like  to  say  that  the  Spaniards  who  fought  so  gloriously  in  exile  must 
have  felt  themselves  deserted  by  the  people ;  they  must  have  felt  their  cause 
forgotten.  I  wish  they  could  be  here  today  to  see  this  garden  filled  with  people 
gathered  here  to  honor  their  cause.  I  would  like  to  read  these  words  to  you, 
and  I  wish  that  the  people  of  Spain  could  hear  them,  so  that  they  would  know 
that  we  know  that  they  fought  for  us : 

"After  the  battle,  when  the  chains  are  smashed,  when  all  men  are  brothers, 
when  all  men  are  free  and  killing  will  end  and  war  will  cease,  then  freemen  will 
have  a  freeman's  peace." 

This  is  what  I  would  like  the  people  of  Spain  to  know ;  that  for  all  of  us  here, 
there  will  be  no  peace  until  they  return  to  their  own  land.     Salute. 

The  Goldman  Band  followed  this  with  a  medley  of  Spanish  Repub- 
lican songs.     The  narrator  then  declared : 

Opening  this  meeting  tonight  is  a  man  who  has  come  to  symbolize  the  fight 
of  tlie  people.  More  than  any  other  individual,  he  has  been  responsible  for  the 
organization  and  activities  of  the  Spanish  Refugee  Committee,  Dr.  Edward  K. 
Barsky. 

Barsky  stated : 

May  I  welcome  you  here  tonight  on  behalf  of  the  Joint  Anti-Fascist  Refugee 
Committee.  It  is  great  to  see  this  garden  filled  up.  A  Madison  Square  Garden 
for  Spain  is  always  in  order.  There  is  no  doubt  in  my  mind  that  if  we  work 
together,  we  shall  soon  have  another  garden  meeting  to  celebrate  the  rebirth  of 
democracy  in  Spain.  We  have  had  our  VE-day,  our  VJ-day,  but  the  war  against 
fascism  will  never  be  over  until  we  have  a  VS-day^ — Victory  over  Fascist  Spain. 
For  a  world  of  security,  justice,  and  peace,  Franco  must  go.  The  Joint  Anti- 
Fascist  Refugee  Committee  is  a  major  committee  in  the  United  States  that  has 
consistently  done  everything  possible  to  help  the  Spanish  in  exile. 


COAIMTXNTIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       535 

Who  are  the  Spanish  Republicans?  Spain  fought  the  first  battle  of  World 
War  II.  The  Spanish  people  waged  a  courageous  struggle  against  German  and 
Italian  invading  forces.  It  is  to  the  everlasting  shame  of  Great  Britain,  France, 
and  the  United  States  that  they  permitted  their  sister  republic  to  go  down  in 
defeat. 

For  that  reason  we  have  paid  with  the  blood  of  our  soldiers. 

The  Spaniards  fought  a  battle  that  will  be  long  remembered.  The  insidious 
dangers  of  the  fifth  column,  cruel  tactics  and  the  mobilization  of  the  entire  people 
was  learned  at  Spain.  Every  single  resistance  movement  in  Euroi^e  had  in  its- 
top  leadership  men  who  fought  in  Spain.  Guerrillas  wrecked  railroads,  de- 
stroyed bridges,  sabotaged  mines,  and  when  the  moment  of  liberation  came, 
they  fought  with  the  French  Maquis.  They  are  the  valiant,  undefeated,  forgotten, 
and  neglected  Spaniards,  but  they  have  never  accepted  their  fate. 

Through  the  long  years  of  their  exile,  separated  from  their  homeland,  from 
their  loved  ones,  they  have  gone  on  hoping  and  planning  for  the  future.  There 
still  burns  fiercely  the  hatred  of  fascism  and  the  determination  to  do  everything 
possible  in  the  fight  for  democracy.  Today  in  France,  there  are  200,000  exiles,, 
suffering  from  hunger,  malnutrition,  sickness,  and  disease;  thousands  of  Span- 
iards are  now  returning  from  German  labor  camps  where  they  slaved,  but  their 
morale  is  remarkable.  Their  only  wish  is  to  keep  strong  enough  to  go  back  to 
Spain  and  help  rebuild  a  land  of  freedom.  Their  children,  born  in  concentration 
camps,  are  the  future  leaders  of  a  great  nation  that  will  help  cement  the  forces  of 
democracy  for  peace  and  security. 

These  are  the  Spanish  Republicans  in  exile.  The  Joint  Anti-Fascist  Refugee 
Committee  is  determined  to  do  everything  possible  to  help  these  people.  Tonight's 
meeting  marks  the  opening  of  the  fall  drive  for  $750,000.  Relief  is  being  admin- 
istered by  the  Unitarian  Service  Committee.  In  Mexico,  supplementing  full 
assistance  to  the  Spanish  refugees,  we  support  a  school  and  a  hospital.  Our 
funds  go  to  Portugal,  Cuba,  and  Switzerland.  We  have  been  through  a  great 
war  and  we  have  all  played  our  part.  We  are  now  confronted  with  the  many 
problems  and  complexities  of  peace,  but  despite  all  this,  we  Americans  must, 
and  I  am  sure  will,  fulfill  our  obligations  to  these  mose  heroic  Spanish  people 
who  at  all  times  preferred  to  fight  and  die  on  their  feet  than  live  on  their  knees. 

In  thinking  about  a  chairman  for  this  evening,  we  said  he  must  combine  pleas- 
antness with  authority,  levity  with  seriousness,  and  have  a  genuine  love  of 
democracy  on  an  international  scale.  We  have  such  a  man  here  tonight.  He 
headed  the  Republicans  for  Roosevelt  during  the  last  election  ;  he  is  vice  president 
of  the  National  Lawyers  Guild ;  he  gave  his  services  in  the  defense  of  Harry 
Bridges.  Ladies  and  gentleman,  I  am  very  happy  to  present  to  you  Mr.  Bartley 
Crum. 

Bartley  Crum  opened  his  talk  with  the  statement : 

I  am  glad  to  hear  somebody  say  a  good  word  about  an  American  Republican. 

The  chairman  then  introduced  the  following  speaker  as  New  York 
City's  soon-to-be-elected  city  councilman,  Michael  J.  Quill.  Quill 
stated : 

I  am  wondering  if  we  tonight  are  not  making  a  public  apology  to  those  who 
have  given  their  lives  in  an  attempt  to  crush  fascism?  When  I  say  that,  I 
mean  the  people  and  orirnjUzed  workers  of  the  United  States,  heoanse  we  are 
responsible  for  what  our  Government  will  do  and  has  been  doing.  It  was  we 
who  elected  the  present  Government,  and  it  is  about  time  that  the  citizens  of  this 
country,  one  of  the  United  Nations,  should  stop  making  streamlined  speeches, 
should  cease  to  be  soft  on  this  question.  It  is  about  time  that  we  demand  of  our 
State  Department  to  break  relations  with  Franco.  We  made  mistakes  in  1936, 
1937,  and  1938.  When  the  lights  were  going  out  in  Europe,  the  people  of  Spain 
kept  that  last  torch  of  freedom  going  with  their  blood  and  with  their  very  lives. 

That  was  the  time  when  Hitler  and  Mussolini  were  using  Spain  and  the 
Spanish  people  as  a  proving  ground  for  their  Nazi  streamroller  that  rolled  over 
more  than  30,000,000  people  in  Europe.  Had  we  spoken  out  then,  had  we  been 
united  then,  we  could  have  stopped  this  last  terrible  war. 

And  now  we  come  down  to  the  piers  with  hands  welcoming  home  the  soldiers, 
we  pin  medals  on  the  Gold-Star  Mothers,  and  we  say  there  is  nothing  too  good 
for  the  boys;  but  while  we  are  saying  all  this,  we  are  not  telling  them  that 
fascism  is  not  yet  defeated — as  long  as  Franco  and  his  puppet  government  re- 
mains so  long  will  that  cancer  of  fascism  remain  in  the  world. 
98.330— 50— pt.  2 6 


536       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

I  speak  for  the  Congress  of  Industrial  Organizations.  I  speak  in  the  name 
of  the  New  York  City  CIO.  I  know  that  when  I  speak  in  the  name  of  labor 
and  call  for  the  breaking  of  relations  with  Franco,  that  I  speak  for  the  auto 
worker,  the  steel  worker,  the  office  worker,  and  the  transport  worker — they  want 
no  part  of  Franco  fascism. 

Tliere  is  a  conference,  an  important  world  conference,  being  held  in  London 
tonight.  The  voice  of  this  meeting  should  be  heard  at  that  world  conference. 
Our  Secretary  of  State  should  speak  up  now  and  declare  that  his  Government 
and  the  American  people  want  an  end  to  the  Franco  government  and  liberation 
for  the  Spanish  people.  On  top  of  all  the  sacrifice,  there  is  more  than  a  hope, 
because  tonight,  in  the  city  of  Paris,  ior  the  first  time  in  the  history  of  organized 
labor,  we  have  delegations  and  delegates  from  the  free  labor  movements  of  the 
world  about  to  form  a  world  federation  of  free  labor.^ 

I  am  glad  to  be  able  to  state  that  high  on  tlie  agenda  of  their  program  will  be 
a  demand  by  the  American  CIO  that  now  is  the  time  for  action ;  that  we  are  at 
the  end  of  our  road  of  pleading ;  that  now  is  the  time  for  the  world  federation 
of  free  labor  in  Paris  to  say  once  and  for  all,  "Hang  Franco  with  the  same  rope 
as  will  hang  Goering." 

The  next  speaker  was  introduced  as  a  member  of  the  "glorious" 
Abraham  Lincoln  Battalion,  Edward  Robinson.    Robinson  declared : 

I  am  here  tonight,  talking  in  the  place  of  one  who  has  certainly  given  much  to 
the  cause  of  Spain  and  whose  death  has  brought  to  a  close  his  continued  efforts 
in  the  cause  of  Spain,  David  McKelvey  White.  He  has  been,  and  facts  are 
well  known,  that  in  193G  and  1938,  men  irom  all  over  the  world  went  to  fight  on 
the  side  of  the  Spanish  Republic. 

We  knew  the  aims  of  the  Axis  long  before  most  other  people.  We  went  to 
Spain  because  we  knew  that  in  Spain  act  1  of  the  world  tragedy  was  taking 
place,  and  we  hoped  that  the  people  of  the  democracies  would  realize  it  in  time. 
More  than  half  ot  our  members  laid  down  their  lives  in  Spain. 

Of  the  1,200  who  returned,  almost  all  who  were  capable  were  engaged  in  the 
world-wide  struggle  against  fascism.  Many  of  those  who  lived,  lost  their  lives 
at  Guadalcanal,  Okinawa,  and  on  the  beaches  of  Normandy.  Capt.  Irving  Goff, 
Sgr.  Milton  Joe  Felson,  Sgt.  Bob  Thomp.son,  Capt.  Herman  Boettcher,  Sgt.  Sid 
Pertz,  Joe  Gordon,  these  and  many  like  them  were  the  stuff  of  the  International 
Brigade. 

\\  e  will  never  be  convinced  that  Franco  was  neutral.  We  knew  that  50,000 
trained  troops  from  Spain  were  sent  to  fight  against  our  allies  from  the  Soviet. 
We  knew  about  the  network  of  espionage  that  was  set  up  in  Latin  America ;  we 
always  knew  that  Franco  was  not  neutral. 

We  of  the  International  Brigade  know  that  Frapco  was,  and  still  remains,  a 
most  dangerous  enemy  of  world  peace.  This  being  true,  there  is  just  one  thing 
we  must  do.  The  American  people  must  break  all  diplomatic  and  business  rela- 
tions with  Franco  Spain.  We  must  show  the  world  that  we  know  Franco  for 
what  he  is,  another  Hitler  whose  ambition  is  to  split  the  world  and  then  enslave 
it.  Let's  set  ourselves  the  task  of  breaking  relations  with  the  last  dictator  still 
in  control  of  his  country.  A  world  which  tolerates  a  Fascist  Franco  government 
is  a  world  that  can  never  be  completely  democratic  or  at  peace.  Let  freedom 
reign  again  in  Spain. 

Kenneth  Spencer,  singer,  with  Jonathan  Price  at  the  piano,  enter- 
tained with  songs. 

The  next  speaker  was  introduced  with  the  following  statement: 

The  International  Brigade  remains  today  a  powerful  symbol  of  the  true  inter- 
national democratic  spirit.  One  in  whom  this  spirit  burns  brightly  and  fiercely 
<;ame  to  this  country  as  a  political  exile.  He  has  since  become  an  American 
citizen.  His  voice  is  heard  constantly  in  the  fight  against  fascism  and  for 
freedom,  Johannes  Steel. 

Steel  opened  his  speech  with — 

Fellow  anti-Fascists :  *     *     *     Mr.  Truman,  Mr.  Bevin,  we  want  action  now. 


'  This  is  a  reference  to  the  World  Trade  Union  Congress  to  establish  the  World  Federa- 
tion of  Trade  Unions.  Labor  unions  from  democratic  countries  withdrew  from  the  WFTU 
•on  the  ground  that  the  organization  was  under  complete  Soviet  domination. 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       537 

The  chair  was  then  yielded  to  Jose  Ferrer.    He  stated : 

I  would  like  to  say  a  few  words  before  going  on  with  the  introductions,  by 
saying  that  I  cannot  tell  you  how  proud  I  am  to  see  you  all  here  tonight,  to  see 
Madison  Square  Garden  full,  and  being  here  with  and  among  you.  It  is  quite 
easy,  as  you  probably  know,  for  one  in  my  position  as  maker  of  introductions, 
to  go  off  the  deep  end,  but  I  have  no  such  fears  in  introducin,":  the  next  speaker. 
He  is  an  author  of  radio  programs  and  author  of  the  best  seller  On  a  Note  of 
Triumph,  Norman  Corwin. 

Norman  Corwin  declared: 

This  is  where  we  came  in.  There  was  fascism  in  Spain  before  the  big  war 
began  and  there  is  fascism  in  Spain  now  that  tliat  war  is  over.  The  difference 
is  that  in  the  meantime  40,000,000  have  been  killed  or  maimed  in  the  interest 
of  ridding  the  world  of  fascism.  We  rejoice  that  the  democratic  flags  are  flying 
over  Rome,  Berlin,  and  Tokyo,  but  the  flag  of  the  Falange  still  goes  up  every 
morning  in  Madrid. 

It  is  easy  to  forget,  but  nothing  that  has  happened  in  our  lifetime  seems,  to 
me  at  least,  to  have  the  particular  bitter  poignance  of  the  original  auti-Fascist 
war  of  the  Spanish  Republic. 

I  say  now,  some  5  weeks  after  VJ-day,  that  all  things  considered,  there  rises 
out  of  the  tribulations  and  the  agony  and  exultation,  one  weak  distinction  that 
the  so-called  premature  anti-Fascist  was  and  is  the  first  citizen  of  our  time. 
The  original  premature  anti-Fascists  were  the  people  of  the  Spanish  Republic; 
they  were  the  International  Brigade;  they  were  the  people  of  this  and  other 
countries  who  entered  the  fight  of  their  own  volition,  people  like  Jim  Lardner 
and  Hank  Boettcher,  and  in  violation  of  the  shameful  rules  of  nonintervention, 
fought  the  enemy,  gun  sight  to  gun  sight.  They  were  the  people  whose  con- 
science were  ahead  of  their  time,  and  were  accordingly  subject  to  investigations 
by  congressional  committees.  They  knew  that  as  long  as  there  is  any  fascism 
in  the  world,  including  the  tower  of  the  Chicago  Tribune,  that  there  is  still 
a  war. 

In  a  war  whose  newspaper  correspondents  have  numbered  Ernie  Pyle,  Robinson, 
and  Kuhn  it  is  easy  to  forget  one  who  gave  information  to  the  enemy,  but  there 
are  people  who  have  not  forgotten.  Those  people  sit  tonight  in  dingy  basement 
restaurants  in  Toulouse,  Marseilles,  and  they  talk  of  their  republic.  They 
know,  and  we  know,  there  will  be  a  republic  again  across  the  mountains. 
Whether  or  not  this  number  of  people  will  live  to  return  to  their  new  republic 
depends  in  very  large  measure  upon  this  assembly  here  tonight.  They  need 
everything  except  patience  and  courage,  food,  clothes,  shoes,  medical  supplies, 
arms,  and  legs,  they  need  to  eat ;  they  need  morale  and  physical  support  to 
achieve  their  battle  cry  of  the  Loyalists :  "Make  Madrid  the  doom  of  fascism." 

The  next  speaker  was  introduced  as  representing?  the  country  which 
has  never  recognized  the  Franco  government,  Nikolai  Novikov,  So- 
viet Charge  cl'Affaires  at  Washington  and  acting  head  of  the  Embassy 
in  the  absence  of  Andrei  Gromyko. 

Bartley  Crum  then  read  a  message  sent  to  the  rally  by  Dr.  Jnan 
Negrin,  Prime  Minister  of  the  last  pre-Franco  government  in  Spain. 

A  special  broadcast  from  England  was  then  switched  into  the 
garden,  transmitted  from  London  over  WJZ  and  the  Blue  Network. 
The  speaker  was  introduced  as  one'  of  the  stanchest  friends  of  the 
Spanish  people  and  chairman  of  the  national  executive  council  of 
the  British  Labor  Party,  Prof.  Harold  J,  Laski. 

The  CIO  Radio  Chorus,  directed  by  Simon  Rady,  with  Isabelle 
Josephs  at  the  piano,  then  entertained  with  songs.  Narrators  were 
Uta  Hagen  and  Jose  Ferrer. 

A  message  was  read  from  Richard  Frankensteen,  vice  president  of 
the  United  Auto  Workers  of  America,  by  Bartley  Criim,  in  which 
Frankensteen  said  he  regretted  being  unable  to  attend  the  rally  be- 
cause of  the  strike  conditions  in  Detroit. 

The  chairman  then  paid  tribute  to  Dorothy  Parker,  who  worked  as 
chairman  of  the  arrangements  committee  for  this  rally. 


538       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

Lisa  Sergio  was  the  next  speaker.    She  said : 

Almost  everything  has  been  said  about  Franco  tonight  that  one  could  say  about 
him,  it  seems.  But  one  of  the  many  things  that  he  has  done  has  been  forgotten, 
tonight.  It  was  under  Franco  that  one  of  the  most  revolting,  dirty  vpeapons  used 
in  this  war  was  invented.  The  fifth  column  was  his  invention,  let  us  not  forget 
that. 

We  talk  a  lot  about  getting  rid  of  Franco,  he  is  still  there  and  so  is  the  fifth 
column.  Rememl^er  that  no  organization  of  people  which  carries  out  espionage 
and  sabotage  dii- organizations  can  function  without  some  leadership,  and  that 
leadership  of  the  surviving  fifth  column  today  includes  all  of  the  people  who  don't 
want  the  victory  of  democracy  as  in  Spain.  That  is  one  more  reason  for  which 
Franco  must  go  out.  Who  is  going  to  throw  Franco  out,  I  ask  you?  Is  it  the 
businessmen  who  are  doing  business  with  him  in  all  of  the  United  Nations? 

During  the  war,  when  there  was  need  of  oranges,  Spanish  oranges  were  bought 
because  Franco  was  given  the  money.  Are  these  same  people  today  going  to 
throw  Franco  out?  No,  let's  not  kid  ourselves.  We  can  back  the  people  who  are 
going  in  there  to  throw  him  out,  but  they  have  to  be  Spaniards  who  throw  him 
out.  And  where  are  the  Spaniards?  Well,  they  are  tireless  fighters  and  so  they 
fought  in  the  underground,  in  the  French  Maquis,  with  Tito's  guerrillas,  every- 
where it  was  possible  to  fight,  and  many  finally  ended  in  Hitler's  concentration 
camps.  Those  who  did  not  fled  to  some  of  the  French  towns,  and  when  they 
handed  them  over  to  the  victorious  Allies,  we  disarmed  these  Spaniards,  and  now 
they  have  gone  back  to  the  camps  that  Vichy  had  set  up  for  them. 

Those  whom  we  liberated  from  the  death  camps  in  Germany  had  no  place  to  go. 
Do  you  know  any  American  boy  who  came  out  of  a  prison  camp  in  Germany? 
Has  he  told  you  what  it  meant  to  see  the  Allies  arrive,  to  see  the  camp  thrown 
open,  to  know  there  was  a  place  for  him  to  go  to,  that  there  was  home? 

These  Spaniards  have  no  place  to  go  to ;  there  is  no  home  for  at  least  200,000 
Spanish  republicans  because  we.  the  victorious  democracies,  do  not  want  to  recog- 
nize that  Spain  is  their  home  and  not  the  home  of  Franco. 

I  know  we  have  appealed  to  President  Truman.  In  England  they  have  appealed 
to  Mr.  Bevin  and  Mr.  Attlee,  and  at  San  Francisco  we  made  a  nice  sounding  declar- 
ation which  was  repeated  at  Potsdam,  but  Franco  is  still  there.  If  they  really 
meant  to  throw  Franco  and  his  men  out,  these  people  who  think  they  have  won 
the  war  for  democracy,  would  not  let  200,000  fighters  die  and  starve  of  disease.  I 
say  it's  fine  to  talk  and  the  eyes  of  the  world  are  on  this  rally  tonight.  There  are 
about  20,000  people  here.  I  hope  that  you  recognize  one  another  in  this  gardea 
because  the  world  is  looking  at  us  and  if  we  go  away  from  here,  moved  by  the 
speeches  we  have  heard  and  will  hear,  and  stirred  by  the  songs,  it  won't  be 
enoug^h. 

Tomorrow  morning  the  women  of  these  Spanish  fighters  will  turn  around  full 
of  aches  and  pains  from  the  cold  floor  where  they  sleep  somewhere  in  France,  but 
you  and  I  who  have  talked  a  lot  tonight  will  have  had  a  place  to  sleep  and 
enough  to  eat.  This  is  what  pleases  Franco  ;  that  we  talk  a  lot,  but  that  we  must 
prove  what  we  say  by  injecting  into  the  heart  and  muscles  of  these  people  some- 
thing  that  will  set  them  to  fight  again. 

It  is  very  well  to  win  a  war  on  the  battle  front  but  when  you  begin  to  count 
up  the  physically  and  mentally  destroyed  women  and  children,  then  it  is  that  you 
add  up  the  score  of  victory  and  defeat.  Do  you  realize  that  today  as  our  men 
come  sailing  home,  and  we  greet  them  with  signs  of  welcome,  still  grumbling 
even  though  the  war  is  over,  do  you  realize  that  in  Europe  there  is  still  the 
greatest  number  of  Germans  left?  They  have  killed  the  children  of  the  coun- 
tries they  invaded.  In  15  years  they  will  rise  again.  Do  you  realize  that  every 
one  of  the  Spanish  republican  children  that  we  snatch  from  the  hands  of  death 
will  be  the  equivalent  to  10  resurgent  Fascists  and  Germans  that  we  will  have 
to  put  down  in  15  years? 

Wars  may  be  won  with  weapons  and  blood  and  money,  but  who  gives  the 
money,  blood,  and  spirit?  It  is  the  people.  Why  did  the  United  Nations  win 
the  war?  Because  there  were  more  people  on  our  side  who  never  lost  faith  even 
in  the  darkest  years.  It  is  a  question  of  people,  and  it  has  been  part  of  the 
Fascist  plan  in  the  camps  to  kill  women  who  could  have  borne  children  to  fight 
for  peace. 

While  a  great  generation  was  being  brought  up  under  Hitler's  regime,  millions 
born  every  year  and  trained  to  believe  that  Fascism  would  again  rise,  they  have 
tried  to  kill  the  children  of  Spain.  There  are  200,000  men,  women,  and  children. 
There  used  to  be  500,000  who  left  Spain  when  Franco  won  because  our  stupidity 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       539 

enabled  him  to  win.  Today  we  cannot  locate  that  half  million  and  we  know 
that  there  are  about  200,000  left  today  in  E'rance  that  we  can  still  save.  Let's 
get  President  Truman  to  break  relations  with  Franco.  Let's  take  these  200,000 
people  and  let's  make  them  the  living  evidence  that  our  words  are  not  just 
words.  Let's  do  something  about  them,  for  mercy's  sake,  and  not  just  talk 
about  it. 

There  is  only  one  place  in  the  world,  and  only  one  group  of  people  in  the 
world,  who  have  the  right  to  demand  that  the  surrender  document  be  drawn 
up  and  signed  in  their  presence — I  mean  the  total  capitulation  of  the  fifth 
column  that  is  still  in  Europe — that  group  of  people  that  must  receive  the  sur- 
render instrument  of  fascism  are  the  Spanish  republicans,  and  the  place  can 
only  be  Madrid.  I  would  say  that  it  is  time  that  we  be  practical.  How 
about  proving  to  these  200,000  that  we  want  them  to  live?  Is  there  anybody 
here  with  $1,000? 

The  collection  followed.  Amon*^  some  of  the  large  contributors 
were : 

National  Maritime  Union,  CIO,  $1,500. 

Secretary  of  the  Spanish  Tobacco  Workers  Union  of  Tampa,  Fla.,  $2,000. 

Social  workers,  $1,000. 

Editor  of  Readers  Scope,  Leverett  Gleason,  $1,000. 

International  Workers  Order,  $1,000. 

Russian  War  Relief,  Chapter  of  Local  19  of  United  Office  Workers  Association, 
$535. 

Irwin  Burke,  $600. 

Arthur  Bernhart,  $600. 

Morris  Latson,  $600. 

Sam  Novick  of  Electronic  Corp.  of  America,  $500. 

Charles  Korwin,  $100. 

Chefs,  Cooks,  Pastry  Cooks,  and  Assistants  Union,  New  York  Local  89,  AFL, 
$230. 

Edward  K.  Barsky,  $250. 

Albert  Mitchell,  $300. 

•Sam  Jafee,  $300. 

I.  Greengold,  $200. 

Herman  Cherry,  $350. 

Joseph  Hirschorn,  $100. 

Moe  Asch,  $100. 

Louis  Goldberg,  $100. 

Neighborhood  Committee  for  Allied  War  Relief,  $200. 

Herbert  Ahren  Corp.,  $250. 

F.  G.  Miles  (from  London),  $100. 

Francis  L.  Scheff,  $500. 

Emily  Pearson,  $100. 

Phil  Shapiro,  $100. 

Veterans  of  the  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade,  $50. 

Staff  of  the  Spanish  Refugee  Appeal,  $60. 

New  York  State  Committee  of  the  Communist  Party,  pledged  $500. 

American  Youth  Club,  $26. 

Sportswear  Specialty,  Inc.,  $25. 

Workers  of  Cafe  Society  Downtown,  $50. 

Women  for  Allied  Aid  of  Manhattan  Beach  and  Brighton,  $50. 

Students  from  Brooklyn  College,  $75. 

The  Goldman  Band  again  entertained  with  musical  compositions, 
followed  by  Paula  Lawrence  and  Josh  White  singing  the  Free  and 
Equal  Blues.  Vincent  Sheean,  author  and  war  correspondent,  was 
the  next  speaker. 

A  spotlight  was  thrown  on  a  Mr.  Tung,^  member  of  the  Communist 
Party  in  China.  The  next  and  final  speaker  for  the  evening  was 
Mme.  Isabel  de  Palencia,  former  Minister  to  Sweden  and  Finland 
of  the  Spanish  Republic  Government.  The  meeting  closed  at  11 :  30 
p.  m. 


Tung  Pi-wu. 


540       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

Mr.  Dekom.  Next,  Mr,  Huber,  I  ask  you  to  take  up  the  Veterans 
of  the  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade. 

Mr.  Huber.  The  Veterans  of  the  Abraham  Lincohi  Brigade  is  an 
organization  that  is  made  up  of  men  who  joined  in  the  Spanish  Revo- 
lution. The  American  unit  on  the  side  of  the  so-called  Loyalist  forces 
was  called  the  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Was  the  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade  under  Communist 
control ? 

Mr.  Huber.  Oh,  certainly.  The  whole  outfit  was  recruited  through 
the  Communist  Party  here  in  the  United  States.  The  party  arranged 
for  passports  and  transportation.  Forged,  false  papers  were  made  up 
or  obtained  by  the  party  for  travel  to  Spain.  In  Spain  the  Commu- 
nists took  away  American  passports  and  papers  and,  I  found  out, 
these  papers  were  sent  to  Moscow  to  be  used  later  by  Soviet  agents  to 
get  into  the  United  States.  Ail  the  ranking  officers  of  the  Lincoln 
Brigade  were  Communist  Party  members  and  the  brigade  was  run 
strictly  on  the  Soviet  system,  with  a  commissar  who  had  absolute 
power  over  everything.  They  say  they  were  fighting  for  liberty^ 
but  their  system  was  as  dictatorial  as  in  the  Soviet  Union. 

The  Veterans  of  the  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade  is  engaged  in 
making  Communist  propaganda,  raising  funds,  and  in  supporting 
Spanish  Communists.  In  that  sense,  as  I  explained,  it  is  connected 
with  aliens  and  foreign-born  Communists.  Also,  foreign  officials  in 
this  country  have  attended  meetings  of  the  Veterans  of  the  Lincoln 
Brigade. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Will  you,  please,  give  us  specific  cases  of  this,  of  the 
connection  of  the  Veterans  of  the  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade  with 
officials  of  foreign  governments  accredited  to  the  United  States  ? 

Mr.  Huber.  Yes,  sir.  I  have  one  particularly  good  example  of 
this,  the  national  convention  in  New  York,  September  21,  1946. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Did  you  attend  that  meeting  ? 

Mr.  Huber.  Yes,  I  did,  and  I  can  give  you  a  complete  report  of  it, 
not  just  the  presence  of  foreign  officials. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Please  do  so. 

Mr.  Huber.  The  first  national  convention  since  World  War  II  of 
the  Veterans  of  the  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade  was  held  at  Fraternal 
Clubhouse,  110  West  Forty-eighth  Street,  New  York  City.  The  vet- 
erans had  originally  planned  on  holding  memorial  services  at  Madison 
Square  Park,  Twenty-third  Street,  but  a  heavy  rainfall  prevented 
same.  The  invocation  was  delivered  by  Rev.  David  Nathaniel  Lico- 
rice; this  was  followed  by  taps.  The  convention  opened  with  the 
band  playing  songs,  featuring  the  Red  army  song.  The  chairman 
was  Bert  Jackson,  who  stated : 

Comrades,  the  weather  seems  to  be  very  much  against  us  today.  The  only 
thing  that  seems  to  be  lacking  are  the  blankets  around  our  shoulders  and  the 
constant  scratching  we  used  to  do  in  Spain,  to  make  it  seem  Like  the  old  days. 
However,  without  further  ado,  I  think  we  should  get  on.  We  have  some  very 
distinguished  guests  who  likewise  have  continued  the  fight  against  fascism  and 
who  likewise  are  mobilizing  as  many  people  as  possible  to  bring  a  quick  end  to 
the  Fascist  regime  in  Spain.  We  l^ave  with  us  Mr.  Joseph  Fauling,  and,  of 
course,  always  with  us  is  Dr.  Ed  Bursky ;  we  have  with  us  the  Yugoslav  consul, 
Consul  Hinko  J.  Samec ;  and  I  see  another  consul,  the  Polish  consul,  Jan  Galewicz ; 
we  have  the  Czechoslovak  consul,  Josef  Forman ;  New  York  City  councilman,  Ben 
Davis.  And  no  meeting  would  ever  be  complete  without  our  own  Paul  Robeson. 
We  also  have  a  delegate  from  the  Win-the-Peace  organization,  and  a  large  group' 
of  people  who,  although  they  cannot  be  with  us,  send  us  greetings. 


COMMUN-IST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       541 

Jackson  read  telegrams  from  Congressman  Hugh  DeLacy,  Upton 
Sinclair,  Herbert  Lehman,  Edward  G.  Robinson,  Carey  McWilliams, 
and  Bartley  C.  Crnm,  praising  the  members  of  the  Abraham  Lincoln 
Brigade  in  their  fight  against  fascism.  He  continued  stating,  "We 
have  another  legal  representative  to  our  convention,  Vice  Consul 
Anatole  Yakovlev,  of  the  Soviet  Union." 

Milton  Wolff,  national  commander  of  the  brigade,  delivered  the  key- 
note address  as  follows : 

Guests,  friends,  and  delegates,  the  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade  was  born  first 
fighting  against  fascism.  The  members  have  been  characterized  as  fighting  anti- 
Fascists  and  we  have  been  called  other  less  complimentary  names.  Certain  very- 
blunt  commentators  have  dubbed  us  pi'emature  anti-Fascists.  I  cannot  I'emem- 
ber  a  convention  where  we  have  not  worked  out  plans  to  intensify  our  fight 
against  fascism.  We  have  always  been  guided  by  the  motive  which  sent  us  to 
Spain,  by  the  remembrance  of  the  people  who  gave  their  lives — the  people  of 
Spain.  Down  the  years  we  have  dedicated  ourselves  to  the  struggles  of  peace, 
and  of  the  conception  of  a  government  of  the  people,  by  the  people,  and  for  the 
people.  Men  of  the  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade  have  fought  and  distinguished 
themselves  in  every  battlefront. 

When  we  went  to  Spain  in  1936,  proclaiming  to  the  world  that  we  would  fight 
fascism,  we  rejected  with  our  lives  all  the  evils  of  appeasement  and  compromise. 
We  have  stuck  to  our  guns  in  the  face  of  the  enemy.  We  feel  that  it  is  important 
for  the  American  people  today  to  review  the  message  of  the  last  10  years  in  the 
light  of  our  own  experience.  Ten  years  ago  the  Spanish  people  were  holding 
the  curtains  of  democracy  against  fascism.  The  Soviet  Union  was  the  only 
country  which  defended  these  principles,  and  did  so  with  materiel  and  supplied 
armies.  We,  the  American  volunteers  of  the  International  Brigade,  rejected  a 
policy  of  appeasement  with  guns  in  our  hands  and  with  our  lives  on  the  battle- 
fronts  of  Argonne.  We  maintain  that  the  hope  of  the  world  rests  with  us,  the 
American  people.  We  must  reestablish  on  a  firmer  basis  than  ever  before,  the 
friendship  between  the  Soviet  Union,  the  United  States,  and  Great  Britain,  which 
defeated  the  Axis  and  which  can  maintain  the  peace  and  build  a  better  world 
for  us.  We  must  stay  in  the  forefront  in  the  fight  for  the  destruction  of  facism, 
and  particularly  in  Spain.  Spain  is  one  of  the  most  important  keys  to  all  inter- 
national development.  Veterans  of  the  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade  cannot  and 
will  not  stop  short  of  a  world  of  peace — a  democratic  world. 

The  chairman  read  greetings  from  Frank  Kingdon,  Serge  Kous- 
sevitsky,  and  Pablo  Picasso.  Betty  Simms  sang  several  Spanish 
songs,  followed  by  Paul  Bates,  who  also  sang  Spanish  songs.  The 
chairman  then  stated : 

At  this  time  we  bring  before  the  convention  a  person  who  needs  no  introduc- 
tion to  members  of  the  Fifteenth  Brigade — our  own  commander  of  the  Thirty- 
fifth  Division  whom  we  know  so  well  as  General  Walter  (General  Walter  is  the 
name  under  which  Gen.  Karol  Swierczewski,  Polish  Vice  Minister  of  Defense,  led 
the  Dombrowski  brigade  in  Spain). 

His  address  was  delivered  in  Polish  and  translated  at  intervals,  but 
indistinguishable.  The  essence  of  it  was  high  praise  for  the  Abraham 
Lincoln  Brigade  and  to  the  effect  that  Polish  fighters  had  fought  in 
Spain  in  1936  to  prevent  the  dropping  of  bombs  on  Poland  in  1939. 
Jackson  continued : 

General  Walter,  who  was  in  Paris  only  hours  ago,  has  brought  with  him  some 
awards  to  be  made  to  some  members  of  our  brigade,  who  have  consistently  car- 
ried on  the  fight  against  fascism  and  have  kept  alive  the  fight  against  Franco. 
The  first  name  that  comes  to  mind  is  the  name  of  our  own  Herman  Boettcher  ;  ob- 
viously the  award  will  have  to  be  received  by  someone  else — and  who  better  than 
Comrade  Irving  Goff. 

Irving  Goff  was  a  captain  in  the  United  States  Army,  serving  with 
OSS.  ^'  ^ 


542       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

Following  Goff's  acceptance  of  the  award,  the  chairman  stated: 

I  will  call  up  all  the  remaining :  Alvah  Bessie,  wlio  is  on  the  west  coast  carry- 
ing on  the  fight  against  fascism ;  Jack  Bjoze,  executive  secretary ;  our  National 
Commander  Milton  "Wolff;  Dr.  Edward  Barsky;  and  that  fighter  against  fascism, 
Paul  Robeson. 

Awards  were  distributed.    The  chairman  again  continued : 

Comrades,  the  keynote  of  our  convention  is  the  continuation  of  the  fight  against 
Franco  and  against  fascism,  and  probably  the  epitome  of  fascism  today  is  repre- 
sented by  none  other  than  Byrnes,^  of  South  Carolina.  It  is  logical,  if  we  are  to 
fight  against  fascism,  we  might  fight  fascism  here  at  home  and  in  the  South. 
It  is  fitting  that  the  chairman  who  is  leading  the  crusade  against  lynching,  which 
is  going  to  Washington  on  September  23,  should  speak  to  us — it  is  our  own 
representative  who  will  now  speak  to  you — Paul  Robeson. 

After  a  tremendous  ovation,  Paul  Robeson  said  that  he  was  "going 
to  say  a  few  things,  but  first  I  want  to  sing  a  couple  of  songs." 
After  singing,  he  said : 

One  of  the  things  I  want  to  talk  about  is  what  lynching  can  mean  in  America. 
I  am  going  down  to  Washington  on  Monday  and  bring  to  the  conscience  of 
America  what  this  means.  You  who  have  been  in  Spain  know  what  it  means; 
you  know  it  means  to  break  the  spirit  of  the  Negro  people.  This  is  a  very  im- 
portant anti-Fascist  truth  today.  The  reactionf.ries  are  going  to  break  the 
Negro  spirit,  and  I  know  you  of  the  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade  will  do  all  you 
can  to  see  that  this  reaction  is  wiped  out.  We  know  the  unity  of  the  struggle 
for  the  Negro  people;  they  look  to  the  progressives  and  to  those  like  you  who 
fought  in  Spain  to  help  them.  You  were  in  Spain,  you  xnow  what  the  Spanish 
people  were  fighting  for.  We  have  here  representati\es  from  Czechoslovakia, 
Yugoslavia,  Poland,  and  the  Soviet  Union  ;  they  know  what  the  struggle  was  all 
about — a  war  against  the  forces  of  fascism.  And  so  in  Poland  today,  in  Czecho- 
slovakia, Yugoslavia,  and  China  they  are  fighting  for  a  world  where  people  can 
live  in  peace.  We  cannot  be  confused;  we  know  what  is  going  on,  and  we  must 
take  it  to  the  American  people,  with  no  apologies  for  anything;  we  must  never 
apologize.  It  is  important  not  to  be  afraid  of  saying  we  are  Communists;  we 
cannot  live  in  the  world  without  them,  and  we  must  stop  worrying  about  them. 
We  have  always  been  put  on  the  spot.  We  have  a  Communist  in  the  city  coun- 
cil today — Ben  Davis.  We  have  a  very  special  struggle  in  the  fight  for  the 
Negroes,  in  the  fight  for  the  people.  We  are  in  the  vanguard,  and  we  must  stay 
there,  working  every  day  and  night.  We  must  keep  moving,  to  force  the  reac- 
tionaries back.  It  takes  tremendous  courage,  but  we  will  continue  to  fight  for 
a  decent  world.  We  know  that  in  the  historic  period  today,  we  in  America  are 
bearers  of  the  standards.  America  has  a  great  responsibility — the  veterans 
of  the  brigade  must  live  np  to  their  responsibility. 

Chairman  Jackson  again  took  over,  stating : 

Comrades,  the  old  fighting  songs  have  been  sung  and  the  fighting  words  have 
been  spoken.  Many  of  us  no  longer  give  the  youthful  appearance  we  had  a  few 
years  ago,  but  we  have  more  experience  and  can  go  on  and  carry  on  the  fight 
more  successfully  than  in  the  past.  Before  we  conclude  this  session  of  the  con-' 
vention,  I  think  it  would  be  correct  to  receive  greetings  from  a  representative 
body  of  our  government  which  is  an  indication  that  times  have  changed — 
Eugene  Connolly. 

Eugene  Connolly  addressed  the  audience,  stating  : 

Yes  ;  I  would  like  to  bring  you  greetings.  I  am  very  privileged  as  an  individual, 
and  as  a  member  of  my  party,  to  come  here  and  be  permitted  to  say  a  few  words 
to  the  men  who  know  what  the  struggle  against  fascism  is.  I  would  like  to  say 
something  which  I  think  Paul  Robeson  touched  upon.  It  seems  to  me  that  we 
are  at  a  new  point  in  American  history — we  have  had  great  struggles  in  our  his- 
tory— we  have  had  the  struggles  of  .Tefferson  and  Jackson — we  have  had  the 
debates  of  Lincoln  and  Douglas.  Today  it  seems  to  me  that  the  American  people 
are  about  to  engage  in  a  struggle  which  transcends  these,  and  I  think  it  is  a  fight 


1  James  F.  Byrnes,  Secretary  of  State. 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       543 

we  are  going  to  win.  Franklin  D.  Roosevelt  is  not  dead,  and  the  people  of  Amer- 
ica believe  in  the  things  he  fought  and  died  for ;  carrying  forward  his  policies 
today  is  another  great  leader,  Henry  Wallace.  Mr.  Truman  has  silenced  a  Cabi- 
net member,  but  this  has  aroused  the  voices  of  the  American  people.  Henry  Wal- 
lace, I  am  utterly  convinced,  has  spoken  in  the  voice  of  the  American  people,  and 
I  think  we  are  going  to  win  the  light  against  the  reactionaries  and  against  the 
poll-taxers.  We  are  going  to  win  the  fight  for  the  South.  The  American  people 
understand  that  there  is  only  one  course  for  our  Nation  to  follow,  and  that  is  the 
fight  for  the  peace.  Peace  means  cooperating  with  the  Soviet  Union,  the  out- 
lawing of  Franco.  For  the  American  Labor  Party  I  am  happy  to  say  that  it  is 
our  firm  conviction  that  we  are  going  to  win  this  fight.  A  vote  for  the  American 
Labor  Party  is  a  vote  for  peace.  We  are  not  going  to  compromise  on  the  issue 
we  are  fighting  for — and  that  is  the  fight  for  the  American  people.  We  are  going 
into  the  fight  together,  and  will  work  together. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Have  you  any  information  on  the  American  Committee 
for  Yugoslav  Relief  ? 

]\Ir.  HuBER.  That  was,  of  course,  p  well-known  Communist  front, 
with  much  of  its  activity  run  by  the  party  organizations. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Upon  what  do  you  base  your  statement? 

Mr.  Huber.  Communist  Party  units  were  active  in  promoting  the 
organization,  and  I  knew  that  some  of  the  top  officials  were  Communist 
Party  members  or  connected  with  Communist  Party  fronts.  I  can 
give  you  a  couple  of  examples. 

In  June  1945  the  American  Committee  for  Yugoslav  Relief,  with 
offices  at  58  Park  Avenue,  conducted  a  vigorous  campaign  to  raise 
$1,000,000,  which  was  to  be  used  to  purchase  medical  supplies  for  ship- 
ment to  Yugoslavia.  One  of  their  promotion  schemes  was  to  solicit 
funds  through  the  signing  of  scrolls,  which  were  distributed  through 
the  clubs  of  the  Communist  Party  of  America. 

On  Thursday,  October  24,  1946, 1  was  at  a  dinner  sponsored  by  the 
American  Committee  for  Yugoslav  Relief,  at  the  Hotel  Pennsylvania. 
Admission  was  $6.50  per  person.  About  500  people  attended.  The 
chairman  was  Stanley  Isaacs,  New  York  City  councilman,  who  stated 
that  the  people  of  Yugoslavia  were  grateful  for  help  the  United  States 
was  giving  them  through  the  UNRRA;  that  they  did  not  believe  such 
help  would  be  terminated  by  the  American  people.  The  names  of 
other  speakers,  excepting  that  of  Ambassador  Sava  N.  Kosanovic, 
were  unintelligible  when  introduced.  They  spoke  in  broken  English 
and  were  difficult  to  understand.  Entertainment  was  furnished  by 
Yugoslav  singers  and  dancers.  Pete  Seegar  made  a  hit  with  the  audi- 
ence when  he  had  them  join  in  the  chorus  of  a  song  entitled,  "I'm. 
Gonna  Stick  by  the  Union."  Most  of  the  audience  was  familiar  with 
verses  of  that  song,  which  was  connnonly  sung  at  Communist  Party 
affairs.  A  collection  speech,  started  by  a  priest  of  the  Serbian  Ortho- 
dox Church,^  who  presented  the  committee  with  a  $15,000  donation 
from  his  congregation,  was  later  taken  over  by  William  S.  Gailmor, 
because  of  the  poor  English  spoken  by  the  priest.  They  collected 
about  $25,000.  Ferdinand  Smith  gave  $500  in  the  name  of  NMU; 
$1,000  was  donated  by  a  man  named  Caspar,^  owner  of  the  Stockholm 
Restaurant  in  midtown  Manhattan.  The  concluding  speaker.  Am- 
bassador Sava  N.  Kosanovic,  denied  that  religion  was  not  allowed  to 
be  practiced  in  Yugoslavia  and  said  that  religion  was  free  to  exist  as 


1  Probably  Strahinja  Maletich,  executive  secretary  of  the  United  Committee  of  South 
Slavic  Americans  and  later  an  employee  of  the  Yugoslav  Consulate  in  New  York.  He  has 
been  forced  to  leave  the  United  States. 

2  For  the  testimony  of  Frank  J.  Caspar,  see  p.  77. 


.544       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

always  in  that  country.  He  stated  that  it  was  true  that  the  church 
was  separated  from  the  state  in  his  country,  but  that  it  was  no  different 
than  here  in  America,  where  one  of  the  basic  principles  is  the  separa- 
tion of  the  church  from  the  state.  He  stated  that  the  attacks  on  Yugo- 
slavia over  the  prison  sentence  meted  out  to  Archbishop  Stepinac  were 
unjustilied,  because,  if  the  true  facts  were  known,  Yugoslavia  would 
be  found  blameless  in  that  affair  and  that  Archbishop  Stepinac  was 
given  his  sentence  for  misusing  his  church  to  aid  the  Nazi  occupation. 
He  denounced  the  American  press  for  working  up  a  war  fever  against 
Yugoslavia,  while  at  the  same  time  adopting  a  soft  and  forgiving  note 
toward  those  who  followed  Hitler,  Mussolini,  and  Hirohito.  He  said 
that  his  country  was  grateful  for  the  assistance  of  the  people  of  the 
United  States,  and  stated  that  threats  to  halt  such  aid  were  not  taken 
seriously  by  the  people  of  Yugoslavia.  Guests  included  Saul  Mills, 
Regina  Wilson,  Ferdinand  Smith,  and  Sam  Kanin. 

Mr.  Dekom.  I  notice  in  a  number  of  instances  which  you  have  cited, 
as  well  as  others  which  have  come  to  the  attention  of  this  subcommit- 
tee, that  Communist  officials  and  representatives  from  abroad  have 
participated  in  meetings  over  here.  Is  this  a  common  Soviet  propa- 
ganda technique. 

Mr.  HuBER.  Yes ;  it  is. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Can  you  cite  any  recent  instances  of  that  ? 

Mr.  HuBER.  Yes,  sir.  The  Cultural  and  Scientific  Conference  for 
World  Peace,  held  in  New  York  last  March.  I  was  present  at  that 
meeting  and,  if  you  like,  I  can  give  you  a  full  report  on  it. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Please  go  ahead  and  do  so. 

Mr.  HuBER.  The  National  Council  of  Arts,  Sciences  and  Profes- 
sions, with  headquarters  at  Suit  76, 49  West  44  Street,  New  York  City, 
sponsored  a  Cultural  and  Scientific  Conference  for  World  Peace  on 
March  25,  26  and  27,  1949,  to  which  international  guests  were  invited. 
A  welcome  dinner  was  held  in  the  grand  ballroom,  Waldorf-Astoria 
Hotel,  Forty-ninth  Street  and  Park  Avenue,  on  Friday,  March  25, 
1949,  with  1,900  guests  attending,  reservations  $10  per  plate.  The 
dinner  began  at  7  :  30  and  terminated  at  11 :  40.  Harlow  Shapley,  of 
Harvard,  acted  as  chairman.  Seated  on  the  dais  were  the  following 
guests : 


Myrta  Aguirre,  Cuba 

Dr.  R.  E.  C.  Armattoe,  North  Ireland 

Krisimir  Baronovich,  Yugoslavia 

Ernst  Boas 

Peter  Bogdonov,  Yugoslavia 

Jan  Boor,  Czechoslovakia 

Dr.  Allen  Butler 

F.  Manrlque  Cabrera 

Serge  Chermayoff 

M.  E.  Chiaurely,  U.  S.  S.  R. 

Erling  Cliristophersen,  Norway 

Aaron  Copland,  composer 

Norman  Cousins 

Olin  Downes,  New  York  Times 

W.  E.  B.  DuBois 

A.  A.  Fadeev,  U.  S.  S.  R. 

Prof.  Joseph  Frank,  Sweden 

S.  A.  Gerasimov,  U.  S.  S.  R. 

John  Goss,  Canada 

Nicholas  Guillen,  Cuba 

Lillian  Hellman,  playwright 

Ferdinand  Hercik,  Czechoslovakia 


Pa  well  Hoffman,  Poland 

Jiri  Hronek,  Czechoslovakia 

Hayward  Keniston 

Leon  Kruczkowski 

Brenda  Lewis 

Dr.  Juan  Marinello,  Cuba 

F.  O.  Matthiessen 

Bishop  Arthur  W.  Moulton 

Michael  Nisselson,  Amalgamated  Bank 

A.  I.  Oparin,  U.  S.  S.  R. 

Stanislaw  Ossowski,  Poland 

P.  A.  Pavlenko,  U.  S.  S.  R. 

Jovan  Popovich,  Yugoslavia 

Carlos  Ramos,  Philippines 

0.  John  Rogge 

1.  D.  Rujansky,  U.  S.  S.  R. 
Dr.  Harlow  Shapley 
Mrs.  Harlow  Shapley 
Rev.  Guy  Emery  Shipler 

D.  D.  Shostakovich,  U.  S.  S.  R. 
AVilliam  Olaf  Stapledon,  England 
Ladislav  Stoll,  Czechoslovakia 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       545 


Dr.  Domingo  F.  Villamil,  Cuba 
Alexander  Vucho,  Yugoslavia 
Edward  L.  Young 
Colston  Warne 


■Charles  Stuart 

T.  O.  Tbackery 

Louis  Untermeyer,  poet 

Olive  Van  Horn 

Joseph  Vidmar,  Yugoslavia 

The  dinner  opened  with  Brenda  Lewis,  City  Center  Opera,  singing 
the  National  Anthem,  followed  by  the  invocation  by  liev.  Arthur 
W.  Moulton.  Dr.  Shapley  introduced  the  guests  on  the  dais.  The  first 
speaker  was  Stanislaw  Ossowski,  from  Poland. 

Myrta  Aguirre  from  Cuba,  speaking  in  Spanish  which  was  trans- 
lated into  English,  stated : 

I  take  great  pleasure  in  expressing  Cuban  adherence  to  this  great  assembly 
which  will  work  to  prevent  the  outburst  of  a  preventable  and  avoidable  new 
world  war.  The  future  of  the  world  can  be  resolved  by  specific  and  rational 
means.  As  we  greet  this  congress,  we  lament  that  the  representation  of  Latin 
America  is  reduced  to  one  single  group  and  one  Puerto  Rican.  Only  insur- 
mountable obstacles,  well  known  to  all  of  us,  deprive  them  from  coming.  In  view 
of  these  realities,  I  dare  to  salute  one  and  all  in  the  name  of  all  Latin  Americans 
who  are  not  able  to  be  present ;  I  also  dare  to  salute  this  congress  in  the  name 
of  the  illustrious  women  who  should  have  been  here  today  but  were  unable 
to  come  into  the  country. 

Jovan  Popovich,  from  Yugoslavia,  speaking  in  his  native  tongue, 
which  was  translated  into  English,  stated : 

I  am  indeed  glad  to  greet  this  conference.  The  smoke  of  the  last  war  has 
not  yet  disappeared,  yet  we  are  today  witnessing  new  attempts  to  create  a  war 
psychosis.  However,  this  time  war  is  not  being  heard  everywhere.  We  in  Yugo- 
slavia believe  that  the  peoples  of  all  countries  want  peace  and  friendship  with 
each  other.  Peaceful  cooperation  is  possible  among  countries  with  dillerent 
ways  of  life.  This  is  possible  if  the  rights  of  all  peoples  are  considered.  No 
one  of  us  in  Yugoslavia  wants  or  is  anticipating  war.  From  day  to  day  millions 
of  Yugoslavians  are  building  up  their  country;  the  bright  future  is  around  the 
bend.  The  artists,  scientists,  and  other  professionals  of  my  country  have  a  great 
interest  and  the  people  of  my  country  are  responding.  Among  the  peoples  of  evex'y 
country,  every  piece  of  art,  every  scientitic  achievement  which  serves  to  strengthen 
the  faith  of  man,  finds  immediate  and  deep  response.  On  the  other  hand, 
works  of  art  which  sow  discrimination  and  hatred  work  against  the  common 
good  of  peoples  of  all  countries.  Such  so-called  culture  negates  the  aim  of 
culture. 

F.  Manrique  Cabrera,  speaking  in  Spanish,  which  was  translated  by 
Louis  Untermeyer,  stated: 

As  a  Puerto  Rican  writer,  I  feel  deeply  honored  to  greet  the  people  here 
assembled  for  the  noble  purpose  of  lending  themselves  to  the  supreme  effort  of 
attaining  peace.  On  arriving  in  this  city,  many  of  us  were  faced  with  nervous- 
ness and  alarm  with  respect  to  this  conference.  This  situation  for  a  time 
deprived  us  of  the  necessary  calmness  to  understand  the  lending  of  our  presence 
in  this  place.  Let  us  oppose  this  irrational  aspect  with  our  full  power.  Unly  in 
an  atmosphere  of  peace  is  it  possible  that  the  creative  forces  of  all  men  and 
peoples  may  serve  the  best  interests  of  humanity  and  prosperity.  It  is  just 
as  important  to  say  who  we  are  and  from  whence  we  come  as  it  is  to  say  what 
we  desire :  Peace,  peace  be  to  all  men. 

Chairman  Shapley  read  messages  received  from  the  following: 
Thomas  Mann,  George  Bernard  Shaw,  J.  B.  Priestley,  Frederick  Ash- 
ton,  Frederick  Joliot-Curie,  of  the  Institute  of  Radiology  in  Paris, 
Federation  of  Spanish  Workers  and  Educators;  teachers  in  Finland, 
Puerto  Rico,  Israel,  Yugoslavia;  director  of  the  Hebrew  Academy, 
the  bishop  of  Birmingham,  the  bishop  of  New  South  Wales,  Johannes 
Becker,  of  the  Cultural  League  for  the  Rennaissance  of  Germany; 
Michael  Redgrave,  Martin  Ajaderson,  of  Denmark;  Diego  Rivera,  oi 
Mexico  City;  Professor  Blackett,  scientist  and  author;  and  Sean 
O'Casey. 


546       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 


William  Olaf  Stapledon,  English  philosopher  and  psychologist,  was 
the  next  speaker. 

Further  greetings  were  read  from  Prof.  J.  D.  Bernal,  Paul  Eluard, 
of  France,  and  Abbe  Boulier. 

Charles  Stuart,  educator  and  publicist  who  is  associated  with  the 
Churchman,  followed.  He  recited  the  aims  of  the  common  man  for 
peace,  quoting  that  the  only  thing  we  have  to  fear  is  fear  itself.  He 
said: 

This  is  a  real  fight  for  peace.  Let's  review  the  things  which  have  happened 
here  in  America  to  silence  those  who  speak  for  peace  in  the  realm  of  academic 
freedom:  Dr.  Hyman  Bradnick,  New  York  University;  Dr.  Clyde  R.  Miller,  Prof. 
Roger  Morgan,  Professor  and  Mrs.  Ackley ;  Dr.  George  Parker,  Dr.  Luther  A. 
McNair;  Prof.  Clarence  Ahearn;  and  other  outstanding  professors  from  the 
University  of  Washington— all  dismissed.  These  attacks  have  been  made  upon 
the  Methodist  Federation  and  upon  that  fearless  edtior,  Guy  Emery  Shipler,  of 
the  Churchman,  and  upon  my  own  rector  and  his  son,  Melish.  This  meeting 
is  not  a  climax,  this  is  a  beginning.  This  is  where  we  come  in,  we  go  on  from 
here.  I  am  going  to  ask  you  now  in  the  presence  of  those  foreign  guests,  to 
whom  America  is  a  new  country,  to  show  them  a  different  American  procedure,  to 
take  up  a  collection.  Let's  make  it  another  win,  and  for  the  sake  of  this  com- 
mittee which  has  done  such  a  magnificent  job  tonight  and  will  do  in  the  future, 
let's  show  them  what  we  Americans  can  do. 

The  following  contributions  were  made: 

Harry  Ratigan 

Bobby  and  Joe  Weinstein 

Art     Division     of     the     Arts, 

Sciences,  and  Professions.^ 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Daniel  Gilmore 

Michael  Nisselson 

Eli  Harvard 

Barney  Josephson 

Harry  Prager 

Marcus  Goldman 

Allen  H.  Ford 

Henry    Wilcox 

A.  H.  Goldsten 

Theodore  Shapiro 

Dinah  Feldman 

Benjamin  Gilmore 

Ira    Hirshman 

Sara  Rosenman 

Charles   Peck 

Max  and  Loitis  Shapiro 

Dr.  Benjamin  Siegel 

Nathan  Fisher 

Abe    Pomerantz 

David  Bellow 

Helen  Tamiris 

Lawrence   Herman 

Ralph  Brandon 

William  Morris 

Philip  Jaffe 

Corliss  and  Margaret  Lamont 

Samuel  Jaffe 

Charles    Goldman 

B.  L.  Spitzer 

Daniel  Rock 

Dr.  Raphael  Soyer 

The   Methodist   Federation   for 

Social  Service 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Fagan  (?) 

Dr.  Auriellio  (?) 

Elinor  Gimbel 


$1,000 

John  Stanton 

$100 

1,000 

Mollie  Novick 

Building     Industry,     of     Arts, 

lOO 

1,000 

Sciences  and  Professions     

100 

500 

Louis   Berraan 

100' 

500 

Naomi  Ames 

100 

250 

Samuel   Goodman- 

50' 

250 

Abe   Oilman  _ 

50 

250 

Mary  Galvis _  _ 

50 

200 

Sam  Neuberger 

50 

200 

S.  J.  Rodman _  _ 

50 

200 

Morris   Epstein 

50 

250 

Horace  Titus 

50 

155 

Jerome   Chodorov 

50 

100 

Jules  Epstein-.         

50 

100 

Herman  Rabin 

50 

100 

Micky    Lesser 

40 

100 

Beatrice   Turner 

25 

100 

Sol  Golfein _ 

25 

100 

Jesse  Shapiro _ 

25 

ion 

M.  Steinfeld 

25 

100 

Rose  Gaulden 

25 

100 

George    Ives 

25 

100 

Harry  Mandel 

25 

ion 

Jacob  Allenoff __ 

25 

100 

Beatrice   Buchman 

25 

ino 

Jimmy  Wise 

25 

100 

William  H.  Melish 

25 

100 

Sam    Basso 

25 

100 

Ruth  Rubin-     _ 

25 

100 

Reva  Esser —     _ 

25 

100 

Hester  Gale  Sondergaard 

25 

100 

Mrs.   Ruth   Smith 

50 

inn 

Samuel    litman 

25 

100 

Soiiia  Ruth  Goss - 

25 

Allen    Harvey 

25 

(?) 

Dr.  Emily  Pearson 

25 

100 

Dr.    Lipshitz 

25 

100 

Dr.  Neubauer 

25 

100 

Dr.  Leo  Mayo 

25 

COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       547 

The  estimated  total  contributions  were  over  $15,000. 
Aaron  Copland  introduced  Dimitri  Shostakovich,  who  spoke  in 
Hussian,  which  was  translated  as  follows : 

On  behalf  of  the  members  of  the  Soviet  delegation,  allow  me  to  give  my  greet- 
ings to  the  progressive  representatives  of  America.  We  are  united  with  them 
in  accomplishing  the  noble  task  of  working  for  peace.  I  am  sure  that  this 
meeting  will  be  useful  and  beneficial  to  our  mutual  cause.  As  a  musician  and 
representative  of  the  arts  which  need  not  be  translated  from  one  language  to 
another,  I  realize  how  much  can  be  done  for  the  cause  of  peace — let  our  efforts 
prove  not  fruitless. 

Norman  Cousins,  chairman  of  the  State  Education  Commission  of 
Connecticut  and  editor  of  the  Saturday  Review  of  Literature,  gave  a 
speech,  which  was  so  unexpectedly  pro-American  that  the  audience 
first  gasped  and  then  booed  at  intervals.     He  said : 

I  am  grateful  for  this  opportunity  to  speak,  especially  since  I  am  about  to 
present  a  minority  report.  I  regret  that  everyone  is  not  present  tonight.  The 
announced  purpose  of  this  conference  is  peace,  but  before  i  talk  about  peace,  I 
would  like  to  talk  about  your  visit  to  the  United  States.  I  am  certain  that  there 
are  many  things  which  have  happened  since  your  arrival  that  are  disturbing. 
From  the  moment  you  landed  on  our  shores  you  have  been  in  an  atmosphere 
of  tension,  hostility,  and  strong  violence.  It  is  not  because  Americans  are 
unfriendly.  I  regret  that  this  hostility  is  the  reaction  of  the  auspices  under 
which  this  conference  is  held.  American  people  in  demonstrating  against  this 
conference  are  not  speaking  out  against  peace  but  against  a  small  political  group 
in  this  country  which  has  failed  to  live  up  to  its  words  of  democracy.  *  *  * 
Radicalism  is  not  the  issue.  *  *  *  Under  those  circumstances,  your  visit 
here  proves  that  men  of  all  creeds  and  nations  can  find  and  welcome  a  con- 
genial association.  No  man  can  claim  the  right  to  speak  for  his  countrymen. 
I  am  sure  that  distinguished  representatives  will  want  to  report  back  to  your 
governments  and  people.  Americans  want  peace,  but  they  do  not  want  peace  at 
any  price.  If  the  price  of  peace  is  injustice,  they  don't  want  peace.  If  it  is  the 
price  of  spiritual  denial,  they  don't  want  peace.  If  the  price  is  detachment  from 
the  rights  of  man,  they  will  reject  peace.  Americans  know  what  the  next  war 
means ;  they  know  that  there  can  be  no  victory  in  the  next  war  except  over  life 
itself.  There  will  be  no  fabric  left  at  all  if  peace  is  not  won.  This  has  bolstered 
Americans'  desire  for  peace — support  the  United  Nations — the  time  has  come 
for  all  peoples  everywhere  to  give  the  United  Nations  power  to  enact  force.  We 
must  recognize  a  higher  law.  This  means  that  those  methods  affecting  the 
security  of  all  peoples  must  be  supported — the  United  Nations  must  be  backed 
by  force.  The  veto  must  be  abolished,  backed  by  the  machinery  of  justice  and 
due  process  of  law.  Mankind's  conscience  must  be  built  into  the  structure  of  the 
United  Nations.  Tell  them  of  the  growing  support  in  the  United  States  for 
peace;  tell  them  about  the  citizens  of  Connecticut  who  voted  in  favor  of  giving 
the  UN  power  for  security,  for  peace.  Tell  them  the  American  people  want 
to  build  the  United  Nations;  tell  them  it  is  not  true  that  the  American  Govern- 
ment wants  war,  but  until  a  strong  UN  is  established  it  will  stand  firm  against 
aggression ;  tell  them  that  Americans  are  anti-Communist  but  not  antihumani- 
tarian ;  that,  while  Americans  respect  the  rights  of  other  people  for  their  own 
forms  of  government  they  are  apprehensive  of  government  by  coercion,  especially 
when  coercion  comes  from  without.  Say  that  democracy  is  an  enduring  princi- 
ple; say  that  it  means  there  is  enough  room  in  America  to  believe  in  Herbert 
Hoover  and  Harry  Truman  and  Franklin  D.  Roosevelt ;  say  that  democracy  to 
Americans  means  making  mistakes  and  correcting  them.  Democracy  in  America 
comes  under  the  heading  of  unfinished  business  and  it  does  exist  strongly.  Say 
that  Americans  believe  in  intellectual  freedom ;  say  finally  that  Americans 
recognize  that  there  are  ideological  differences  separating  the  peoples  of  the 
world  today  but  they  are  not  free;  that  peoples  are  more  important  than  nations 
and  what  is  at  stake  is  the  coming  destiny  of  man.  Say  that  America  would 
like  to  hold  out  its  hand  to  the  peoples  of  the  world  and  it  is  doing  this  because 
of  the  differences  which  must  be  kept  from  catching  on  fire. 

Lillian  Hellman  followed,  severely  criticizing  Cousins'  speech, 
stating  it  should  have  been  made  in  panel  [loudly  applauded].  "It 
has  been  a  strange  week,  with  people  calling  the  sponsors  and  asking 


548       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

them  to  withdraw."    She  stated  she  had  joined  the  anti-Communist 
picket  line  in  order  to  get  the  reaction  of  the  pickets.    She  added : 

I  dislike  the  vulgarism  of  the  word  "philosophy."  There  is  a  new  kind  of 
philosophy  this  week  being  practiced  by  hook  or  crookism  which  allows  many 
versions — if  you  want  to  call  names  of  honest  men,  you  do  it.  I  think  it  is^ 
possible  that,  if  we  told  you  of  the  many  phone  calls  made  by  Professor  Hook,^ 
it  would  not  sound  possible.  Governor  Dewey  embraced  Professor  Hook  early 
this  week.  We  intellectuals  were  meant  to  act  like  statesmen.  Many  of  us 
disagree  on  many  i-s;ues  with  many  others  of  us  here.  Four  years  ago,  I  was 
living  on  the  Polish  front  with  the  Russian  Army.  Now  it  is  fashionable  to 
feel  that  only  Russia  is  at  fault.  I  think  we  have  come  together  to  say  we  are 
tired  of  speaking  about  whose  fault  it  is.  I  think  it  isn't  right  for  men  to  have 
scales ;  it  no  longer  matters  whose  fault  it  is  but  just  that  this  must  be  stopped. 
Wars  will  not  kill  capitalism  nor  communism.  History  will  take  care  of  what 
will  come.  You  can't  kill  ideologies.  It  is  sad  that  we  have  not  learned  this 
lesson.  This  dinner  was  not  planned  for  solutions ;  in  all  humility  we  can  do  no 
worse  than  statesmen.  We  want  only  to  declare  here  that  there  are  still  men 
and  women  in  the  world  who  don't  think  it  dangerous  for  peace.  Long  live  life ; 
that's  why  we  are  here. 

On  Saturday,  March  26,  1949,  the  keynote  session  of  the  Cultural 
and  Scientific'  Conference  for  World  Peace  was  held  at  Carnegie 
Hall,  Fifty-seventh  Street  and  Seventh  Avenue,  from  10:40  a.  m.  to 
1 :  15  p.  m.  Hilda  Morse  sang  the  national  anthem,  Dr.  Harlow  Shap- 
ley  acted  as  chairman.  He  announced  that,  due  to  the  large  demand 
for  admission  to  the  panels,  each  delegate  would  be  permitted  to 
attend  only  one  panel.  He  denounced  the  one-sidedness  of  the  repre- 
sentation of  this  conference  as  Communist  as  being  the  fault  of  the 
Department  of  State.  The  international  guests  who  had  appeared  at 
the  dinner  were  again  introduced  to  the  people  present  at  this  session. 
Shapley  announced  that  the  national  members  of  the  NCASP  would 
hold  a  dinner  meeting  in  suite  744  Saturday  night ;  that  members  of 
the  resolutions  committee  would  meet  in  suite  2545  on  Sunday  at 
9 :  30  a.  m.,  as  follows : 

Dr.  Allan  M.  Butler  Mary  Van  Cleve  Clifford  Durr 

Bishop  MoiTlton  Michael  Nisselson  Colston  Warne 

Olin  Downes  Ira  Wolfert  James  Waterman  Wise 

W.  E.  DuBois  O.  John  Rogge  Arthur  Gaeth 

Lillian  Hellman  Philip  Morrison  John  Howard  Lawson 

Arthur  Miller  Guy  Emery  Shipler  Martin  Popper 

Professor  Fairchild  Louis  Untermeyer  Shirley  Graham 

Herman  Herrey  Olive  Van  Horn  Dr.  Edward  Young 

Shapley  then  discussed  the  world  in  the  atomic  age. 

Arthur  W.  Moult  on  discussed  the  foundations  for  peace,  stating : 

The  foundations  of  peace  lie  in  the  collective  good  will  of  the  peoples ;  that 
this  collective  good  will  becomes  highest  through  the  arts,  cultures,  sciences,  and 
professions.  The  preamble  of  the  United  Nations  Charter  begins  that  the  peo- 
ples of  the  United  Nations  determine  to  save  succeeding  generations  from  the 
scourge  of  war.  The  word  is  that  word  "peoples"  and  the  other  word  is  that 
word  "determined" ;  it  is  "peoples"  and  not  "people."  Peoples  of  the  nations  are 
determined  to  see  to  it  that  war  is  out  of  fashion.  It  is  outdated  and  outmoded  ; 
it  is  obsolescent  and  we  are  determined  to  make  it  obsolete.  What  about  this 
determination — how  are  you  going  to  put  body,  soul,  spirit,  mind,  and  will  into 
it  to  make  it  stand  out  under  the  assaults  of  fearmongers?  That  is  the  task 
of  this  conference.     The  forces  which  build  the  world  into  a  pleasant  place  to 


iProf.  Sidney  Hook,  chairman  of  the  philosophy  department  at  New  York  University, 
orj^anized  a  counter  rally  and  denounced  the  Cultural  and  Scientific  Conference  for  World 
Peace. 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       549 

live  in  and  make  that  life  worth  while  are  emerging  from  the  foxholes  of  timidity 
and  demand  your  attention  as  they  take  over  the  world.  This  is  a  resurrection 
and  resurgence  of  the  forces..  I  want  you  to  see  something  of  the  glory  of  the 
High  Command.  I  would  like  to  tell  the  peoples  of  the  world  that  war  shall 
be  no  more ;  that  we  possess  magic  to  prevent  destruction  ;  draw  the  minds  of  the 
people  from  the  ugly  to  the  bad.  I  want  the  peoples  to  he  seized  by  a  moral 
infatuation  for  world  peace ;  it  is  a  collective  matter.  Nobody  wants  war ;  get 
the  world's  mind  off  war.  Collective  contributions  of  the  people  of  the  world 
in  their  arts,  cultures,  professions,  religions,  form  an  Olympian  structure  which 
will  bring  world  peace.  I  urg-e  that  everyone  join  religion  to  be  geared  into 
the  daily  life  of  the  individual  to  enrich  personality  and  sire  enthusiasm  for  the 
job  of  saving  the  world.  Religion  and  progress  are  twins.  Quit  living  like 
atheists  and  move  into  the  army  where  God  dwells. 

Moulton's  address  was  not  to  the  liking  of  the  audience  in  his  con- 
stant reiteration  that  religion  and  God  were  the  basic  factors  for 
achieving  permanent  peace. 

Nicholas  Guillen  of  Cuba  spoke  in  Spanish,  which  was  translated 
by  Millard  Lampell,  as  follows : 

This  conference  meets  during  dark  moments  for  the  world.  However,  limited 
and  restricted,  it  still  plays  a  giant  part  in  this  hour  of  anguish  ;  frightened  people 
are  thinking  of  the  armed  drive.  This  war  could  not  start  by  itself  alone. 
It  is  not  an  invited  war,  and  there  is  on  this  earth  no  just  meaning  for  its 
being  unleashed.  The  trust  to  sell  war  and  obtain  the  fabulous  dividends  of 
war  is  comprised  of  those  who  will  not  go  to  it ;  to  ambitious  government  men 
who  will  follow  the  course  from  their  green  tables,  the  marching  men  they 
have  sent  to  death,  merchants  of  death,  powerful  rich,  smooth  smug  politicians, 
those  who  never  saw  action  during  the  war  but  read  it  in  the  headlines.  Be- 
cause this  war  would  be  fomented  by  stupidity,  hatred,  ignorance,  lies  against 
them,  intelligence  must  prevail,  must  remain  awake.  The  artist  who  considers 
himself  outside  the  struggle  of  our  time  must  realize  that  his  destiny  is  to  stand 
among  people  with  the  aim  of  peace. 

T.  O.  Thackrey,  editor  and  publisher  of  the  New  York  Post,  dis- 
cussed United  States  foreign  policy  and  its  effect  on  world  peace.  O. 
John  Rogge  discussed  the  relation  of  domestic  to  foreign  policy. 

On  Saturday,  March  26,  1949,  from  2  p.  m.  to  5  p.  m.,  the  following 
panel  sessions  were  held  in  the  name  rooms  of  the  Waldorf-Astoria  r 

Economic  and  social  sciences — Jade  Room  : 

The  IMarshall  Plan  in  Relation  to  Peace  and  War,  by  Paul  M.  Sweezy, 

economist. 
The  Economic  Consequences  of  the  Cold  War  in  the  United  States,  by  Prof. 

Colston  E.  Warne. 
The  Effect  of  a  Disrupted  World  on  Food  Problems  and  Prospects,  by  David 

M.  Lubbock. 
Racism,  Colonialism,  and  World  Peace,  by  Gene  Weltfish. 
The  Social  Consequences  of  the  Cold  War  in  the  United  States,  by  Grace 

F.  Marcus. 
Mass  Communications — Wedgewood  Room  : 
Remarks  of  Alexander  Vucho. 
Discussion  on  behalf  of  the  workers  of  Soviet  art  and  Soviet  cinema,  by 

Sergei  A.  Gerasimov. 
Mass  Communications  in  Latin  America,  by  Myrta  Aguirre. 
The  Front  Desk  and  the  Foreign  Correspondent,  by  Victor  Bernstein. 
The  War  Crises  in  the  Headlines,  by  I.  F.  Stone. 
The  Role  of  American  Radio  in  World  Peace,  by  Arthur  Gaeth. 
The  Cold  War  and  the  American  Film,  by  John  Howard  Lawson. 
Education — Astor  Gallery  : 

Education  in  Czechoslovakia,  by  Jan  Boor. 

Education  in  Poland,  by  Stanislaw  Ossowski. 

Taboos  on  Knowledge,  a  Menace  to  World  Peace,  by  John  J.  de  Boer. 

Implementing  Academic  Freedom,  by  Dr.  Hayward  Keniston. 


550       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

Religion  and  Ethics — Basildon  Room  : 

The  Responsibility  of  the  Church  and  Synagogue  Today,  by  Rev.  Shelton 
Hale,  Bishop. 

Same  subject  discussed  by  Rev.  S.  Harrington  Littell. 

Same  sub.1ect  discussed  by  Rt.  Rev.  Arthur  W.  Moulton. 

Same  subject  discussed  by  Rabbi  Louis  I.  Newman. 

The  Cold  War  or  a  Living  Peace,  by  Rev.  Guy  Emery  Shipler. 

The  Ideological  Conflict,  by  William  Olaf  Stapledon. 
Writing  and  publishing — Starlight  Roof : 

The  Writer  and  Today's  Challenge  for  Peace,  by  Richard  O.  Boyer, 

The  Independence  Movement  in  Asia,  by  Agnes  Smedley. 

The  Written  Word  in  the  Struggle  for  Peace,  by  P.  A.  Pavelenko. 

W.  E.  B.  DuBois  discussed  freedom  of  tliought. 
Planning  and  building — Palm  Room  : 

Development  of  United  States  Resources  for  Peace,  by  Henry  T.  ShotweU 

Opening  remarlis  by  Serge  Chermayeff. 
Scientific — Astor  Gallery,  8  to  11  p.  m. : 

W.  A.  Higinbotham  discussed  atomic  energy. 

Viewpoint  of  the  Progressive  Czech  Scientist  on  War  and  Peace,  by  Prof. 
Ferdinand  Hercik. 

Science  and  the  Struggle  for  Peace,  by  A.  I.  Oparin. 

Science  as  a  Bridge  to  Peace,  by  Walter  Orr  Roberts. 

The  Science  of  Life  and  Death,  by  Prof.  Theodore  Rosebury. 

Prerequisites    for    Maximum    American    Scientific    Contribution   to   World 
Abundance,  by  Henry  A.  Wallace. 
Fine  arts — Starlight  Roof,  8  to  11  p.  m. :  The  Artist  as  Interpreter  of  His  Age,  by 

Philip  Evergood. 
Physical  and  mental  health — Palm  Room,  Sunday,  March  27,  10  a.  m.  to  12 :  30 
p.  m. : 

The  Importance  of  Peace  to  the  Health  of  the  People  and  to  Medicine,  by 
Dr.  Ernst  Boas. 

International  Relationships  for  Mutual  Benefits,  by  Dr.  R.  B.  G.  Armattoe. 

Wealth  and  Health  in  the  U.  S.  A.,  by  Dr.  Allan  M.  Butler. 

Social  Environment  and  Mental  Health,  by  Dr.  Julius  Schreiber. 

On  Sunday,  March  27, 1949,  the  plenary  session  of  the  Cultural  and 
Scientific  Conference  for  World  Peace  was  held  in  the  grand  ball- 
room of  the  Waldorf-Astoria  Hotel  from  2:  15  p.  m.  to  5:25  p.  m. 
Prof.  Harlow  Shapley  acted  as  chairman.  Prof.  Frederick  L.  Schu- 
man  spoke  on  American-Soviet  relations.  A.  A.  Fadeev,  secretary- 
general  of  the  Secretariat  of  the  Union  of  Soviet  Writers,  spoke  in 
Kussian,  translated  by  Martin  Blaine,  in  part,  as  follows : 

Professor  Schuman  is  mistaken.  There  are  no  elements  in  our  country  which 
desire  war  in  the  United  States  or  in  any  other  country. 

He  praised  the  book,  The  Great  Conspiracy  Against  Russia,  writ- 
ten by  Albert  Kahn  and  Michael  Sayre : 

I  think  the  important  thing  is  to  understand  that  those  elements  in  the  United 
States  who  would  like  to  see  another  war  are  not  only  the  enemies  of  the  Soviet 
but  also  the  enemies  of  the  American  people,  who,  like  ourselves,  do  not  want 
war.  All  these  facts  indicate  that  the  threat  of  a  new  war  does  not  come  from 
the  Soviet.  Peoples  of  the  world  will  severely  punish  the  instigators  of  a 
new  war. 

Dr.  Juan  Marinello,  delegate  from  Cuba,  spoke  in  Spanish,  which 
was  translated  by  Roger  deKoven,  actor.  Agnes  Smedley  spoke  on 
the  independence  movement  in  Asia  (same  speech  delivered  at  the 
Writing  and  Publishing  Panel) .  Dr.  R.  E.  G.  Armattoe  discussed  the 
independence  movements  in  Africa. 

Dr.  Frederick  L.  Schuman  again  spoke,  in  answer  to  the  points 
raised  by  A.  A.  Fadeev,  as  follows : 

It  is  important  to  me  that  I  owe  it  to  you  to  explain.  I  did  not  make  myself 
clear  due  to  difficulties  of  language.    I  was  told  in  Mr.  Fadeev's  very  informative 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       551 

and  moving  address  that  he  said  that  there  are  no  elements  in  the  Union  of  Soviet 
Socialist  Republics  desiring  war  with  the  United  States.  1  agree  completely 
with  that  statement.  I  also  agree  with  the  implication  of  the  statement  that 
there  are  some  elements  in  the  United  States  desiring  war  with  the  Union  of 
Soviet  Socialist  Republics.  Those  elements  are  not  yet  in  Washington  but  else- 
where— not  yet  very  influential  or  very  important.  Some  of  you  disagree,  but  I 
want  you  to  know  my  view  of  this.  It  seems  to  me  that  this  is  not  the  central 
problem  that  we  are  faced  with  as  we  try  to  think  and  act  in  terms  of  avoiding 
catastrophe  in  the  future.  Our  drift  toward  war  is  not  primarily  the  product 
of  the  words  or  the  acts  of  anyone  anywhere  who  wants  war  in  either  country ; 
it  is  a  product  of  international  anarchy — of  the  lack  jf  any  effective  world  govern- 
ment. There  can  be  no  progress  toward  the  goal  of  some  structure  of  world 
government  except  on  the  basis  of  an  American-Soviet  settlement  and  coopera- 
tion. Our  drift  toward  war  is  also  the  product  of  irrational  fears  and  hopes  on 
both  sides.  Almost  no  one  in  the  United  States  really  wants  war  with  the  Union 
of  Soviet  Socialist  Republics,  but  they  fear  Soviet  socialism  and  hope  it  will 
collapse  or  be  destroyed.  American  capitalism  has  nothing  whatever  to  fear 
from  Soviet  socialism,  which  will  not  collapse  or  be  destroyed,  or  vice  versa.  The 
problem  of  peace  is  the  problem  of  whether  our  two  different  societies  can  coexist 
and  compete  with  one  another  creatively  in  peace.  The  ultimate  alternative 
toward  that  is  the  destruction  of  each  city  in  its  efforts  to  destroy  the  other. 
Our  answer  is  that  they  can  coexist  in  peace  and  must  do  so  if  our  civilization, 
east  and  west,  is  to  survive.  Since  the  death  of  Franklin  D.  Roosevelt,  America 
has  not  been  making  its  contribution  toward  peace.  We  ask  if  Russia  will  make 
her  contribution  for  peace.     I  believe  it  will,  but  it  remains  to  be  seen. 

A  man  introduced  as  Joe  of  the  organization  made  a  statistical 
report  as  follows : 

Number  of  people  registered,  2,82.3,  including  representatives  of  all  the  arts, 
sciences,  and  professions ;  491  from'  art,  music,  theater,  and  dance ;  244  from 
education;  246  from  economic  and  social  sciences;  202  from  mass  communica- 
tions; 84  universities,  colleges,  and  technical  institutes  represented;  575  dele- 
gates from  outside  of  the  State  of  New  York,  representing  21  States,  including 
California,  Utah,  and  the  State  of  Washington ;  number  attending  panels,  8,525. 

An  announcement  was  made  that  the  action  committee  would  meet 
at  10  a.  m.  on  Monday,  March  28,  composed  of  representatives  from 
each  of  the  groups  in  the  organization.  A  group  of  messages  on 
record,  recorded  by  Levy's  Sound  Studios,  Inc.,  73  New  Bond  Street, 
London,  England,  were  run  off,  as  follows :  Mis&  Patricia  Burke,  Louis 
Golding,  J.  G.  Crowther,  and  J.  D.  Bernal. 

The  text  of  resolutions  as  drawn  up  by  the  resolutions  committee 
was  read,  followed  by  discussion  from  the  floor.  Lillian  Hellman, 
Mary  Van  Cleve,  and  Martin  Popper  presented  the  resolutions. 
Joseph  Winan,  chariman  of  the  National  Jewish  Writers  and  Artists; 
Albert  Kahn,  approving  the  resolutions,  called  for  "peace  at  this 
time."  Herman  Herrey  and  Howard  Fast  spoke  from  the  floor. 
Eesolutions  were  unanimously  approved.  On  the  resolution  on  cul- 
tural freedom,  Louis  Harkis  stated  the  LTnited  Public  Workers  of 
America  (CIO)  demand  revocation  of  the  President's  loyalty  order. 
Mrs.  Rose  Russell  of  the  Teachers  Union  and  Philip  Morrison  also 
spoke.  In  conclusion,  Roger  deKoven  read  a  message  received  from 
Thomas  Mann. 

A  mass  meeting  was  held  on  Sunday  night,  March  27,  at  Madison 
Square  Garden,  from  8  p.  m.  to  midnight;  admission  was  from  60 
cents  to  $3.60.  Harlow  Shapley  acted  as  chairman ;  Arline  Carmen 
opened  with  the  singing  of  the  Star-Spangled  Banner,  followed  by 
the  invocation  by  the  Rt.  Reverend  Arthur  W.  Moulton.  A  dramatic 
skit  was  narrated  by  Sam  Wanamaker,  based  on  messages  from  people 
throughout  the  world  calling  for  peace. 

98330— 50— pt.  2 7 


552       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 


The  international  guests  seated  on  the  platform  were  introduced, 
which  was  followed  by  a  speech  by  Dr.  W.  E.  B.  DuBois.  Dr.  Shap- 
ley  repeated  the  address  given  at  the  keynote  session.  Dr.  R.  E.  G. 
Armattoe  repeated  the  speech  made  at  the  plenary  session.  Leon 
Kruczkowski,  speaking  in  Polish,  translated  by  Sam  Wanamaker, 
defended  the  Soviet  Union's  efforts  for  peace.  Domingo  F.  Villamil 
spoke  in  English.  Messages  were  read  from  people  to  whom  visas 
had  been  denied.  Millard  Lampell  read  a  message  sent  by  Paul  Eluard. 
William  Olaf  Stapledon  repeated  the  speech  he  made  at  the  welcom- 
ing dinner.  John  Howard  Lawson,  followed.  Jiri  Hronek  delivered 
a  message  from  the  people  of  Czechoslovakia.  Charles  Stuart 
announced  messages  from  various  people,  including  one  received  from 
Charles  Chaplin.  He  appealed  for  a  general  contribution  toward 
maintaining  peace  throughout  the  world ;  total  collection  approxi- 
mated $15,000.     Among  the  contributors  were : 


Writers,    Actors,    and    Artists 

of    Chicago $1,000 

Hollywood   Artists 1,200 


Joseph    Kaminoff— 

Harry  Kriegel 

A.  H.  Bilstein 

Lottie  Davidoff 

Sophie  Zuckerbrod. 

Chester   Dichter 

Paul    Kronby 

Elizabeth    Halprin. 
Margaret   Parry 


100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 


Isabel  Ruary $100 


William   Vulcan- 
Leo    Golden 

Lillian    Miller 

Joseph    Miller 

Marjorie   Sloan 

Gussie  McMahon. 
Mrs.  Wishinsky_. 
Mr.  Wishinsky— 
Gertrude    Butnik. 

Ha^el    Welch 

William   Gailmor. 


Richard  Lauterbach  spoke  on  the  shame  and  embarrassment  he 
felt  at  the  exclusion  of  foreign  representatives  to  the  conference.  A. 
A.  Fadeev  spoke  in  Russian,  translated  by  Martin  Blaine.  Dimitri 
Shostakovich  was  introduced  and  played  a  selection,  for  which  he 
received  an  outstanding  ovation,  but  he  refused  to  play  an  encore  and 
did  not  speak.  The  two  major  resolutions  approved  at  the  plenary 
session  of  the  conference  were  unanimously  approved  by  the  audience. 

Mr.  Dekom.  With  the  conclusion  of  your  testimony  concerning 
the  Cultural  and  Scientific  Conference  for  World  Peace,  we  shall 
recess  subject  to  call  of  the  chairman. 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  AMONG  ALIENS  AND  NATIONAL 

GEOUPS 


FRIDAY,  OCTOBER  28,   1949 

United  States  Senate, 
Special  Subcommittee  to  Investigate 
THE  Immigration  Laws,  of  the 

Committee  on  the  Judiciary, 

Washington^  D.  G. 
The  subcommittee  met,  pursuant  to  call,  at  10 :  30  a.  m.,  in  Room 
424-C,  Senate  Office  Building,  Senator  Forrest  C.  Donnell,  presiding. 
Present :  Senator  Donnell. 

Also  present :  Otto  J.  Dekom,  professional  staff  member. 
Senator  Donnell.  Let  the  record  show  that  this  is  further  hearing 
on  S.  1832.     Our  witness  this  morning  is  Mr.  John  J.  Huber,  who,  I 
understand,  is  to  continue  with  his  testimony. 
Mr.  Dekom.  Yes,  sir. 

PUETHER  TESTIMONY  OF  JOHN  J.  HUBER 

Senator  Donnell.  Mr.  Huber,  for  purposes  of  identification,  will 
you  again  state  your  full  name  and  address  in  the  record  at  this  point? 

Mr.  Huber.  John  J.  Huber,  Cortlandt  Street,  Mount  Vernon,  N.  Y. 

Senator  Donnell.  You  previously  gave  testimony  at  a  hearing 
during  part  of  which  I  was  in  attendance,  did  you  not? 

Mr.  Huber.  Yes,  sir. 

Senator  Donnell.  Are  you  prepared  at  this  time  to  proceed  with 
your  testimony  ? 

Mr.  Huber.  Yes,  sir ;  I  am. 

Senator  Donnell,  Mr.  Huber,  I  shall  not  remain  for  the  taking 
of  the  testimony,  but  Mr.  Dekom  will  doubtless  interrogate  you,  and 
you  will,  therefore,  feel  at  liberty  to  proceed  to  answer  such  questions 
as  he  may  propound  to  you  and  that  you  may  deem  proper  to  answer. 
Also,  he  will  refer  to  various  exhibits,  I  believe,  to  be  introduced 
into  the  record  in  the  course  of  the  hearing. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Yes,  sir. 

Senator  Donnell.  I  shall  not  remain  further,  but  the  hearing  will 
now  proceed  along  those  lines. 

Mr.  Dekom.  I  would  like  to  state  for  the  record  that  Mr.  Huber 
previously  appeared  before  this  subcommittee  on  September  8  and  9. 
At  that  time  he  was  instructed  to  prepare  certain  additional  material 
and  to  present  additional  exhibits.  Mr.  Huber  is  now  prepared  to 
go  on  with  the  testimony  as  per  his  instructions  from  the  committee 
at  the  previous  hearings. 

I  will  now  proceed  with  the  questions,  Mr.  Huber. 

553 


554       COJMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

Are  you  familiar  with  the  work  of  the  Communist  Party  among 
chikh-en  and  young  people;  their  efforts  to  indoctrinate  them  with 
the  Communist  ideology? 

Mr.  HuBER.  Yes,  I  am.  The  Communist  Party  maintains  a  special 
summer  camp  for  children  in  the  Schooleys  Mountains,  at  Pleasant 
Grove,  N.  J.  The  camp  is  called  Camp  Wo-Chi-Ca,  which  is  a  con- 
traction of  Workers'  Children's  Camp.  It  consists  of  320  acres  and  is 
used  exclusively  for  the  children  of  party  members. 

The  camp  office  was  at  112  East  Nineteenth  Street,  New  York,  and  2 
years  ago  it  moved  to  the  IWO  headquarters  building  at  80  Fifth 
Avenue.  The  manager  of  the  office  and  camp  is  a  Communist  Party 
member  by  the  name  of  Matt  Hall.  The  counselors  are  all  membei's 
of  the  Communist  Party  and  the  Young  Communist  League.  That 
is  now  known  as  the  American  Youth  for  Democracy. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Is  American  Youth  for  Democracy  the  successor  of 
the  Young  Communist  League? 

Mr.  HuBER.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Do  you  kiiow  that  of  your  own  knowledge? 

Mr.  HuBER.  Yes,  sir. 

They  take  the  children  from  the  age  of  8  and  provide  them  with  a 
thorough  Communist  education,  until  they  are  ready  to  be  accepted 
by  the  American  Youth  for  Democracy.  Children  at  the  camp  range 
from  8  to  15  years  of  age.  Matt  Hall  told  me  that  these  children  get 
what  the  party  calls  a  good  "progressive"  education  in  addition  to  rec- 
]-eation  at  the  camp. 

Starting  August  1,  1941,  the  Communist  Party  conducted  a  drive 
to  raise  funds  to  enlarge  the  camp  to  accommodate  1,000  children. 
Prominent  people  aiding  in  this  drive  were  William  Dodcl,  Jr.,  son  of 
the  former  Ambassador  to  Germany ;  Mrs.  Louis  Gimbel,  wife  of  the 
department  store  owner. 

On  Sunday,  September  21,  1941,  I  attended  a  party  for  Camp  Wo- 
Chi-Ca  at  the  home  of  Canada  Lee,  102  West  One  Hundred  and  Thirty- 
sixth  Street,  an  actor  in  Native  Son  (written  by  Eichard  Wright  and 
staged  by  Orson  Welles) .  About  150  people  were  present,  half  Negroes 
and  half  whites.  Prominent  people  present  were  Dr.  Max  Weissman ; 
Arthur  Brunlich  (recently  dismissed  from  City  College  for  Communist 
activities)  ;  Herbert  Newton,  vice  president  of  the  WPA  and  Teachers 
Unions  (he  was  under  indictment  for  attacking  a  police  officer),  and 
Rev.  Owen  Knox.  Canada  Lee  flew  in  from  Boston  for  the  occasion. 
This  benefit  was  the  first  of  many  staged  for  Camp  Wo-Chi-Ca,  the 
proceeds  of  which  were  to  be  used  to  erect  new  buildings.  The  admis- 
sion fee  of  $1  per  person  entitled  each  to  one  drink.  There  was  enter- 
tainment and  dancing.  Matt  Hall,  director  of  the  camp,  thanked  the 
guests  and  told  them  that  the  proceeds  of  this  party  would  be  put  to 
good  use. 

On  Friday,  September  26,  1941,  I  attended  a  party  at  the  home  of 
William  Dodd,  Jr.,  231  East  Seventy-sixth  Street,  to  raise  funds  for 
Camp  Wo-Chi-Ca.  About  150  people  attended.  It  was  a  swanky, 
affair,  with  most  women  wearing  formal  attire,  and  admittance  by  in- 
vitation only.  Entertaining  was  by  professional  artists  who  volun- 
teered their  services.  During  the  evening,  the  coming  Madison  Square 
Garden  rally  was  freely  discussed  by  the  guests,  as  were  conditions  in 
the  Soviet  Union.     Bill  Dodd  appealed  for  funds  on  behalf  of  Camp 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       555 

Wo-Chi-Ca  and  a  large  sum  was  contributed  by  the  guests.  Guests  in- 
cluded Dr.  and  Mrs.  E.  Kallman,  Dr.  and  Mrs.  I.  Engel  Kaufman, 
Annette  Kubenstein,  Matt  Hall,  Mrs.  Vincent  Sheean,  Dave  Green, 
and  Dr.  Max  Yergan. 

On  Monday,  October  6, 1941,  there  was  a  meeting  of  the  committee  of 
Camp  Wo-Chi-Ca,  at  its  offices  at  112  East  Nineteenth  Street.  It  was 
decided  that  a  committee  should  be  appointed  to  contact  Dorothy 
Thompson,  regarding  a  personal  appearance.  The  strategy  used  was 
for  Charlotte  Honig  to  contact  Dorothy  Thomi)son  through  Mrs. 
Vincent  Sheean,  a  personal  acquaintance  of  Charlotte's.  By  so  doing, 
they  figured  on  not  only  being  able  to  get  Miss  Thompson  to  speak  for 
less  money,  but  concluded  that  she  would  not  investigate  the  true 
character  of  the  organization  for  which  she  was  to  appear.  She  was 
to  be  told  that  it  was  an  organization  to  raise  money  for  a  children's 
summer  camp.  I  also  learned  that  Paul  Robeson  was  donating  to 
Camp  Wo-Chi-Ca  the  entire  proceeds  from  the  preview  showing  of  a 
play  in  which  he  was  to  star. 

On  October  16,  1941,  while  lunching  at  the  Twelfth  Street  and  Uni- 
versity Place  restaurant,  frequented  by  Daily  Worker  employees  and 
employees  of  the  national  office  of  the  Communist  Party,  in  company 
of  Al  Lannon,  Hyman  Wolf,  Matt  Hall,  Charlotte  Honig,  and  Alex 
Guttman,  we  talked  about  Camp  Wo-Chi-Ca.  Lannon  told  Hall  he 
would  see  that  the  National  Maritime  Union  would  give  full  support 
to  any  undertaking  of  the  camp. 

Mr.  Dekom.  You  mentioned  the  name  of  William  E.  Dodd,  Jr.,  in 
connection  with  Camp  Wo-Chi-Ca.  Have  you  any  additional  infor- 
mation on  this  man? 

Mr.  HuBER.  Yes. 

On  October  23,  1941, 1  was  at  the  offices  of  Camp  Wo-Chi-Ca  when 
the  Reverend  Sprague,  of  the  United  American-Spanish  Aid  Commit- 
tee, phoned  to  ask  for  the  telephone  number  of  William  E.  Dodd, 
Jr.  As  the  girl  in  the  office  did  not  know  whether  to  give  it  or  not, 
she  told  him  she  did  not  have  the  number,  but  expected  Charlotte 
Honig  shortly  and  would  have  her  call  him  back.  Wlien  Honig  was 
advised  of  the  call,  she  phoned  Sprague  inquiring  if  he  was  going  to 
speak  to  Bill  Dodd  about  party  matters.  When  informed  it  was  other 
business,  she  gave  the  number,  telling  Sprague  that  Dodd  had  given 
instructions  that  no  matters  pertaining  to  the  Communist  Party  were 
to  be  discussed  over  the  telephone. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Do  you  have  to  report  anything  further  on  Camp 
Wo-Chi-Ca? 

Mr.  HuBER.  Yes;  I  do.  On  Saturday,  December  6,  1941,  there  was 
a  party  at  the  home  of  Dr.  and  Mrs.  I.  Engel  Kaufman,  at  170  West 
Seventy-third  Street,  to  raise  funds  for  Camp  Wo-Chi-Ca.  Invita- 
tions were  issued  only  to  people  of  means  who  were  in  a  financial  posi- 
tion to  contribute  liberally  and  who  could  also  use  their  influence  in 
interesting  others  in  their  particular  circles.  No  admission  was 
charged  and  a  buffet  dinner  was  served.  Only  20  people  attended. 
Reverend  Sprague.  of  the  United  American-Spanish  Aid  Committee, 
spoke  of  the  splendid  work  the  camp  was  doing  for  underprivileged 
children  and  of  the  urgent  need  for  improvement.  Donations 
amounted  to  $860,  with  several  hundred  dollars  more  pledged.  Guests 
included  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Kahn,  Dr.  E.  Kallman,  Doris  Green,  Bella 


556       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

Dodd,  Dr.  Annette  Rubenstein,  Max  Yergan,  Mrs.  Burton  Emmett, 
Morris  "Watson,  and  Lillian  Turner. 

On  Sunday,  July  26,  1942,  I  visited  Camp  Wo-Chi-Ca  with  Char- 
lotte Honig,  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Kaufman,  and  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  Engel. 
There  were  260  children  of  Communist  Party  members  vacationing 
at  the  camp ;  many  people  were  visiting  their  children  that  day.  The 
Daily  Worker  was  displayed  and  openly  read  by  visitors  and  the  per- 
sonnel of  the  camp.  One  visitor  was  Del,  cartoonist  for  the  Daily 
Worker,  who  was  visiting  his  son  at  the  camp.  The  bulletin  board 
on  the  campus  displayed  an  honor  roll  of  boosters  of  Camp  Wo-Chi-Ca, 
which  included  Max  Yergan,  Canada  Lee,  Annette  Rubenstein,  Paul 
Robeson,  Vito  Marcantonio,  Dr.  Rappaport,  and  Dave  Green.  There 
were  60  Negro  children  among  the  260  children  at  the  camp.  The 
camp  consisted  of  10  buildings  and  15  tents,  the  latter  being  large 
enough  to  accommodate  8  children  comfortably.  Matt  Hall,  director, 
made  sure  that  Negro  children  were  mixed  in  each  tent  and  building 
with  the  white  children.  A  theater  on  the  grounds  was  for  campers' 
shows  and  plays.  A  show  was  given  for  the  visitors,  which  plainly 
showed  to  everyone's  satisfaction  that  the  education  those  children 
were  receiving  would  undoubtedly  lead  them  into  the  ranks  of  the 
party.  Matt  Hall  told  me  later  that  the  editorial  staff  of  the  news- 
paper PM  would  be  his  guests  the  following  week. 

The  camp  then  comprised  125  acres  of  land,  and  was  able  to  accom- 
modate more  children.  That  year  a  new  swimming  pool  was  being 
built  and  room  had  been  added  to  accommodate  100  more  children 
than  had  been  possible  the  previous  year. 

On  August  25, 1942,  Camp  Wo-Chi-Ca  gave  a  party  honoring  Paul 
Robeson.  Prominently  displayed  around  the  camps'  buildings  were 
signs  which  read,  "Welcome,  Paul  Robeson,"  and  "Paul  Robeson, 
Freedom's  Fighter."  On  Robeson's  arrival,  the  campers  gathered 
around  him,  singing  a  song  of  welcome  specially  written  for  this  occa- 
siori.  He  was  escorted  to  the  administration  building  where  more 
cheers  greeted  him,  and  a  scroll  from  the  children  of  the  camp  was 
presented  by  a  young  girl.  Guests  included  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Dave  Green ; 
Max  Bedacht,  national  secretary  of  IWO ;  Mrs.  Ann  Willard,  director 
of  School  for  Democracy;  Sol  Vail,  youth  director  of  IWO;  Helen 
Vrabel,  national  secretary  of  Youth  Division  of  IWO ;  Dr.  and  Mrs. 
I.  Engel  Kaufman ;  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  Engel ;  Harold  Wilson,  of 
the  Harlem  branch  of  the  YMCA;  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Matt  Hall;  and 
Charlotte  Honig. 

On  Monday,  September  7,  1942,  there  was  a  party  at  Camp 
Wo-Chi-Ca,  sponsored  by  the  children  of  the  camp  to  honor  the  guests 
from  the  labor  unions  which  were  contributing  to  the  support  of  the 
camp.  Delegations  from  the  following  were  present :  Local  65,  Wliole- 
sale  and  Retail  Warehouse  Workers ;  the  National  Maritime  Union ; 
Furriers  Union ;  International  Workers  Order ;  United  Office  and  Pro- 
fessional Workers  Union ;  and  the  Transport  Workers  Union.  The 
children  presented  playlets  depicting  the  strength  of  labor  and  the 
gains  it  had  made  during  the  past  10  years.  One  playlet  which  was 
presented  portrayed  Attorney  General  Francis  Biddle  and  Harry 
Bridges.  It  showed  Biddle  demanding  the  deportation  of  Bridges, 
while  other  children,  playing  the  part  of  organized  labor,  refused  to 
permit  it.    Moe  Fishman  and  Joe  Crowley  represented  the  NMU; 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       557 

Harry  Gordon  represented  local  65 ;  Sam  Bnrt,  the  Furriers  Union ; 
Dave  Green,  the  IWO ;  Helen  Shapiro,  the  UOPWA ;  and  John  Stan- 
ley, the  TWU.  All  delegates  promised  the  children  in  their  speeches 
that  they  would  report  back  to  their  respective  unions  on  the  ideal 
conditions  which  existed  at  the  camp.  The  delegates  were  entertained 
with  songs  and  playlets  from  3  to  10 :  30  p.  m.,  with  an  intermission  of 
an  hour  for  supper.  These  children's  vacations  are  spent  singing 
songs  and  producing  playlets  which  portray  the  party  line  to  the  letter. 
Moe  Fishman  told  the  campers  that  his  ship  had  been  torpedoed  off 
Murmansk  and  that  24  of  his  shipmates  had  been  killed.  (Fishman 
fought  in  the  Spanish  civil  war  and  is  a  veteran  of  the  Abraham 
Lincoln  Brigade.) 

On  Sunday,  February  6,  1944,  there  was  a  dinner  at  the  home  of 
Dr.  I.  Engel  Kaufman,  170  West  Seventy-third  Street,  given  by  the 
Women's  Committee  of  Camp  Wo-Chi-Ca,  to  raise  funds  to  enable 
the  camp  to  complete  a  new  swimming  pool  on  the  grounds.  About 
60  people  were  present.  Entertainment  was  furnished  by  artists  from 
Toscanini's  orchestra  through  Harry  Green,  who  plays  'cello  with  that 
organization  and  who  is  also  an  active  Communist  Party  member. 
Conversation  during  the  dinner  centered  around  the  Soviet  Union. 
No  one  present  doubted  that  the  Soviet  Union  would  emerge  from  the 
war  as  the  most  powerful  nation  in  the  world,  and  when  the  United 
Nations  would  sit  at  the  peace  table,  the  Soviet  Union  would  dictate  the 
terms.  Some  guests  delighted  in  saying  that  the  Soviet  Government 
was  the  only  nation  with  enough  courage  to  denounce  the  Catholic 
church  and  its  leaders  as  being  Fascists.  Guests  included  Mr.  and 
Mrs.  Harry  Green,  Dr.  Kallman,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Sam  Krause,  Charlotte 
Honig,  Martha  and  Bill  Dobkin,  Nettie  Turner,  Muriel  Draper,  Muriel 
Samuels,  Munya  Gutride,  Regina  Wilson,  and  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Robert 
Flaum. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Can  you  tell  us  anything  about  this  man  Sam  Krause? 

Mr.  HuBER.  Yes ;  I  spoke  to  him  and  he  told  me  he  had  served  in  the 
Red  ilrmy,  being  discharged  in  1923  to  come  to  the  United  States.  He 
did  not  say  whether  he  had  been  sent  by  anyone  or  on  any  par- 
ticular mission,  but  his  tone  implied  that  he  had  been  sent  to  this 
country  for  a  purpose.  He  severely  denounced  the  State  Department 
and  several  Members  of  both  Houses  of  Congress,  accusing  them 
of  being  the  most  vicious  Fascists  in  America.  When  he  left,  a  guest, 
who  had  overheard  some  of  his  conversation,  asked  Charlotte  Honig 
who  this  man  was  who  had  left  such  a  beautiful  country  as  the  Soviet 
Union  to  come  here.  She  was  promptly  told  by  Charlotte  not  to  ask 
such  foolish  questions.  On  making  further  inquiry  regarding  Krause, 
I  learned  that  he  had  recently  married  a  public  school  teacher;  that 
she  was  still  teaching  and  was  a  very  active  Communist. 

Mr.  Dekom.  What  did  he  look  like  ? 

Mr.  HuBER.  Krause  was  6  feet  2  inches  in  height,  about  225  pounds 
in  weight,  35  years  of  age.  He  had  light  brown  hair,  blue  eyes,  large 
features,  ruddy  complexion,  hair  parted  on  the  left  side ;  he  was  clean 
shaven  and  spoke  with  a  Russian  accent. 

Mr.  Dekom.  ^Yho  are  some  of  the  graduates  of  Wo-Chi-Ca? 

Mr.  HuBER.  People  like  Pearl  Primus  were  there.  She  became  a 
world  famous  dancer  through  Camp  Wo-Chi-Ca,  after  which  the 
Communist  Party  used  her  dancing  talent  at  their  large  mass  enter- 
tainments. 


558       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

Mr.  Dekom.  Was  she  a  member  of  the  party? 

INIr.  HuBER.  Yes.  She  used  to  perform  for  lis  quite  regularly  at 
my  branch,  the  James  Connolly  Branch, 

Mr.  Dekom.  What  is  the  view  of  the  Communist  Party  on  the 
teachino;  of  youngsters? 

JMr.  Hubek.  The  party  frequently  emphasizes  that  it  is  to  the  youth 
that  the  party  looks  in  the  future,  for  leadership,  action,  and  success. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Is  the  New  York  Teachers  Union  (CIO)  under  Com- 
munist control  ? 

Mr.  HuBER.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Have  you  any  estimate  of  the  approximate  number  of 
members  of  the  New  York  Teachers  Union? 

Mr.  HuBER.  Six  thousand. 

Mr.  Dekom.  To  your  own  personal  knowledge,  have  you  had  any 
acquaintance  with  persons  who  have  been  engaged  in  teaching  in 
New  York  City  who  are  members  of  the  Communist  Party? 

Mr.  Huber.  Yes,  sir ;  Agnes  Sailor  and  Munya  Gutride. 

Mr.  Dekom,  Is  Munya  Gutride  still  living? 

Mr.  Huber.  No  ;  she  committed  suicide. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Do  you  know  the  circumstances  surrounding  her 
suicide  ? 

Mr.  Huber.  Yes.  It  grew  out  of  charges  by  the  board  of  educa- 
tion. When  she  was  called  before  the  board,  they  asked  her  of  her 
Communist  activities.  She  refused  to  answer  on  the  grounds  of  con- 
stitutional rights  against  self-incrimination.  Following  that^  she 
went  home,  turned  on  the  gas,  and  committed  suicide. 

There  is  also  David  Friedman,  Public  School  62,  New  York  City, 
His  wife,  Rhetta,  is  at  Hunter  College.  She  is  a  Ph.  D.,  and  teaches 
classical  languages. 

Mr,  Dekom.  Now,  is  it  your  testimony  that  these  people  are  mem- 
bers of  the  Communist  Party,  to  your  own  knowledge  ? 

Mr.  Huber.  That  is  right,  sir,  I  have  met  all  of  them  at  Communist 
Party  meetings. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Were  those  closed  meetings  to  which  only  party  mem- 
bers were  admitted  ? 

Mr,  Huber.  That  is  right. 

Mr,  Dekom,  Are  you  familiar  with  the  efforts  of  the  Communist 
Party  to  indoctrinate  members  of  the  armed  forces  of  the  United 
States  during  the  recent  war? 

Mr,  Huber,  Yes,  I  am.  One  of  the  most  ambitious  plans  of  the 
Communist  Party  to  carry  on  its  subversive  work  among  members  of 
the  armed  services  was  the  establishment  of  an  organization  called 
SOS,  Sweethearts  of  Servicemen.  This  group  consisted  of  young 
women  who  were  instructed  to  pick  up  servicemen  off  the  streets  and 
bring  them  to  the  SOS  club  rooms,  where  they  were  given  liquor,  en- 
tertainment, and  dancing. 

These  women  would  go  to  any  extremes  to  "entertain"  servicemen 
and  thereby  make  them  more  disposed  to  join  in  the  Communist 
movement.     They  had  no  morals  or  moral  standards  whatsoever, 

INIr,  Dekom,  What  evidence  have  you  to  indicate  the  participation 
of  persons  in  the  armed  services  in  Communist  Party  affairs  and 
activities  ? 

Mr,  Huber,  I  can  give  you  several  illustrations,  if  you  want  me  to, 

Mr,  Dekom.  Go  right  ahead. 


C01VI3VIUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       559 

Mr.  HuBER.  Ill  the  summer  of  1941,  comrades  of  tlie  Communist 
Party  who  were  drafted  into  the  armed  forces  were  beginning  to  re- 
turn to  New  York  on  leave.  They  invariably  visited  their  sections, 
giving  complete  reports  on  their  respective  divisions.  Some  reports 
which  I  have  heard  were  from  veterans  of  the  Abraham  Lincoln 
Brigade.  These  men  claimed  the  morale  of  the  soldier  was  very 
poor  and  camp  conditions  did  nothing  to  alleviate  or  raise  their 
morale.  The  food  was  bad,  sleeping  quarters  w^ere  overrun  w^ith 
vermin,  and,  in  one  instance,  a  sentry  was  bitten  by  a  rat  and  amputa- 
tion of  the  leg  was  necessary  when  blood  poisoning  set  in.  They  also 
reported  that  the  floors  of  the  barracks  were  so  thick  with  grease 
and  dirt  that  a  piece  of  the  floor  had  been  cut  by  the  men  and  sent  to 
Washington  with  a  protest.  These  and  many  other  stories  were  told 
and  repeated  until  they  were  finally  used  as  material  for  discussions 
at  open  meetings  to  which  the  public  was  invited  in  an  effort  to  create 
a  false  impression  on  the  general  public  about  the  armed  forces. 

On  Sunday,  December  26,  1943,  I  attended  a  theater  x^arty  spon- 
sored by  the  Joint  Anti-Fascist  Refugee  Committee  at  tlie  Imperial 
Theater,  West  Forty-fifth  Street,  between  Broadway  and  Eighth  Ave- 
nue; about  3,000  people  were  present.  The  manager  sold  standing 
room  only,  the  demand  for  admittance  became  so  great,  but  this  was 
soon  discontinued.  The  audience  was  very  colorful,  every  branch  of 
the  United  States  armed  forces  being  represented :  SPARS,  WAC's, 
WAVES,  and  quite  a  number  of  the  USMCWR.  Male  members  of 
the  armed  forces  ranged  from  major  to  private  in  the  Army,  and 
lieutenant  commander  to  seaman  in  the  Navy.  At  least  24  members 
of  the  Canadian  Air  Force  were  among  the  audience.  Leading  Com- 
munists present  included  James  W.  Ford,  Charles  Keith,  Sadie  Van 
Venn,  Goldie  Young,  and  Regina  Wilson. 

On  Sunday,  July  4,  1943,  a  fiesta  was  held  at  the  home  of  William 
(Daily  Worker  cartoonist)  and  Sophie  Cropper,  Mount  Arey  Road, 
Croton-on-the-Hudson.  Admission  was  $1  and  about  300  people  at- 
tended. This  affair  was  sponsored  by  the  Joint  Anti-Fascist  Refugee 
Committee.  The  master  of  ceremonies  was  Stanley  M.  Isaacs,  former 
borough  president  of  Manhattan.  Guests  included  members  of  the 
armed  forces,  majors,  captains,  three  first  lieutenants.  Moe  Fishman 
told  me  that  a  committee  led  by  Helen  Bryan  was  down  in  Mexico, 
making  last-minute  preparations  for  the  welcome  of  a  group  of  ref- 
ugees who  were  being  transported  from  Spain  by  the  Joint  Anti- 
Fascist  Refugee  Committee.  Cropper's  home  is  situated  on  a  hill  sur- 
rounded by  about  4  acres  of  landscaped  grounds ;  tables  were  set  on  the 
lawns  where  guests  ate  and  watched  games  and  entertainment.  Several 
French  and  Soviet  sailors  were  present.  Isaacs  made  the  appeal  for 
funds  and  stressed  the  importance  of  that  committee;  2,000  Spanish 
Republicans  having  been  freed  from  concentration  camps  in  North 
Africa  and  were  en  route  to  a  United  States  port  to  be  transported  to 
Mexico.  He  said  that  it  would  cost  $200  to  transport  one  person  to 
Mexico  after  his  arrival  in  the  United  States.  He  asked  his  guests  to 
be  liberal  in  their  contributions  so  as  to  permit  the  committee  to  carry 
on  its  work.  Several  donations  of  $200  were  made,  followed  by  contri- 
butions from  $100  to  $25.  Guests  were  urged  to  attend  a  bazaar  where 
pottery  and  other  trinkets,  made  by  Spanish  refugees  who  are  in 
Mexico,  would  be  sold. 


560       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

Mr.  Dekom.  Did  members  of  the  armed  services  participate  in  pub- 
lic Communist  rallies? 

Mr.  HuBER.  One  of  the  most  flagrant  examples  of  this  was  when 
Communist  members  of  the  armed  forces  used  Army  trucks  and  ieeps 
in  a  demonstration  on  April  21,  1945.  It  was  an  open-air  rally,  at 
2  p.  m.,  at  Columbus  Circle,  sponsored  by  the  Upper  West  Side  Legis- 
lative Assembly — a  Communist  front  organization. 

On  my  arrival  at  Columbus  Circle,  Nat  Shulman,  a  member  of  the 
county  committee,  CPA— Communist  Political  Association— in 
charge  of  arrangements  for  the  rally,  was  setting  up  the  speakers'  plat- 
form. He  later  set  up  a  banner  in  back  of  the  speakers'  stand  reading, 
Close  Eanks  Behind  President  Truman,  to  Carry  Out  the  Roosevelt 
Program." 

About  15  minutes  after  I  arrived,  a  jeep  and  two  Army  trucks  from 
the  United  States  Signal  Corps  came  on  the  scene,  immediately  setting 
up  two  motion  picture  cameras  and  a  microphone  on  the  speakers' 
platform.  In  each  Army  truck  were  two  first  lieutenants  and  about 
15  enlisted  men.  Eight  mounted  policemen  were  about,  with  a  score  of 
uniformed  patrolmen  to  take  care  of  expected  crowds. 

While  waiting  the  start  of  the  rally,  I  observed  a  score  of  comrades 
I  knew  from  every  club  on  the  upper  West  Side.  It  began  to  rain 
before  the  rally  started,  causing  it  to  be  called  off  by  Nat  Shulman, 
who  announced  it  would  be  held  the  following  Saturday,  April  28, 
at  2  p.  m.,  "when  stars  of  the  stage,  screen,  and  radio  would  appear." 

The  executive  committee  of  the  Upper  West  Side  Legislative  Assem- 
bly—the organization  which  sponsored  the  rally— was  under  complete 
control  of  the  Communist  Party.  In  fact,  the  membership  was  made 
up  almost  entirely  of  members  of  the  unity  branch  of  the  party— my 
own  branch— and  its  executive  officers  include :  Burne  Hogarth,  chair- 
man, Charles  A.  Collins,  Murray  Meyerson,  Harry  Abrams,  Aaron 
Harris,  Sydney  Rowen,  Goldie  Young,  and  Bernard  Weller. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Is  Burne  Hogarth  the  man  who  draws  the  comic  strip  ? 

Mr.  HtTBER.  Yes. 

On  the  subject  of  the  armed  services,  I  have  here  an  invitation  which 
might  be  of  interest  to  you.  It  was  to  a  surprise  partv  giVen  by  Bill 
Dobkin,  a  member  of  the  waterfront  section  of  the  Communist  Party, 
at  the  home  of  Mrs.  Barton  Emmett  in  honor  of  Joe  Sutton,  another 
member  of  the  waterfront  section  of  the  Communist  Party.  The  im- 
portant thing  about  this  surprise  party  was  that  it  was  to  celebrate  his 
appointment  as  captain  in  the  United  States  Army.  The  money  which 
was  collected  from  the  bar,  the  admissions,  and  the  buffet  dinner  at 
this  party  was  turned  over  to  the  waterfront  section  of  the  Communist 
Party.  There  was  a  Communist  Party  fund  drive  on  at  this  time  and 
this  affair  was  held  to  make  up  part  of  the  quota  of  the  waterfront 
section.  The  overwhelming  majority  of  the  people  present  were  also 
members  of  the  Communist  Party,  most  of  whom  I  knew  personally. 
They  were  all  my  "friends." 

I  have  the  invitation  which  was  sent  to  me  here,  with  a  handwritten 
notation  on  the  back  by  Bill  Dobkin,  which  I  will  be  glad  to  submit 
to  you. 

Mr.  Dekom,  We  will  receive  that  in  evidence  of  exhibit  5A. 

Mr.  HuBER.  On  the  subject  of  Joe  Sutton,  I  have  here  another  party 
invitation.    This  one  was  to  celebrate  his  marriage  on  June  15,  1946. 


COMMUNIST  ACTR'ITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       560A 


1 

%   r   1  ^ 


560b    communist  activities  in  alien  and  national  groups 


v^ 


"^ 


I 

ih 

\1  ^i  ^ 


i. 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       561 

This  affair,  too,  was  held  to  raise  money  for  the  Communist  Party, 
and  I  have  with  me  the  actual  invitation. 

Mr.  Dekom.  We  will  receive  that  in  evidence  as  exhibit  5B.  On  this 
invitation  which  you  have  submitted  there  is  a  hand-written  notation, 
"Ask  for  Sylvia."    What  is  the  significance  of  that? 

Mr.  HuBER.  The  affair  was  held  at  the  home  of  Sylvia  Stone,  190 
Riverside  Drive,  apartment  6-C.  There  were  about  75  people  present, 
includino-  Dr.  and  Mrs.  I.  Engel  Kaufman,  Bill  Dobkin,  Max  Parker, 
Mary  Mallory,  Ray  Christianson,  organizer  of  the  water-front  section 
of  the  Conununist  Party;  Sam  (Kappy)  Kaplan,  and  Goldie  Youngs 
organizer  of  the  James  Connolly  branch  of  the  Communist  Party. 

(The  documents  referred  to  were  marked  "Huber  Exhibits  5A.  and 
5B"  and  appear  opposite  this  page.) 

Mr.  Huber.  On  Friday,  January  11,  1946,  I  attended  a  cocktail 
party  given  by  the  Jefferson  School  of  Social  Science  at  the  school's 
administrative  offices  on  the  seventh  floor  at  575  Sixth  Avenue.  This 
party  was  given  for  two  reasons :  The  first  to  stimulate  activity  for 
the  second  anniversary  dinner  which  was  to  be  held  at  the  Hotel  Penn- 
sylvania on  ISIonday  evening,  February  4.  From  among  the  100  guests 
who  Avere  present,  50  tables  seating  500  people  were  pledged.  The 
second  reason  was  to  raise  funds  for  the  extension  scliool  which  is 
planned  for  Brooklyn.  The  speakers  for  the  evening  included  Staff 
Sgt.  Howard  Bern,  who  was  on  the  staff  of  Stars  and  Stripes,  the 
Army  publication.  He  related  an  experience  which  occurred  while 
he  was  in  England.  He  said  that  he  had  received  several  progressive 
books  published  by  the  International  Publishers,  which  were  sent  to 
him  by  Howard  Selsam,  director  of  Jefferson  School.  Bern  said  he 
circulated  these  books  amongst  the  GI"s  and  their  interest  and  demand 
for  more  of  the  same  type  of  reading  material  was  so  great  that  he  had 
to  request  Selsam  to  send  additional  books  in  order  to  satisfy  the 
demand.  He  added  that  these  books  were  so  well  read  and  circulated 
amongst  the  men  that  they  became  worn  out  and  had  to  be  discarded. 
He  then  introduced  a  Major  Quigley,  whose  acquaintance  he  had  made 
because  of  these  books.  Quigley  told  the  people  at  the  party  that  after 
he  had  read  most  of  these  books  he  became  so  interested  in  their  origin 
that  he  inquired  of  Bern  where  they  came  from.  On  being  told  that 
they  had  been  sent  by  Howard  Selsam,  the  director  of  Jefferson  School 
of  Social  Science,  Quigley  said  he  believed  such  a  school  was  a  neces- 
sity, and  that  when  he  returned  to  the  States  he  would  not  only  visit 
the  school  but  would  support  its  existence  and  the  principles  which 
it  advocates  as  much  as  he  possibly  could.  The  Jefferson  Chorus,  led 
by  Director  Grennell,  entertained  with  several  songs.  Among  the 
guests  present  were:  INIr.  and  INIrs.  Robert  Engel,  David  Golclway, 
Howard  Selsam,  Louis  Lerner,  John  INIcManus,  Josephine  Truslow 
Adams,  Frances  Franklin,  Charlotte  Honig,  Regina  Wilson,  Alex- 
ander Trachtenberg,  Sam  Prago.  Harold  Collins,  and  Harry  Martel. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Were  similar  efforts  made  to  work  among  merchant 
seamen  ? 

Mr.  Huber.  The  Communist  Party  tried  to  establish  cells  on  all 
merchant  vessels  with  a  particular  view  to  indoctrinating  new  mer- 
chant seamen  who  were  being  graduated  from  the  merchant  seamen 
school  at  Sheepshead  Bay. 

One  of  the  ways  they  worked  on  the  new  men  was  to  hold  parties 
for  the  graduates  on  shore.     There  would  always  be  young  women 


562       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

party  members  to  take  the  new  seamen  in  tow,  ply  them  with  liquor, 
and  keep  them  under  their  wings  until  they  became  completely  in- 
toxicated. These  parties  were  repeated  until  the  seamen  became 
used  to  dropping  in  and  until  they  "paired  off"  with  one  particular 
girl.  This  girl  was  to  a  large  extent  responsible  for  the  indoctrina- 
tion job.  As  in  the  case  of  servicemen,  the  girls  went  to  any  ex- 
tremes to  land  their  victims. 

This  tactic — of  using  women — was  worked  out  around  1941,  because 
the  party  was  having  difficulty  in  recruiting  longshoremen,  teamsters, 
and  seamen.  They  were  using  men  organizers.  In  1941,  it  was  decided 
at  a  closed  meeting  of  my  branch,  which  I  attended,  to  send  women 
into  the  waterfront  area  for  this  work.  This  was  a  very  successful 
move  and  recruiting  picked  up  considerably. 

Even  in  the  distribution  of  leaflets,  we  f  oui 
Men  distributors  were  often  driven  away  from  shops  or  threatened 
or  even  beaten  up  by  plant  guards  and  foremen.  But,  we  found  that 
women  would  not  be  subject  to  this  kind  of  treatment  and  could  stand 
at  gates  and  hand  out  Communist  Party  literature  without  being 
molested. 

Of  course,  this  was  only  a  part  of  their  work.  They  were  prepared 
to  do — and  they  did — anything  that  the  party  assigned  or  demanded. 
As  I  have  already  pointed  out,  there  was  no  such  thing  as  morals  in 
carrying  out  party  work  or  in  organization  activities. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Do  you  know  of  any  attempts  by  the  Communist 
Party  to  infiltrate  defense  industry  ? 

Mr.  HuBER.  I  know  that  in  1941 — even  after  we  were  supposed  to 
be  allies  with  Soviet  Kussia — a  large  number  of  Communists  were 
obtaining  employment  in  defense  industries,  assisted  by  the  United 
Electrical,  Radio  and  Machine  Workers  Union  (CIO)  through  the 
following  method.  A  comrade  who  was  employed  in  nondefense 
work  would  quit  his  job  and  apply  for  social  security.  He  would 
then  receive  an  application  for  admittance  to  a  school  from  the  union ; 
at  the  expiration  of  his  schooling,  he  w^ould  be  given  a  job  in  a  de- 
fense industry.  The  school  these  people  attended  was  the  Brooklyn 
Technical  High  School.  Graduates  of  this  school  were  employed  at 
Sperry  Gyroscope. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Does  the  Communist  Party  maintain  any  special  edu- 
cational facilities  to  indoctrinate  labor  union  leaders  ? 

Mr.  HuBER.  Yes.  The  Jefferson  School  of  Social  Science,  5Y5  Sixth 
Avenue,  New  York,  is  set  up  as  the  Communist  Party's  chief  indoctrin- 
ation school,  with  particular  emphasis  on  labor  unionism.  I  can 
illustrate  this  best,  I  think,  by  describing  to  you  a  meeting  which  took 
place  at  the  Jefferson  School  on  December  15, 1945. 

It  was  in  the  nature  of  a  cocktail  party,  and  about  100  people  were 
present.  The  guests  who  were  present  were  the  most  active  trade 
unionists  throughout  the  CIO  and  the  AFL  and  were  invited  for  the 
express  purpose  of  receiving  instruction  to  recruit  new  pupils  for 
the  school  out  of  their  various  trade  unions. 

Howard  Selsam,  director  of  the  school,  had  leaflets  and  cards  dis- 
tributed to  everyone  present  and  urged  the  guests  to  post  the  leaflets 
on  their  shop  bulletin  boards.  The  leaflet  read:  "News  from  tlie 
Jefferson  School  of  Social  Science.  Courses  designed  for  labor.  Trade 
union  principles  and  practice.    History  of  the  American  labor  move- 


COMIVIUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       563 

meiit.  Trade  union  organization  problems.  Registration  for  these 
courses  begins  Wednesday,  January  2, 1946." 

Selsam  further  asked  that  the  cards  handed  out  be  distributed  to 
all  trade  union  members  in  the  various  unions.  The  cards  read,  "At- 
tention, please.  Winter  term  registration  begins  Wednesday,  January 
2,  1946;  130  courses  in  trade  unionism,  economics,  history,  science, 
philosophy,  literature,  music  and  languages." 

Selsam  requested  that  each  guest  ask  his  office  chairman  for  time 
at  the  next  union  meeting  to  make  an  announcement  concerning  these 
labor  courses  of  the  Jefferson  school.  He  said  that  what  he  was  really 
asking  them  to  do  was  to  spend  time  thinking  about  how  they  could 
tell  people  whom  they  contact  every  day  about  the  Jefferson  school 
and  the  need  for  more  and  more  labor  study  of  the  type  offered  by  the 
Jefferson  school. 

Saul  Mills  commented  that,  with  labor  threatened  by  the  reaction- 
ary elements  in  our  Government,  it  was  fortunate  for  the  people  of 
the  country  that  such  a  school  as  the  Jefferson  school  exists  to  train 
and  inform  the  masses  of  the  threat  to  the  labor  movement.  He  at- 
tackex^  President  Truman,  saying  that  Truman  was  on  the  side  of  big 
business  and  stood  for  the  destruction  of  trade  unions.  He,  too,  urged 
the  guests  to  spread  the  word  about  the  trade-union  courses  among 
their  trade-union  comrades,  encouraging  them  to  enroll  for  these 
courses  and  learn  what  is  happening  to  the  labor  movement. 

Guests  present  included  Alexander  Trachtenberg,  Abe  Heller,  Louis 
Lerman,  Josephine  Truslow  Adams,  Regina  Wilson,  Dave  Goldway, 
Harry  Sacher,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Doxey  Wilkerson,  Frederick  V.  Field, 
Max  Yergen,  and  Lewis  Merrill. 

Mr.  Dekom.  In  your  statement,  you  have  made  a  number  of  refer- 
ences to  the  work  of  the  Communist  Party  among  industrial  workers. 
Specifically,  what  are  some  of  the  goals  and  programs  of  the  Com- 
munist Party  in  this  field,  in  the  field  of  labor  ? 

Mr.  HuBER.  On  the  labor  front,  I  wish  to  point  out  that  8  years 
ago  I  sat  in  on  a  Communist  meeting  where  plans  were  laid  to  cap- 
ture transportation,  communications,  teamsters,  warehousemen,  radio, 
and  motion  pictures.  That  the  party  has  succeeded  in  realizing  such 
ambitious  plans  would  be  an  understatement,  for  I  can  now  see  that 
unions  in  these  industries  have  been  taken  over  or  infiltrated  by  the 
Communist  party. 

Thus  the  party  has  within  its  power  the  means  to  call  and  hold  ex- 
tensive strikes  should  the  occasion  demand  it;  strikes  which  could 
well  be  the  training  ground  of  a  revolution  for  the  overthrow  of  our 
Government  and  the  establishment  of  communism. 

Communists  who  were  considered  by  the  party  to  be  their  top  or- 
ganizers were  being  sent  to  take  positions  in  the  railroad  brother- 
hoods. Here  they  would  use  the  time-worn,  but  successful,  Communist 
method  of  spreading  their  propaganda  advocating  better  working 
conditions,  shorter  hours,  increases  in  salary,  less  profits  for  em- 
ployers, etc.,  in  order  to  secure  the  election  of  Communist  officials  in 
that  union, 

Mr.  Dekom.  The  Communists  will  use  legitimate  labor  demands  as 
a  screen  behind  which  to  operate  ? 

Mr.  HuBER.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Dekom.  You  don't  mean  to  imply  that  improving  working 
conditions  is  necessarily  a  Communist  enterprise  ? 


564       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

Mr.  HuBER.  No,  sir. 

Once  the  Communist  leaders  gain  control  of  the  union,  they  will 
swiftly  oust  the  present  clean  management  of  the  union,  being  left 
free  to  carry  on  their  Communist  political  propaganda.  Thus  another 
link  in  the  chain  will  be  added  for  the  day  when  all  the  links  will  join 
in  the  revolution  and  socialism. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Is  it  your  belief  and  your  knowledge  that  the  Commu- 
nist Party  is  working  for  the  overthrow  of  the  Government  by  revolu- 
tionary means? 

Mr.  Hup.ER.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Dekom.  How  do  you  arrive  at  that  conclusion  ? 

Mv.  HuBER.  We  have  been  told  that. 

Mr.  Dekom,  You  have  been  told  tliat  in  the  party  ? 

]\Ir.  Hui?ER.  Yes,  through  th.e  years. 

Mr,  Dekom.  By  the  party  leadership? 

Mr.  Huber.  That  is  right. 

Mr.  Dekom,  Is  that  the  general  understanding  of  all  party 
members  ? 

Mr,  Huber.  Yes,  of  all  part}^  members. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Is  any  attempt  made  to  hide  that  from  party  members  ? 

Mr,  Huber,  No,  sir, 

Mr.  Dekom.  So  that  if  a  person  is  in  the  Communist  Party,  he  would 
know  that  that  is  the  goal  of  the  organization ;  and  he  is  expected  to 
participate  in  force  and  violence  when  the  day  comes  ? 

Mr.  Huber.  That  is  right. 

]Mr.  Dekom.  As  you  realize,  Mr.  Huber,  the  question  of  force  and 
violence  is  of  particular  importance  in  the  consideration  of  legislation 
for  the  control  of  Communist  and  other  subversive  activity.  I  am 
going  to  ask  you,  therefore,  to  go  into  this  phase  of  the  problem 
more  thoroughly,  I  ask  you  to  cite  specifically,  instances  in  which 
force  and  violence  were  taught,  advocated,  or  discussed  in  party  meet- 
ings or  party  circles. 

Mr.  Huber.  Yes,  sir ;  I  can  do  that. 

Force  and  violence  are  considered  as  the  means  by  which  the  Com- 
munist Party  will  come  into  power.  It  is  known  and  taught  in  the 
party.    Every  party  member  understands  that. 

First  of  all,  I  might  repeat  the  statement  I  made  about  the  Com- 
munist Party's  new  members'  school.  On  March  6,  1940,  I  attended 
class  under  Charles  Cook.  He  was  discussing  the  "struggle  for  peace." 
He  made  this  statement,  which  bears  on  the  topic  of  force  and  violence : 

If  this  country  becomes  involved  in  an  imperialist  war,  a  civil  war  will  ensue 
to  stop  such  a  war,  because  the  capitalists  will  arm  the  masses,  who  will  then 
turn  their  guns  on  them. 

Mr.  Schroder.  What  do  the  Communists  mean  by  "imperialist  war"? 

Mr,  Huber,  That,  sir,  is  the  Communist  double-talk  for  any  war  in 
which  any  coimtry  except  the  Soviet  Union  is  involved.  It  particularly 
refers  to  any  war  of  defense  by  this  country  of  ours  against  Soviet 
aggression. 

You  remember,  when  the  European  countries  were  fighting  against 
Hitler,  it  was  an  imperialist  war  in  Communist  language — until  the 
Nazis  and  the  Soviets  fell  out  witli  each  other.  Then  it  was  no  longer 
an  imperialist  war,  but  a  war  to  save  democracy — democracy,  Soviet 
style. 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       565 

So  when  they  say  "imperialist  war,"  they  mean  any  war — even  a  war 
of  defense — in  which  the  United  States  might  get  involved.  And  the 
point  is  that  they  hope  to  turn  such  a  war  into  a  revolution  for  the 
overthrow  of  the  Government — while  our  men  are  fighting  on  the 
battlefront — by  force  and  violence.  That  is  their  aim;  that  is  what 
they  teach  party  members. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Will  you  continue,  please,  giving  us  any  other  examples 
which  show  the  advocacy  of  force  and  violence  by  the  Communist 
Party. 

Mr.  HuBER.  Yes,  I  will ;  there  are  many  cases. 

I  might  relate  a  statement  made  by  one  of  the  top-ranking  Com- 
munist Party  officials  during  the  period  when  Earl  Browder,  national 
secretary,  was  in  jail  for  passport  fraud.  As  you  will  remember,  the 
party  organized  a  vast  network  of  rallies  and  fronts  in  order  to  bring 
pressureon  the  White  House  to  release  Earl  Browder,  who  was  later 
given  a  pardon  by  President  Eoosevelt. 

On  February  24,  1941,  there  was  a  free  Earl  Browder  rally  at  the 
Mecca  Temple  on  Forty-fifth  Street.  Al  Lannon,  organizer  of  th& 
water-front  section  of  the  Communist  Party,  was  chairman,  and  Eliza- 
beth Gurley  Flynn,  member  of  the  national  committee  of  the  party,, 
was  the  principal  speaker.    She  told  the  assembled  comrades : 

We  will  free  Earl  Browder,  for  we  will  make  so  much  trouble  in  the  shops,  in 
the  factories,  and  any  place  there  is  one  or  more  of  us,  that  this  administration 
will  not  only  free  him,  but  will  be  glad  to  do  so. 

There  is  only  one  thing  I'm  sure  of,  and  that  is  that  Earl  Browder  will  not 
serve  his  term.  In  other  words,  I  am  not  as  sure  of  President  Roosevelt  serving, 
his  term  as  I  am  of  Earl  Browder  not  serving  his. 

She  denounced  judges  of  the  United  States  Supreme  Court,  calling 
them  stooges  of  AVall  Street  and  the  Eoosevelt  administration,  puppets, 
who  jump  when  a  string  is  pulled. 

Continuing,  she  said: 

If  this  administration  thinlvs  that  by  putting  our  leaders  in  prison  it  will  silence 
the  Communist  Party,  they  have  another  guess  coming.  The  Communist  Party 
has  planted  the  seed  among  the  American  people  and  the  roots  have  taken  hold 
throughout  the  working-class  movement.  It  is  too  late  now  for  the  Wall  Street 
bankers  to  do  anything  about  it.  They  have  had  their  day  ;  our  day  is  the 
future,  and  not  the  distant  future  eitlier. 

.  In  connection  with  Camp  Wo-Chi-Ca,  I  told  you  about  a  meeting 
I  had  with  Al  Lannon  at  a  restaurant  at  Twelfth  Street  and  Univer- 
sity Place.  In  the  discussion,  something  came  up  which  is  another 
example  along  this  line,  showing  the  intention  of  the  Communist  Party 
to  use  force  and  violence  against  this  Nation.  Lannon  spoke  of  the 
fighting  qualities  of  the  Red  Army  of  Soviet  Russia  and  said  it  was  too 
bad  so  many  of  its  men  had  to  be  sacrificed  for  such  a  purpose  as  the 
war  then  going  on.  He  said  it  was  too  bad  that  the  Red  Army  was 
not  held  in  reserve,  to  be  used  against  the  United  States.  Lannon 
always  spoke  of  the  revolution  which  will  happen  in  the  United  States 
and  is  waiting  for  the  day  when  the  people  of  the  United  States  will 
revolt  and  overthrow  this  form  of  government.  He  seemed  sure  that 
this  would  happen  as  soon  as  Stalin  was  victorious. 

Lannon  spoke  of  a  recent  meeting  of  the  America  First  Committer 
in  Queens,  where  27  Catholic  priests  allegedly  appeared  on  the  speak- 
ers' platform.  He  said  the  Catholic  hierarchy  is  a  vicious  element 
which  will  do  the  same  to  the  United  States  as  it  did  to  Spain — that 

-50— pt.  2 8 


566       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

is,  sell  out  to  the  Fascists.  He  added  that  when  the  proper  time  comes 
we  would  "take  care  of  them  and  their  kind." 

Of  even  more  significance  is  another  statement  made  to  me  by  Al 
Lannon — who  is  now  a  member  of  the  national  committee  of  the  Com- 
munist Party.  One  evening  after  a  section  meeting  which  was  held 
at  Sixteenth  Street  and  Irving  Place— the  Irving  Plaza  meeting 
rooms — we  were  discussing  party  activities,  and  he  said  that  he  hopes 
that  he  lives  until  the  time  of  the  revolution  so  that  he  will  be  able 
to  go  to  the  Foley  Square  Office  of  the  Federal  Bureau  of  Investiga- 
tion and  mow  down  as  many  FBI  agents  as  possible  with  a  machine 
gun. 

Mr,  DEKOisr.  Where  is  Al  Lannon  now? 

Mr.  HuBER.  To  the  best  of  my  knowledge  he  went  to  Baltimore,  Md. 
He  was  transferred  from  New  York  to  Baltimore  by  the  party  around 
1945. 

I  wish  also  at  this  time  to  state  that,  in  my  opinion,  the  Communist 
Party  and  its  fellow  travelers  and  sympathizers  are  today  so  strong 
that  public-safety  agencies  in  most  of  our  large  cities  do  not  have 
forces  sufficiently  adequate  to  cope  with  disorders  wliich  might  arise 
through  the  instigation  of  the  party. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Can  you  cite  such  an  example  ? 

Mr.  HuBER.  Yes,  sir. 

In  1939, 1  saw  the  utter  disregard  which  the  Communist  Party  had 
for  police  orders  and  the  New  York  City  police  forces  during  a  Com- 
munist demonstration  in  a  march  on  city  hall.  Police  tried  to  halt 
the  demonstrators  and  a  hand-to-hand  fight  resulted.  When  mounted 
policemen  appeared  on  the  scene,  the  Communists  disregarded  their 
personal  safety,  dragging  the  policemen  off  the  horses  and  jabbing 
the  animals  with  hatpins.  It  was  an  uncontrolled  demonstration 
with  the  Communists  apparently  holding  the  upper  hand  for  more 
than  2  hours,  until  additional  police  reinforcements  arrived  and 
stopped  the  disorders. 

Today,  with  their  numbers  stronger  than  ever  before,  with  veterans 
swelling  its  ranks,  and  as  a  result  of  the  constant  vilification  of  law- 
enforcement  agencies  carried  on  by  the  Communist  press,  I  believe 
that  maintaining  law  and  order  would  be  a  most  difficult  task. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Can  you  cite  any  recent  example  of  such  incidents? 

Mr.  HuBER.  Yes,  the  Peekskill  incident,  the  Paul  Robeson  concert 
that  was  sponsored  by  the  Civil  Rights  Congress,  a  Communist  front. 

Mr.  Dekom.  And  you  believe  that  that  is  a  clemonstration  of  the 
difficulty  of  enforcing  law  under  conditions  of  Communist  agitation? 

Mr.  HuBER.  That  is  right. 

Stricter  attention  should  be  paid  to  the  danger  which  lies  slumber- 
ing in  Negro  communities.  Throughout  the  United  States,  such 
Negro  sections  are  being  used  by  the  Communist  Party  rabble  rousers 
and  propagandists  as  a  potent  weapon  of  dissatisfaction.  Negroes 
are  promised  social  equality  by  Communists,  and  are  being  brought 
into  the  party  fold  where  they  are  being  educated  to  sympathize  with 
the  principles  of  communism  and  "equality." 

In  Harlem,  Negroes  are  so  aroused  at  the  present  time  by  Commu- 
nist agitators,  such  as  Ben  Davis,  Henry  Winston,  and  others,  that  a 
spark  might  be  sufficient  to  set  off  race  riots  in  New  York  City. 

Mr.  Dekom.  What  is  the  expectancy  of  success  of  the  Communists 
themselves? 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       567 

Mr.  HuBER.  They  were  definitely  convinced — and  this  was  always 
brought  out  in  party  circles — that  the  Communist  Party  would  even- 
tually and  inevitably  rule  this  country. 

Let  me  give  you  a  small  illustration  of  this.  On  January  22,  1941, 
there  was  a  mass  rally  of  the  IWO  on  behalf  of  Allen  Shaw  and  12 
others  arrested  in  Oklahoma  for  criminal  syndicalism.  Speakers 
were  Muriel  Draper;  Rev.  William  Spofforcl,  chairman  of  the  Church 
League  for  Industrial  Democracy;  Frederick  V.  Field,  executive  sec- 
retary of  American  Peace  Mobilization;  Eugene  P.  Connolly,  chair- 
man of  the  ALP;  John  P.  Davis,  executive  secretary  of  National 
Negro  Congress;  and  Congressman  Vito  Marcantonio.  Reverend 
Spofford,  though  a  clergyman,  told  off -color  stories,  which  put  the  au- 
dience in  good  spirits.  He  told  how  w^hen  he  is  accused  of  being  a  Red 
or  Communist  he  admits  being  one,  saying  they  should  be  one,  too,  as 
eventually  we  will  all  be  Communists. 

This  is  fairly  representative  of  the  attitude  of  the  Communists.  In 
party  circles  the  talk  is  always  "when  the  Communists  take  over  the 
United  States,"  not  "if  they  take  over."  In  all  their  talks,  you  can 
see  that  they  expect  to  rule  this  country  as  well  as  the  whole  world. 

Mr.  Dekom.  The  next  question  of  interest  which  I  would  like  to 
have  you  discuss,  Mr.  Huber,  is  the  conspiratorial  nature  of  the  Com- 
munist Party.  You  are  undoubtedly  familiar  with  the  charge  that 
the  Communist  Party  is  a  conspiracy  rather  than  a  formal  political 
party. 

Mr.  Huber.  That  is  absolutely  true.  The  Communist  Party  is  a 
conspiracy  organized  for  the  destruction  of  any  free  government  in 
the  world.  To  my  mind,  nothing  illustrates  better  the  conspiratorial 
nature  of  the  Communist  Party  than  the  manner  in  which  meetings 
were  held,  particularly  during  the  1940-41  period,  when  the  party 
was  in  great  disfavor  because  of  the  tie-up  of  Russia  with  the  Nazis. 

The  party  was  very  much  afraid  that  it  would  have  to  go  under- 
grotind,  and  plans  were  made  to  take  care  of  that  situation.  Our 
meetings  were  held  secretly  in  cellars,  abandoned  buildings,  lofts,  and 
private  homes  in  order  that  the  party  members  would  not  be  discovered. 
We  met  in  groups  of  five,  constantly  changing  our  meeting  place. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Can  you  designate  specifically  some  of  the  places  where 
you  met? 

Mr.  Huber.  Yes ;  I  can.  One  of  these  was  a  dilapidated  loft  build- 
ing that  was  unoccupied  but  for  one  tenant,  a  Gertrude  Kaplan, 
at  679  Broadway.  In  order  to  bring  out  the  description  of  this  meet- 
ing place,  it  is  necessary  to  state  that  at  one  meeting  held  there  it  was 
necessary  to  adjourn  because  of  the  noise  made  by  the  rats.  There 
were  so  many  rats  in  the  building  that  we  couldn't  hold  the  meeting 
and  had  to  adjourn. 

Another  meeting  place  was  a  cellar  at  347  East  Seventeenth  Street, 
where  we  met  on  March  12,  1940.  In  order  to  get  to  this  cellar,  it  was 
necessary  to  walk  through  one  building,  across  a  yard  more  than  50 
feet  long — it  was  pitch  dark  at  the  time — into  a  second  building,  and 
then  down  into  a  cellar.  This  was  a  very  special  meeting,  a  celebra- 
tion on  behalf  of  the  Soviet  Union,  and  38  people  were  present.  The 
meeting  was  opened  by  Sam  (Kappy)  Kaplan,  organizer  of  the  team- 
ster concentration  branch  of  the  Communist  Party  to  which  I  belonged. 

Instead  of  being  opened  in  the  usual  way  by  reports,  Kaplan  opened 


568       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

the  meeting  by  announcing  that  he  was  very  happy  to  report  that  the 
news  of  the  Soviet  Union's  victoi-y  in  Finland  was  authentic.  Because 
of  the  occasion  he  called  for  refreshments,  and  wine  and  soda  were 
served.  He  offered  a  toast,  "Long  live  the  Communist  international 
organization  of  the  working  class.  Long  live  the  Communist  Party. 
Long  live  the  world  revolution."  He  then  ordered  an  intermission  to 
enable  the  comrades  to  discuss  the  victory  and  also  to  enable  Comrade 
Ann  Reese  to  phone  her  husband,  Henry  Boldt,  vice  president  of  the 
Daily  Worker,  for  the  latest  news  on  the  war  in  Finland. 

Kaplan  complimented  our  branch  for  the  good  work  it  was  doing 
supplying  teamsters  with  the  Daily  Worker  and  pamphlets.  He  cited 
an  instance  where  a  teamster  union,  AFL  affiliate,  held  a  meeting  on 
Sunday,  March  10,  1940,  at  the  Hotel  Diplomat  to  arrange  for  a  rally 
on  April  16  against  moves  to  involve  the  United  States  in  war.  He 
said  that  the  teamsters'  union  was  important  for  its  strength  which 
could  enable  it  to  tie  up  food  and  other  fields,  as  shown  not  long  ago. 
By  way  of  illustration,  he  said  that  if  the  teamsters  strike,  boats  do 
not  load  or  unload,  warehouses  are  at  a  standstill,  and  shortages  of 
supplies  and  other  commodities  become  acute. 

To  further  illustrate  this  business  of  conspiracy,  I  would  like  to 
discuss  the  plans  which  the  Communist  Party  made  in  1940  and  after 
World  War  II  for  the  setting  up  of  an  underground  apparatus  to  take 
the  place  of  the  legal  apparatus  in  the  event  the  party  would  be  out- 
lawed or  threatened  with  Government  action. 

In  1940,  when  the  Communist  Party  was  threatened,  this  under- 
ground apparatus  was  perfected.  Each  particular  group  bought 
mimeograph  machines  and  purchased  full  sets  of  Communist  Party 
literature  to  have  available  the  theoretical  works  of  the  Communist 
movement  for  ready  reference. 

On  March  18,  1941,  following  the  weekly  meeting  of  the  teamster 
branch,  Kaplan  told  me  that  many  members  of  the  Communist  Party 
who  found  they  were  unable  to  continue  attendance  at  meetings  be- 
cause of  their  civil-service  positions  still  continued  payment  of  their 
dues  and  contributions  and  would  continue  that  course  of  action  until 
the  current  attack  on  the  Communist  Party  ceased. 

On  Saturday,  March  22,  1941,  the  water  front  section  of  the  Com- 
munist Party  received  a  communication  from  the  State  committee  of 
the  Communist  Party  with  orders  for  all  comrades  to  be  instructed 
at  the  next  meeting  to  dispose  of  all  Communist  literature  they  then 
possessed  at  home.  Comrades  who  were  present  when  this  order  was 
received  decided  that  the  best  plan  would  be  to  store  their  libraries 
in  warehouses.  During  that  month  the  number  of  comrades  moving 
from  one  locality  to  another  was  most  noticeable. 

I  sat  in  on  a  party  discussion  of  the  deportation  proceedings  which 
were  pending  against  Harry  Bridges.  Several  leading  Communists 
of  the  water-front  section  were  present.  It  was  revealed  that  the  Com- 
munist Party  had  set  plans  in  motion  for  a  general  strike  among  labor 
unions  in  the  State  of  California  as  a  protest  in  the  event  that  Harry 
Bridges  was  ordered  deported.  This  plan  was  decided  upon  only  after 
much  deliberation  by  the  national  committee  of  the  Communist  Party, 
which  conceded  that  any  other  kind  of  protest  would  fail  to  save 
Bridges  from  being  deported. 

On  Tuesday,  March  25,  1941,  at  the  weekly  meeting  of  the  water- 
front section.  Communist  Party,  held  at  221  West  Twenty-first  Street,. 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       569 

Kaplan  informed  comrades  that,  with  the  increasing  attacks  being 
made  on  the  party,  branch  meetings  would  be  held  more  infrequently, 
and  that  as  an  alternative  the  branch  would  meet  in  small  groups. 
He  said  that  the  water-front  section  was  in  receipt  of  a  communication 
from  Ferdinand  Smith,  of  the  NMU,  that  Government  agents  had 
been  active  along  the  water  front,  and  for  that  reason  seamen  would 
have  to  discontinue  Daily  Worker  and  other  Communist  literature 
distributions  to  teamsters  and  longshoremen  along  the  water  front. 
Such  distribution  was  then  assigned  to  the  teamster  branch  com- 
rades, in  addition  to  house-to-house  distribution,  which,  to  the  date, 
had  been  highly  successful  in  recruiting  new  members. 

Right  after  the  war,  my  club,  which  had  a  membership  of  330,  was 
broken  down  into  3  separate  clubs  of  about  100  members  each.  These 
three  clubs,  in  turn,  were  broken  down  into  groups  of  from  five  to 
eight  members,  with  one  member  designated  as  a  captain.  These 
small  groups,  in  the  beginning,  met  once  a  month  at  the  homes  of 
various  members  to  become  acquainted  with  this  new  set-up.  On  the 
other  3  times  a  month  we  met  in  our  groups  of  100.  Then,  as  time 
went  on,  the  procedure  changed  so  that  we  met  3  times  a  month  in 
groups  of  from  5  to  8,  and  only  once  a  month  as  a  group  of  100. 

Mr.  Dekom.  We  will  now  suspend,  Mr.  Huber,  and  will  resume 
tomorrow  morning  at  10 :  30  a.  m. 

SATURDAY,  OCTOBER  29,  1949 

Mr.  Dekom.  We  will  now  continue  your  testimony. 

Does  the  Communist  Party  maintain  any  intelligence  or  investigat- 
ing units,  either  for  the  purpose  of  what  might  be  called  counter-intel- 
ligence or  for  the  purpose  of  obtaining  incriminating  information  on 
persons  ? 

Mr.  Huber.  The  Communist  Party  certainly  does.  First  of  all, 
they  keep  a  complete  record  of  the  life  of  every  member.  I  think 
you  already  have  had  some  testimony  on  that  subject.^  Secondly, 
the  party  maintains  a  "research  department"  for  counter-intelligence 
work.  If  I  may,  I  will  give  you  two  specific  examples  from  my  party 
experience  to  show  you  exactly  what  this  work  is. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Yes ;  we  want  you  to  do  that.  We  want  in  every  in- 
stance, wherever  possible,  for  you  to  give  concrete  cases,  so  that  the 
information  before  this  subcommittee  will  be  as  direct  and  exact  as 
possible. 

Mr.  Huber.  Yes,  sir.     Here  are  the  two  examples. 

On  Thursday,  January  15,  1942,  while  speaking  to  Charlotte  Honig 
at  Twelfth  Street  and  University  Place,  she  called  my  attention  to  a 
passer-by  who  was  entering  the  national  headquarters  of  the  Com- 
munist Party  at  35  East  Twelfth  Street.  She  said  that  this  man  was 
an  investigator  for  the  party  who  watched  the  activities  of  the  FBI. 
She  intimated  that  the  Federal  Building  at  Foley  Square  was  being 
kept  under  surveillance.  She  said  that  the  party  knew  that  it  was  be- 
ing continually  investigated  and  had,  therefore,  begun  a  counter- 
investigation  of  its  own.  On  questioning  her  further  as  to  the  extent  of 
their  activities  and  the  length  of  time  this  had  been  going  on,  she  said 
that  she  did  not  know.    However,  she  added  that  the  Communist  Party 


See  the  testimony  of  Louis  F.  Budenz,  p.  217. 


570       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

investigating  staff  was  on  its  toes  all  the  time  and  was  doing  a  good 
job. 

On  Sunday,  January  18,  1942,  I  learned  from  Charlotte  Honig  that 
Jimmy  Keller  was  in  charge  of  the  investigation  staff  of  the  Com- 
munist Party  and  was  responsible  only  to  Roy  Hudson.  Keller  was 
formerly  a  section  organizer  of  the  industrial  section.  Very  little 
was  known  about  the  activities  of  that  group  other  than  that  personnel 
changes  were  frequent.  Questioned  as  to  the  source  of  her  informa- 
tion regarding  the  FBI,  Honig  said  that  the  matter  had  been  revealed 
at  a  gathering  of  comrades  at  the  home  of  her  son-in-law,  Bill  Dobkin, 
where  she  resided. 

A  large  part  of  this  investigative  work,  too,  is  the  unearthing  of 
information  with  which  they  can  smear  persons  who  are  known  to  be 
against  the  Communist  Party. 

Mr.  Dekom.  You  are  familiar  with  the  picketing  of  the  Federal 
Courthouse  at  Foley  Square  during  the  recent  trial  of  the  11  top  Com- 
munists, and  other  disorders  connected  therewith.  From  your  own 
knowledge,  can  you  give  the  subcommittee  any  information  on  Com- 
munist disruptions  or  attempts  to  disrupt  the  administration  of  justice 
in  this  country  ? 

Mr.  HuBER.  I  can  give  you  a  specific  case  from  my  own  experience. 
When  several  members  of  the  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade  were  arrested 
for  disorderly  conduct,  resulting  from  a  demonstration  in  front  of  the 
Spanish  consulate,  we  were  given  orders  by  the  Communist  Party 
officials  to  attend  the  trial  and  disrupt  the  proceedings. 

Mr.  Dekom.  What  was  the  nature  of  your  instructions? 

Mr.  HuBER.  To  cause  disturbances  by  coughing,  moving,  or  talking 
so  as  to  distract  the  court  during  statements  made  by  the  prosecution. 
On  the  other  hand,  we  were  told  to  keep  very  quiet  while  the  defense 
was  carrying  on.  The  situation  got  so  bad,  we  made  so  much  noise, 
that  Magistrate  John  McGee  stated  that  he  would  have  fo  clear  the 
court  unless  the  disturbance  stopped.  This  forced  the  party  people  to 
quiet  down  some,  but  they  still  made  as  much  noise  as  they  could  get 
away  with. 

Mr.  Dekom.  The  Communist  Party  has,  in  recent  years,  tried  to 
create  the  impression  that  the  Daily  Worker  is  not  a  tool  of,  or  an 
organ  of  the  party  itself.    Would  you  please  comment  on  that? 

Mr.  HuBER.  That  impression  is  completely  false.  The  Daily  Worker 
has  always  been,  and  is  today,  the  official  organ  of  the  Communist 
Party.  Rather  than  give  you  my  opinion  on  this,  I  would  like  to 
submit  in  evidence  a  bulletin  put  out  by  the  party  in  1946  which 
makes  the  position  of  the  Daily  Worker  perfectly  clear. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Was  this  handed  to  you  by  a  party  functionary  as  a 
member  of  the  party? 

Mr.  HuBER.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Dekom.  With  the  permission  of  the  chairman  we  will  make 
that  a  part  of  the  record  at  this  point  as  exhibit  6. 

(The  document  was  marked  "Huber  Exhibit  6"  and  is  as  follows:) 

The  Worker  and  Daily  Worker  Plan 

At  the  national  committee  meeting  of  our  party  the  main  discussion  centered 
around  the  problems  of  the  home  front  and  how  to  mobilize  the  people  to  defeat 
the  disrupters  within  our  Nati(ni.  In  this  task  the  Daily  Worker  plays  a  tre- 
mendous role. 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       571 


Tlio  Daily  Worker's  clear-cut  policy  in  its  fight  against  Lewis,  in  exposing  the 
fifth  column  activities  in  Detroit,  shows  tlie  way  for  strengthening  the  home 
front.  The  Daily  Worker  is  more  and  more  becoming  an  indispensable  weapon 
not  only  in  the  hands  of  Communists,  but  in  the  hands  of  every  anti-Fascist. 
It  is  in  this  light  that  our  convention  places  the  role  of  the  press  in  the  fore- 
ground of  its  deliberations  and  makes  some  organizational  proposals  for  in- 
creasing the  circulation  of  the  Daily  Worker. 

1.  Every  Party  Member  a  Reader  of  the  Daily  Worker  : 

(a)  Every  party  member  is  to  fill  out  a  pledge  card  stating  that  he  will 
read  the  Daily  Worker  every  day.  On  this  pledge  card  he  is  to  indicate 
the  newsstand  at  which  he  will  buy  the  paper. 

( h )  Every  new  member  will  receive  a  free  mail  subscription  for  the  Daily 
AVorker  for  1  month.  However,  the  new  member  is  to  fill  out  a  special  form 
expressing  his  or  her  desire  to  receive  the  paper. 

(c)  The  club  executive  to  be  responsible  for  checking  on  the  above  steps. 

2.  Build  Street  Sales  of  the  Daily  Worker  to  Strengthen  Home  Front : 

(a)  Every  section,  club,  and  branch  should  pick  a  specific  corner  or  block 
in  tlie  neighborhood  of  its  activities  at  which  it  will  organize  a  daily  sale  of 
the  paper. 

(6)  Sale  should  be  so  organized  as  to  suit  the  comrades,  either  day  or 
evening. 

(c)  In  organizing  these  street  sales  we  should  involve  as  close  to  100  per- 
cent of  the  membership  as  possible.  This  can  be  done  if  every  member  will 
give  one  evening,  or  even  1  hour,  a  month  to  this  work. 

3.  Make  Your  Newsstand  Dealer  a  Booster  for  the  Daily  Worker : 

(a)  Pick  the  busiest  corner  in  the  territory  and  organize  to  build  the  cir- 
culation at  the  newsstand  on  that  corner. 

(b)  When  street  sales  are  organized  close  to  such  newsstands,  it  is  ad- 
visable that  the  proceeds  of  sales  should  go  to  the  dealer. 

4.  The  Daily  Worker  Is  the  Club's  Guide  to  Action  for  Victory : 

(a)  Once  a  month  the  club  should  review  its  work  on  the  press  for  the 
past  month  and  take  organizational  steps  that  will  guarantee  the  steady 
growth  of  the  paper. 

(6)  In  these  monthly  reports  it  is  necessary  that  the  reporter  include 
highlights  of  articles  and  stories  that  appeared  during  the  month  so  as  to 
show  concretely  how  tne  Daily  Worker  helped  to  guide  us  in  our  everyday 
activity  and  thus  integrate  the  political  content  of  the  paper  with  the  circu- 
lation drive. 

5.  Funds  for  Our  Press  Are  Funds  for  Victory : 

(«)  In  order  to  make  sure  that  the  subscription  drive  is  part  of  the  fund 
drive  arrangements  have  been  made  to  credit  every  Worker  sub  to  the  fund 
drive  quota  of  every  branch  and  club. 

(&)   Manhattan  County  has  a  subscription  quota  of  3,500,  which  can  be 
easily  reached  providing  every  section,  branch,  and  club  accepts  its  quota 
and  organizes  its  campaign. 
Following  is  proposed  quota  for  Worker  subs  by  sections  : 


1-2 

3-5___. 

7-9-11. 
4-6___- 

8 

12 

14 


450 
450 
450 
150 
200 
350 
100 


16 

22 

23 

Lower  Harlem- 
East  Harlem- 
Upper  Harlem- 


100 
150 
300 
150 
100 
500 


Mr.  Dekom.  Have  you  followed,  and  are  you  familiar  with,  the 
twists  and  turns  of  the  Communist  Party  line  during  the  past  decade  ? 

Mr.  HuBER.  Yes,  of  course.  One  of  the  basic  requirements  of  a 
Communist  Party  member  is  to  slavishly  follow  all  the  dictates  of  the 
party,  regardless  of  how  ridiculous,  inconsistent,  or  unwise  they  might 
seem. 

I  remember  the  feverish  activity  of  the  party  during  the  period 
of  the  Hitler-Stalin  pact,  when  the  old  anti-Fascist  activity  was 
dropped  in  favor  of  a  peace  program  which  had  the  effect  of  aiding 
the  Nazis  and  Soviets  alike.    The  American  Peace  Mobilization  kept 


572       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

a  steady  stream  of  delegations  in  Washington  under  different  com- 
mittee names,  calling  on  Senators  and  Congressman,  protesting  against 
this  country's  participation  in  the  war  and  the  giving  of  aid  to  Great 
Britain.  It  tried  to  have  peace  committees  established  in  all  unions. 
When  this  was  accomplished,  they  intended  holding  a  peoples'  conven- 
tion, similar  to  the  one  held  in  England  on  January  12,  1941.  They 
recruited  peace  organizations  from  civic,  church,  and  other  groups 
which  were  unaware  of  the  true  aims  of  American  Peace  ]\Iobilization. 

Typical  of  the  tone  of  the  Communist  Party's  propaganda  was  a 
speech  made  by  Sam  (Kappy)  Kaplan,  organizer  of  the  teamster 
concentration  branch  of  the  Communist  Party,  at  a  party  meeting 
in  the  home  of  Jean  Sayre,  31:7  East  Seventeenth  Street,  New  York, 
on  Tuesday,  March  5,  1940.  Kaplan  said  that  President  Roosevelt 
had  sent  Sumner  AVelles,  Under  Secretary  of  State,  to  Europe  in 
order  to  break  the  agreement  between  Germany  and  Soviet  Russia  by 
getting  in  contact  with  the  German  ruling  class.  He  also  said  that 
Britain  and  France  declared  war  on  Germany  in  order  to  break  the 
Soviet-German  pact.  He  said  Roosevelt  was  trying  to  start  trouble 
against  the  Soviet  Union  by  different  methods  which  would  make 
Wall  Street  the  most  ]30werful  factor  in  world  politics  and  would  re- 
sult in  enormous  profits  for  munitions  makers.  He  concluded  with 
the  statement  that  Roosevelt  and  Welles  were  a  threat  to  world 
peace. 

On  Wednesday,  June  19,  1940,  the  water  front  section  of  the  Com- 
munist Party  met  at  230  Seventh  Avenue,  and  there  was  a  discus- 
sion about  $18,000  which  was  sent  to  the  Communist  Party  in  Ger- 
many by  the  Communist  Party  in  the  United  States.  Charles  Keith, 
section  organizer,  told  of  a  communication  he  had  received  from  the 
State  committee  of  the  Communist  Party  congratulating  the  seamen's 
branch  on  its  handling  of  antiwar  work  and  hoping  that  it  would 
continue  to  be  No.  1  on  the  list  in  the  recruiting  drive  just  begun. 
Plans  were  laid  for  a  letter-writing  campaign  to  Jergens  Lotion  to 
threaten  them  with  a  boycott  if  Walter  Winchell  did  not  stop  his  un- 
neutral attitude  toward  the  war  in  his  radio  talks. 

You  will  be  interested,  perhaps,  in  knowing  of  another  incident. 
On  IMonday,  July  1,  1940,  Muriel  Draper,  a  member  of  the  Commu- 
nist Party  and  mother  of  dancer  Paul  Draper,  told  of  attending  a 
meeting  to  raise  funds  for  the  Communist-controlled  American  Youth 
Congress  in  Wisconsin.  She  said  that  the  women  at  this  meeting 
sympathized  with  Mrs.  Roosevelt  for  having  a  husband  such  as 
Franklin  D.  Roosevelt,  but  that  since  Mrs.  Roosevelt  was  so  liberal 
in  her  ways  and  views,  they  could  not  help  but  take  her  into  their 
hearts.  Of  course,  the  implication  there  was  that  the  President  was 
being  an  anti-Soviet  warmonger  during  the  Commu-Nazi  period. 

Because  of  this  policy  of  the  party,  they  began  to  lose  popularity 
and  to  stir  up  a  good  deal  of  opposition.  I  remember  a  meeting  of  the 
teamsters'  branch,  water  front  section  of  the  Communist  Party,  at  the 
home  of  Ann  Boldt,  10  Monroe  Street,  on  Tuesday,  July  9, 1940.  One 
comrade  reported  that  the  previous  week's  assignments  to  distribute 
the  Daily  Worker  to  teamsters  along  the  water  front  had  not  been  very 
encouraging.  Teamsters  were  refusing  the  papers,  cursing  the  dis- 
tributors, and  telling  them  to  go  back  to  Russia.  In  one  instance, 
a  teamster  took  the  paper,  spat  on  it  and  set  fire  to  it  with  a  match. 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       573 

Kaplan  made  light  of  this  report,  asserting  that  the  i^apers  must  have 
been  distributed  in  the  wrong  locality  and  not  where  the  party  gen- 
erally concentrated.  When  the  comrades  insisted  that  this  was  not 
so,  Kaplan  cut  them  short. 

The  American  Peace  Mobilization's  march  on  Washington,  of 
January  31,  and  February  1,  1941,  was  the  largest  denionstration 
this  organization  ever  held  in  Washington.  As  in  previous  demon- 
strations, there  was  widespread  picketing  and  scores  of  delegations 
called  on  Senators  and  Congressmen  to  let  them  know  they  disap- 
proved of  a  possible  United  States  entry  into  war  and  aid  to  Great 
Britain. 

People  employed  at  the  New  York  City  office  of  American  Peace 
Mobilization  informed  me  that  the  executive  committee  had  been 
greatly  satisfied  with  the  results  of  previous  demonstrations  in  Wash- 
ington, which  led  to  the  organization  of  the  1941  demonstration. 
This  demonstration  had  been  originally  planned  for  the  week  end  of 
January  15,  but  as  this  would  have  conflicted  with  the  Lenin  memorial 
meeting  at  Madison  Square  Garden  on  January  13,  it  was  decided  to 
advance  the  date. 

One  of  the  largest  delegations  in  this  march  on  Washington  was 
from  IWO ;  the  NMU  also  sent  a  large  delegation,  theirs  usually  being 
the  most  colorful  and  noisiest. 

Mr.  Dekom.  What  happened  after  June  22,  1941,  when  the  Nazis 
and  Soviets  went  to  war  with  each  other? 

Mr.  HuBER.  The  whole  picture  changed,  of  course. 

On  June  24,  1941,  the  weekly  meeting,  teamsters  branch,  waterfront 
section  of  the  Communist  Party  was  held  at  221  West  Twenty-first 
Street,  with  Miriam  Sayre  presiding.  This  was  the  first  meeting  of 
the  branch  after  hostilities  broke  out  between  Germany  and  the  Soviet 
Union,  and  the  entire  meeting  was  devoted  to  a  discussion  of  this 
subject. 

Sayre  plainly  stated  that  all  activities  tending  to  antagonize  help 
to  the  Soviet  Union  must  stop.  All  comrades  were  urged  to  get  their 
labor  unions  to  appeal  to  the  President  for  immediate  aid  to  the  Soviet 
Union. 

The  Communist  Party  was  to  seek  the  support  of  all  organized  labor, 
regardless  of  affiliations  with  the  party,  to  rally  support  for  the  Soviet 
Union.  The  general  feeling  among  the  comrades  was  to  call  off  all  at- 
tacks on  the  administration,  at  the  same  time  using  this  opportunity  to 
recruit  new  members  and  build  a  stronger  party  throughout  the  United 
States.  Plans  were  made  for  mass  rallies  to  gain  support  of  the  general 
public  for  aid  to  the  Soviet  Union.  .There  was  no  doubt  among  the 
comrades  but  that  the  Soviet  Union  would  emerge  victorious  and  the 
Communist  Party  would  emerge  from  the  war  stronger  than  ever. 

The  July  1, 1941,  meeting  of^he  water  front  section  accented  the  com- 
plete about  face  of  the  Communist  Party  line  following  the  attack  on 
Russia  by  Germany.  All-out  aid  to  Great  Britain  was  then  advocated. 
Winston  Churchill  was  discussed  in  glowing  terms  as  a  defender  of 
democracy. 

Regardmgthe  then  present  administration  in  Washington,  the  party 
said  that  our  leaders  in  Washington  were  of  the  finest,  and  when 
Roosevelt  was  mentioned,  it  was  in  terms  of  praise  and  as  a  great  leader. 

The  party  then  favored  conscription,  even  to  the  point  of  extending 
the  period  of  training  for  the  duration  of  the  emergency.    The  party 


574       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

began  working  for  full  participation  in  the  war  by  the  United  States 
armed  forces  to  insure  full  aid  to  the  Soviet  Union. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Was  the  possibility  of  a  Soviet  defeat  discussed  in 
party  circles  ? 

Mr.  HuBER.  On  November  5,  1941,  I  had  lunch  with  Al  Lannon, 
Communist  Party  organizer  of  the  water  front  section,  and  presently 
a  member  of  the  national  committee  of  the  Communist  Party.  At 
the  time  Lannon  advised  me  that  the  Communist  Party  had  issued  in- 
structions to  its  leaders,  and  particularly  to  industrial  leaders,  regard- 
ing Communist  Party  policy  in  the  event  of  either  the  Soviet  Union's 
defeat,  if  forced  to  make  peace  or  if  the  United  States  failed  to  get 
into  the  war  and  open  a  western  front. 

These  orders  were  to  immediately  conduct  strikes  and  commit  sabo- 
tage wherever  possible.  Lannon  said  the  only  reason  the  party  was 
cooperating  with  the  then  present  administration  was  because  of  the 
help  we  could  give  to  the  Soviet  Union, 

Mr.  Dekom.  Was  there  any  pretense  made  in  party  circles  that 
the  wartime  policy  of  cooperation  was  genuine  and  lasting? 

Mr.  HuBER.  No;  there  was  not.  On  January  18,  1944,  I  attended 
a  membership  meeting  of  the  Eleventh  Assembly  District  Club,  Com- 
munist Party,  at  2744  Broadway.  Bernard  Weller  presided.  The 
membership  turned  out  fully  for  this  meeting  because  of  the  announce- 
ment that  Sam  Barron  would  clarify  for  them  the  new  policies  of  the 
party.  The  clubroom  was  filled  to  capacity.  On  calling  the  meeting 
to  oi'der,  Weller  announced  that  slips  of  paper  would  be  distributed  on 
which  comrades  were  to  write  questions  they  wished  answered.  Bar- 
ron was  in  charge  of  the  workers  school,  which  later  became  the 
Jefferson  School  of  Social  Science. 

After  studying  the  questions  submitted,  Barron  started  to  analyze 
present  conditions  by  quoting  from  Lenin,  who,  he  said,  offered  to 
compromise  with  the  Kerensky  government  45  days  before  the  revolu- 
tion in  the  Soviet  Union.  However,  the  revolution  broke  out  before 
Lenin  could  send  this  message.  This,  he  said,  is  what  the  Communist 
Party  is  doing  in  America,  compromising  with  capitalists,  which  will 
tend  to  confuse  them  and  throw  them  off  guard.  He  said  that  the 
capitalists  of  the  United  States  must  not  be  warned,  but  must  be 
made  to  pay  for  their  crimes  against  the  masses. 

The  postwar  change  in  the  Communist  Party  line  was  first  made 
known  on  a  large  scale  at  a  special  meeting  of  the  New  York  County 
Committee  of  the  Communist  Party  at  Manhattan  Center  on  Monday, 
June  4,  1945.  About  3,000  people  were  present.  The  chairman  was 
Sam  Wiseman,  who  said  that  the  Communist  Party  membership  had 
cooperated  with  the  capitalist  class  and  had  found  out  that  it  did 
not  pay.  He  commented  that  the  capitalists  were  swollen  with  profits 
and  stood  ready  to  take  millions  of  dollars  out  of  the  hides  of  the 
people.  He  informed  the  audience  that  the  change  in  policy  of  the 
national  board's  resolution  would  not  be  open  to  discussion  at  that 
meeting  since  it  would  be  taken  up  at  branch  meetings  to  be  called  in 
the  near  future,  and  which  would  be  open  to  members  only.  He  at- 
tacked the  "avaricious"  groups  of  our  own  capitalist  class,  terming 
them  "now  our  own  home  front."    He  then  introduced  Earl  Browder. 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       575 

Browder  began  by  apologizing  for  not  having  a  written  speech,  and, 
speaking  extemporaneously,  stated, 

Let  us  tell  the  representatives  of  the  press  together,  right  here  and  now, 
that  we  promise  them  that  out  of  this  discussion  is  going  to  come  a  stronger 
unity  and  greater  organization  than  ever  before. 

Applause  in  approval  lasted  for  10  minutes. 

Browder  stated  that  the  crisis  at  the  San  Francisco  UNO  Con- 
ference must  be  interpreted  as  a  rapidly  crystallizing  threat  to  or- 
ganized world  relations,  not  upon  the  principles  of  Dumbarton  Oaks 
or  Yalta,  but  upon  the  principles  of  antagonism  and  hostility  between 
America  and  the  Soviet  Union.  He  accused  Senator  Arthur  Vanden- 
berg  of  trying  to  write  into  the  statutes  of  the  United  Nations  such 
provisions  as  would  enable  him  to  rally  opposition  to  those  statutes 
when  they  came  before  the  United  States  Senate  for  ratification.  He 
said : 

If  the  principle  of  the  Big  Five  veto  power  is  defeated  at  San  Francisco,  that 
defeat  will  be  used  to  prevent  Senate  ratification  of  the  United  Nations  Organ- 
ization. If  this  happens,  there  are  only  two  alternatives  to  the  policy  of  Soviet- 
American  friendship  laid  down  by  Roosevelt  which  President  Truman  is  pledged 
to  continue.  One  is  to  transform  the  present  war  into  a  British-American  War 
against  the  Soviet  Union.  The  other  is  the  development  of  an  armed  peace  of 
the  garrote-and-club  variety  in  which  hostilities  will  be  postponed  for  a  short 
while. 

He  stated  further  that  the  Roosevelt  policy  would  be  carried 
through  only  if  the  American  people  took  a  hand  in  international 
diplomacy  and  demanded  a  sharp  correction  of  the  policies  being 
pursued  by  their  delegates  at  San  Francisco. 

Robert  Minor  urged  the  audience  to  buy  volume  23  of  Lenin's  Col- 
lected Works,  which  had  just  been  translateci  into  English.  The 
entire  500  copies  on  hand  were  sold. 

A  question  and  answer  period  followed  the  meeting  wherein  Brow- 
der answered  questions  from  the  audience.  When  asked  if  Stettinius 
(Edward  R.  Stettinius,  then  Secretary  of  State)  were  acting  in  the 
best  interests  of  the  American  people,  Browder  answered  by  attack- 
ing Stettinius. 

He  was  asked  whether  the  war  in  Japan  would  become  an  imperial- 
ist war  if  the  United  States  delegation  continued  to  oppose  the  Soviet 
Union.  He  said  that  this  was  the  kind  of  question  which  Social 
Democrats  or  Trotsky ists  would  ask,  but  replied,  "The  question  is 
premature."  He  then  said,  "The  Soviet  delegation  is  even  acting 
in  the  interests  of  the  American  bourgeoisie,  unless  they  have  gone 
quite  as  insane  as  Hitler."  He  shouted,  "The  Japanese  war  is  not 
over  yet,"  which  could  be  interpreted  to  mean  that  the  Soviet  Union 
would  come  in  as  an  ally  of  the  United  States  and  Great  Britain 
against  Japan. 

Sam  Wiseman  then  announced  that  the  balance  of  questions  sub- 
mitted would  be  answered  in  the  columns  of  the  Daily  Worker. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Wasn't  this  the  time  that  Earl  Browder  was  thrown 
out  of  the  party  for  allegedly  cooperating  with  the  capitalists  ? 

Mr.  Htjber.  Yes,  sir.  The  attack  on  Browder  was  built  up  through 
the  party  in  advance.  A  very  special  meeting  was  called  at  Unity 
Center  on  June  12,  1945,  at  2744  Broadway,  in  order  to  begin  the  cam- 
paign against  Browder  and  check  the  reaction  of  the  membership. 
All  members  were  required  to  show  their  membership  cards  upon 


576       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

e^itering.  The  chairman  was  Goldie  Young.  She  announced  that 
the  topic  of  discussion  would  be  the  very  serious  resolution  of  the 
National  Board  of  the  Communist  Party  concerning  Browder's 
deviationism. 

In  opening  the  discussion,  Goldie  was  very  bitter  toward  Browder 
for  contniuing  his  opposition  to  the  resolution,  and  attacked  him  for 
his.  refusal  to  admit  his  errors.  She  then  called  for  lively  discussion 
on  the  resolution. 

Betty  Haufrecht  said  that  Browder  was  a  traitor  to  the  working 
class,  and  claimed  that  the  revisionist  ideas  developed  by  Browder 
were  based  upon  the  groundless  assumption  that  capitalism  was  now 
progressive.  On  this  theory,  it  was  said  that  Browder  had  proceeded 
to  develop  in  his  book,  Tehran— Our  Path  in  War  and  Peace,  a  cap- 
italist Utopia  which  would  far  outdo  anything  produced  anywhere 
by  social  democratic  revisionists.  She  stated  that  he  had  developed 
theories  about  the  progressiveness  and  intelligence  of  financial  capital, 
and  consequently  the  policies  he  formulated  on  the  basis  of  these 
wrong  conclusions  tended  to  subordinate  the  working  class  to  the 
influence  of  reactionary  capitalists.  She  declared  that  the  member- 
ship of  the  Communist  Party  of  America  deified  Browder,  revering 
him  at  rallies,  and  even  composing  songs  in  his  honor,  such  as  "Brow- 
der IS  our  Leader."  Further,  she  stated  that  the  remarkable  thing 
about  Browder's  policies  is  that  they  cannot  be  properly  called  social 
democratic,  but  rather  liberal  bourgeoisie.  Concluding*,  she  said  that 
Browder  had  betrayed  the  membership  of  the  Communist  Party  of 
America.  (Betty  Haufrecht  is  a  member  of  the  county  committee 
and  the  County  Educational  School,  and  has  appeared  as  guest  speaker 
at  various  clubs.) 

Jeanette  (Faith)  Eaichell  attacked  Browder's  policies,  saying  that 
we  should  haw  been  informed  by  the  national  committee  of  Foster's 
letter  so  that  the  membership  could  discuss  the  change  of  the  party 
name,  with  the  understanding  that  the  national  committee  did  not 
entirely  agree  with  Browder.  She  recalled  that  for  the  last  2  years 
Browder  had  never  tired  telling  the  comrades  how  modest  a  portion 
of  the  American  public  the  Communists  were,  and  how  little  the 
Communists  affected  the  course  of  events.  Therefore,  "how  foolish," 
he  was  to  have  told  the  capitalists,  "to  believe  that  we  really  can  bring 
a  change  about  in  this  country  without  revolution." 

She  claimed  that  Browder  was  the  cause  for  the  membership  having 
become  the  laughing  stock  of  the  country,  and  compared  Browder  and 
the  membership  of  the  Communist  Party  of  America  with  Father 
Divine  and  his  followers  in  that  the  members  blindly  followed  and 
executed  without  question  any  policies  formulated  by"  Browder. 

Beatrice  Weiss  blamed  the  leaders  of  the  party  for  permitting 
Browder  to  make  its  policies.  She  asked,  "Where  and  what  were  the 
members  of  the  national  committee,  the  State  committee,  and  the 
county  committee  doing  when  this  change  took  place?"  She  stated 
that  the  resolution  adopted  by  the  national  board,  which  states  that, 
"While  a  change  in  form  or  name  of  our  Marxist  organization  is  not 
m  Itself  a  question  of  principle,"  was  not  entirely  correct;  but  that, 
"It  sure  is  a  question  of  principle  whether  we  have  a  political  associa- 
tion or  a  party.  If  we  are  Marxists,  we  know  that  a  party  is  part  of 
a  class  and  a  political  association  is  merely  the  joining  together  of 


COMMUN-IST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       577 

Tarioiis  o-roups  for  political  maters."  She  urged  that  as  soon  as  the 
name  Communist  Political  Association  of  America  is  dispensed  with, 
and  the  name  Communist  Party  re-adopted,  then  the  party  would  grow 
more  powerful.  She  attacked  the  Daily  Worker  and  declared  that  not 
half  of  the  membership  are  readers,  the  reason  being  that  it  was 
clearly  a  propaganda  paper.  She  accused  Goldie  Young,  president 
of  Unity  Center,  of  being  a  bureaucrat  and  demanded  that  a  stop  be 
had  to  this  type  of  leadership.  Other  members  voiced  their  sentiments, 
joining  Beatrice  in  her  condemnation.  This  caused  a  commotion 
which  lasted  several  minutes. 

Other  members  who  similarly  denounced  Browder  and  his  revision- 
ist policies  were  A.  B.  Magil,  editor  of  New  Masses ;  Harry  Raymond, 
writer  for  the  Daily  Worker;  and  Ray  Bilgore,  active  trade  unionist. 

Goldie  Young  stated  that,  due  to  the  lateness  of  the  hour,  it  was 
necessary  to  take  the  names  of  those  comrades  who  wished  to  partici- 
pate in  the  discussion,  and  that  these  individuals  would  be  given  a 
chance  to  speak  at  the  next  membership  meeting.  She  announced 
that  meetings  would  be  held  every  week  until  the  national  convention 
of  the  Communist  Party  of  America,  which  was  to  be  held  sometime  in 
July,  and  urged  all  comrades  to  buy  and  study  the  Communist  Mani- 
festo, on  sale  at  the  club. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Wasn't  it  a  fact,  Mr.  Huber,  that  all  the  policies  which 
Earl  Browder  was  following  were  those  dictated  to  him  by  Moscow  ? 

Mr.  Huber.  Yes. 

Mr.  Dekom.  So  that  all  these  accusations  against  him  were  just 
window  dressing  to  effect  a  shift  in  the  party  line  also  dictated  from 
Moscow  ? 

Mr.  Huber.  That  is  right,  sir. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Would  you  say  that  this  is  a  typical  case  of  Soviet 
gratitude  ? 

Mr.  Huber.  Yes.  We  all  know  of  the  slaughter  of  the  old-time 
Communists  by  Stalin  and  his  gang. 

Mr.  Dekom.  What  did  Earl  Browder  do  ? 

Mr.  Huber.  For  a  while  he  Avas  completely  out  of  party  activities 
and  then  he  obtained  a  book  concession  from  the  Soviet  Government. 
He  has  since  lost  that.  I  have  seen  him  recently  and  he  appears  to 
be  a  completely  broken  man.  He  has  aged  considerably  since  I  last 
saw  him  in  the  party. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Did  he  make  any  attempt  to  reinstate  himself  in  the 
good  graces  of  the  party  ? 

Mr.  Huber.  More  than  once. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Did  he  ever  try  to  form  or  organize  a  separate  Com- 
munist unit  ? 

Mr.  Huber.  Yes,  he  did.  He  sent  out  a  leaflet,  of  which  I  have  a 
copy.  In  this  leaflet  he  did  not  ask  for  sympathy  but  said  that  he  was 
putting  his  case  forth  as  a  test  case  which  would  decide  the  character 
of  the  Communist  Party  for  the  future.  I  was  told  that  he  also  be- 
lieved that  the  membership  of  the  Communist  Party  could  find  ways 
and  means  of  reinstating  him  as  a  member  of  the  Yonkers  branch ;  that 
the  reasons  given  for  his  expulsion  were  that  he  had  not  accepted 
assignments  or  attended  meetings.  He  countered  this  accusation  by 
saying  that  if  such  a  basis  for  expulsion  of  members  were  used,  the 
Communist  Party  would  be  compelled  to  expel  thousands  of  its 
members. 


578       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

I  believe  that  the  names  and  addresses  of  the  party  members  to 
whom  these  leaflets  were  mailed  were  supplied  by  William  Browder, 
formerly  circulation  director  of  the  Daily  Worker,  since  members  who 
were  not  subscribers  to  the  press  were  not  sent  Browder's  appeal.  Up 
to  that  time  this  particular  matter  had  not  been  discussed  at  member- 
ship meetings,  in  the  apparent  hope  that  ignoring  it  would  prevent 
factions  from  forming. 

Browder,  in  his  appeal,  stated  that  the  decisions  of  the  national 
committee  confirming  his  expulsion  from  the  party  left  him  no  alter- 
native to  an  appeal  to  the  members  and  that  this  appeal  was  not  a 
personal  matter.    He  stated: 

If  a  leadership  elected  in  a  moment  of  hysteria  and  confusion,  in  an  at- 
mosphere which  Foster  himself  described  as  the  "atomic  bomb  effect,"  can  then 
proceed  by  expulsion  on  ground  so  shadowy  and  without  substance  as  in  my  case, 
to  silence  all  criticism  of  their  course  even  when  it  includes  basic  revision  of  the- 
decisions  of  the  convention  which  elected  it,  then  the  conclusion  is  inescapable — 
all  effective  inner-party  democracy  has  been  destroyed.  It  is  my  opinion  that  the 
membership  can  find  the  ways  and  means  to  halt  this  disintegrating  process.  Let 
me  make  it  clear  that  I  am  not  appealing  for  support  to  any  special  political 
platform,  nor  am  I  putting  myself  forth  as  candidate  for  any  leading  post  in  the 
party.  I  ask  only  for  the  right  to  remain  a  rank-and-file  member,  to  which  I 
have  given  my  life's  work,  and  for  the  right  of  every  rank-and-file  member  to 
raise  his  voice  in  criticism  when  convention  decisions  are  reversed  by  the  leader- 
ship without  consulting  tlie  party. 

Browder  answered  each  charge  of  the  national  committee  as  follows  r 

The  indecent  haste  of  the  proceedings  renders  the  entire  proposal  suspect, 
and,  therefore,  not  in  the  best  interests  of  the  party.  I  was  called  before  the 
national  board  on  February  5,  and  there  handed  a  copy  of  the  decision  it  proposed 
to  adopt.  When  I  demanded  that  charges  in  writing  be  given  me,  with  an 
opportunity  to  prepare  my  answer,  I  was  told  the  draft  decision  constituted  the 
written  charges  and  a  copy  is  now  in  my  possession — therefore,  the  board  would 
proceed  to  hold  a  trial. 

Questions  submitted  for  me  to  answer  were:  Give  us  the  names  of  all  party 
members  with  whom  you  have  spoken  since  the  convention  and  the  nature  of  your 
conversations,"  and  others  of  a  similar  nature.  My  request  for  a  few  days  to 
prepare  a  political  answer  to  tlie  proposed  decision  was  refused  by  formal  vote 
on  motion  of  Foster.  I  thereupon  refused  to  answer  the  questions  asked  and 
declared  I  considered  the  issue  of  proper  procedure  of  great  importance.  It  was 
unreasonable  and  harmful  to  the  party  when  the  board  rushed  to  a  decision  within 
the  hour  after  the  first  written  charges  were  submitted  and  those  charges  were 
already  in  the  form  of  a  final  decision. 

Browder  stated  that  on  February  1  he  was  called  to  the  Yonkers 
club,  of  which  he  was  a  member,  to  discuss  his  relationship  with  tlie 
party,  and  that  he  did  not  receive  from  that  club  any  written  charges. 
He  had  heard  that  on  January  29,  a  motion  calling  for  his  expulsion 
had  been  submitted  to  a  Westchester  County  membership  meeting,  but 
was  defeated  by  a  vote  of  64  to  52,  and  this  motion  was  later  referred 
to  the  Yonlcers  club.  He  submitted  to  unlimited  questioning,  but  had 
never  been  informed  as  to  the  action  of  the  club  on  these  proceedings. 
The  board  decision  mentioned  his  statements  before  the  Yonkers  club 
executive,  but  to  his  knowledge,  its  contents  had  never  been  made 
known. 

The  board  decision  stated  that  Browder  had  continuously  resisted 
the  program  and  decisions  of  the  convention.  Browder  branded  this 
as  completely  false  and  without  the  slightest  evidence  of  support, 
stating : 

I  publicly  accepted  the  party  convention  decisions  and  subordinated  myself 
to  them,  because  I  believed  they  were  sound.     The  only  charge  that  might  lie 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       579- 

against  me  was  that  I  failed  to  speak  up,  to  criticize  and  oppose  the  steps  taken 
by  Foster  and  his  associates,  to  withdraw  from  the  Roosevelt-labor-democratic 
coalition  and  to  break  up  the  Truman  administration  at  a  moment  when  it 
was  improving  its  implementation  of  Roosevelt's  foreign  policy  and  alining, 
itself  with  labor. 

He  charged  the  national  board  with  departing  from  the  convention 
decisions,  without  a  pretense  of  consultation  with  the  party,  on  the 
theory  that  the  board  could  change  those  decisions  and  suppress  even 
to  the  point  of  expulsion  all  criticism  of  such  actions. 

The  board  decision  stated  that  Browder  had  violated  his  pledge  to 
the  national  convention  to  place  himself  at  the  disposal  of  the  party, 
and  by  refusing  to  accept  any  assignment  from  the  party,  he  had 
violated  party  discipline  and  deserted  Communist  duties  and  respon- 
sibilities.    Browder  declared  this  to  be  completely  false  inasmuch 


no  assignment  of  any  kind  was  ever  offered  to  me  and  no  decision  as  to  my 
party  work  Was  ever  transmitted  to  me.  On  the  other  hand,  I  was  specifically 
told  there  was  no  work  available  for  me  in  the  party.  As  to  my  non-attendance 
in  the  Yonkers  club,  this  was  in  specific  agreement  with  the  local  and  national 
leadership,  on  the  ground  that,  since  my  attendance  in  the  club  might  become 
a  disturbing  factor,  I  be  excused  from  attendance  until  a  decision  was  arrived 
at.  If  the  party  followed  the  practice  of  expelling  those  who  absented  them- 
selves from  club  meetings  for  2  months,  there  would  be  an  exceptional  crisis  in 
party  memberships. 

The  board  decision  stated  that  Browder  had  carried  on  factional, 
activity  and  a  campaign  of  unprincipled  attacks  against  the  leader- 
ship of  the  party.     Browder  called  this  silly, 

since  there  was  no  faction  and  no  campaign,  and  for  more  than  7  months  I  have 
been  so  completely  cut  off  from  contact  with  the  membership,  that,  except  for 
the  continued  public  reiteration  of  my  name  as  a  synonym  for  all  deviation 
from  Marxism,  I  might  have  passed  completely  into  oblivion. 

The  board  also  charged  Browder  with  adopting  an  equivocal  atti- 
tude at  tlie  Un-American  Activities  Committee  hearing.  Browder 
denoimced  this  as — 

a  flagrant  case  of  bad  faith  and  a  crude  frame-up  after  the  event ;  I  have  met 
twice  with  the  secretariat  and  outlined  how  I  proposed  to  conduct  myself  at 
the  hearings,  including  the  "private  citizen"  phrase.  A  member  of  the  national 
board  and  the  board's  attorney  were  present,  and  at  the  conclusion  of  the  Un- 
American  hearings,  they  congratulated  me  on  my  successful  handling  of  the- 
committee.  Later  Foster  overruled  the  opinions  of  those  who  were  present, 
so  they  changed  their  minds  without  even  notifying  me. 

The  board  decision  ascribed  to  Browder  views  which  he  stated  he 
does  not  hold,  and  actions  which  he  claims  he  had  not  performed. 
The  decision  proclaimed  him  to  be  outside  the  working  class  move- 
ment, and  that  his  views  were  enemy-class  ideologj^  and  not  a  trend 
in  the  labor  movement.  Browder  supported  his  views  as  being  those- 
of  the  great  mass  of  trade  unionists,  plus  that  of  all  progressive  Demo- 
crats who  are  not  yet  Communists,  and  stated  that  Foster  himself 
had  signed  the  article  in  Political  Affairs,  which  was  given  as  an 
example  of  Browder's  deviation.     He  said : 

Foster  is  so  fantastically  factionally  against  me  that  he  has  not  hesitated  to- 
declare  the  views  of  the  great  mass  of  trade  unionists  as  enemy-class  ideology 
in  order  to  blacken  my  name  before  the  membership  and  the  world. 

The  accusation  that  Browder  had  become  an  adviser  to  big  business 
by  editing  a  mimeographed  bulletin  in  200  copies,  called  Distributors 


580       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

Guide,  and  which  was  circulated  exckisively  in  circles  long  allies  of  the 
Communists,  Browder  termed — 

a  typical  example  of  hysteria.  I  would  be  happy  to  have  these  writings  ex- 
amiued  by  any  intelligent  group,  not  under  factional  hysterial  control,  to  conform 
my  characterization  of  them.  The  assumption  is  made  in  the  decision  that  I 
am  under  obligation,  as  a  disciplined  rank-and-file  party  member,  to  submit  every 
work  I  put  on  paper  to  the  censorship  of  Foster  or  his  appointee  for  that  purpose. 
This  is  a  newly  manufactured  policy  for  the  purpose  of  the  case  against  me;  to 
make  my  writings  the  basis  of  expulsion  is,  in  effect,  to  copy  the  caricatures  of  the 
Conmiunists  as  drawn  by  our  enemies ;  and  when  the  party  follows  the  actions 
of  the  enemy,  then,  indeed,  we  are  in  grave  danger. 

Browder  stated  that  the  charge  that  he  had  ceased  his  inactivity  and 
had  launched  attempts  to  involve  certain  comrades,  and  to  broaden  his 
contacts  with  individual  members  and  sympathizers,  doubtless  re- 
ferred to  his  appearance  before  the  Yonkers  club  executive  and — 

the  statement  I  made  there  in  criticism  of  the  departure  of  the  party  leadership 
from  the  convention  decisions.  I  appeared  at  the  Yonkers  club  by  its  written 
instructions  and  there  the  demand  was  made  that  I  express  myself  fully  and 
frankly.  In  my  statement  to  the  Yonkers  club  I  was  exercising  nothing  more  than 
the  rights  of  any  rank-and-file  member  ;  I  was  responding  to  the  demands  of  party 
responsibility.  Nothing  I  expressed  there  could  be  made  grounds  for  expulsion 
without  abolishing  all  inner  democracy  within  the  party. 

Browder  concluded  his  appeal  by  calling  upon  the  national  commit- 
tee to  reject  the  proposal  for  his  expulsion.  A  coupon  attached  to  the 
appeal  stated : 

The  mailing  of  these  documents  to  the  party  membership  was  made  necessary 
by  the  closing  of  all  normal  channels  to  me.  In  order  to  do  this,  I  have  had  to 
borrow  and  expend  money.  I  ask  those  who  agree  that  this  was  necessary  and 
in  the  interest  of  the  party  and  the  working  class,  to  write  to  me  expressing  their 
views  and  to  make  a  contribution  in  money  to  defray  the  expenses,  using  the 
attached  coupon  if  desired.  Make  all  remittances  payable  to  Earl  Browder, 
Box  145,  South  Station,  Yonkers,  N.  Y. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Mr.  Huber,  I  have  here  a  copy  of  the  United  Nations 
Telephone  Directory  dated  "1  February  1949."  On  page  91  there 
appears  the  name  of  Victor  A.  Yakhontoff.  Did  you,  in  the  course 
of  your  Communist  Party  activity,  have  any  contact  with  him  ? 

Mr.  Huber.  Yes.  He  was  an  instructor  at  the  Jefferson  School  of 
Social  Science,  which  is  the  official  Communist  training  school  in  New 
York  City. 

On  December  3,  1944,  I  attended  a  party  of  leading  Communist 
functionaries  in  this  country  given  at  the  home  of  Seymour  Copstein, 
a  Communist  professor,  honoring  Alexander  Trachtenberg.  Trach- 
tenberg  is  the  president  of  International  Publishers,  the  Communist 
publishing  house  in  New  York  City ;  a  member  of  the  national  com- 
mittee of  the  Communist  Party,  and  on  the  board  of  directors  of  the 
Jefferson  School  of  Social  Science. 

There  were  about  30  people  present,  and  admission  was  by  invita- 
tion only.  Only  old  and  trusted  friends  of  Trachtenberg  were  invited. 
Entertainment  was  furnished  by  Richard  Dyer-Bennett,  who  sang  and 
played  folk  songs  of  Eussia.  Guests  included  Gen.  Victor  Yakhontoff, 
Harry  Sacher,  Abe  Heller,  Lewis  Merrill,  David  Goldway,  Louis  Wein- 
stock,  Frederick  V.  Field,  Corliss  Lamont,  Howard  Selsam,  Mr.  and 
Mrs.  Doxey  Wilkerson,  Mike  Gold,  Dr.  Joseph  Barsky,  Sophie  and  Bill 
Cropper,  Muriel  Draper,  Helen  Bryan,  Muriel  Hart,  and  Regina 
Wilson. 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       581 

The  master  of  ceremonies  was  Harry  Sacher,  attorney,  who  intro- 
duced Gen.  Victor  Yakhontoff  with  the  statement  that  Yakliontoff 
served  in  the  Russo-Japanese  War  along  with  Alexander  Trachten- 
berg.  Yakhontoff  gave  a  talk  in  which  he  stated  that  his  friend- 
ship with  Trachtenberg  had  been  a  long  one,  and  that,  even  though 
he  had  been  a  general  and  Trachtenberg  a  corporal  in  the  Czariet 
armed  forces,  they  had  found  a  lot  in  common. 

Jack  Stachel  made  a  short  speech  in  which  he  addressed  the  groups 
as  ''comrades  and  fellow  Communists." 

Trachtenberg  was  presented  with  a  briefcase,  and  in  his  acceptance 
speech  he  also  addressed  the  group  as  "comrades  and  fellow 
Communists." 

Following  the  party,  I  accompanied  Eegina  Wilson  home,  and  she 
advised  me  that  the  guests  at  this  party  were  the  cream  of  the  intel- 
lectual group  of  the  Communist  Party  in  the  United  States. 

Mr.  Dekom.  You  mentioned  the  Jefferson  School  of  Social  Science. 
Have  you  any  additional  information  on  this  organization? 

Mr.  HuBER,  Yes;  it  is  one  of  the  most  important  educational  cen- 
ters of  the  Communist  Party.  In  addition  to  the  information  I  have 
just  given  you  on  the  meeting  at  the  school,  I  might  give  you  other 
activities  of  the  Jefferson  School  with  which  I  am  familiar : 

When  the  Jefferson  School  of  Social  Science  was  conducting  a  cam- 
paign to  raise  $35,000  in  1944  to  enlarge  the  school,  booklets  were  dis- 
tributed through  the  Communist  Party  branches  for  the  comrades  to 
sell.  Each  page  in  the  booklet  was  a  facsimile  of  a  red  brick,  sup- 
posedly representing  the  purchaser's  contribution  toward  the  school's 
expansion.  The  campaign  was  supervised  by  Regina  Wilson,  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Eleventh  Assembly  District  Club  of  the  Communist  Party. 

On  January  5,  1945,  Regina  Wilson  prepared,  on  the  letterhead  of 
the  Jefferson  School  of  Social  Science,  thank-you  notes  to  a  list  of 
people  for  their  work  in  compiling  a  list  for  the  first  anniversary 
dinner  of  the  school.     Thank-you  notes  were  addressed  to — 

Vera  Lhlakman,  195  Hicks  Street,  Brooklyn ; 

Mrs.  Ruth  Poskoff,  811  Walton  Avenue,  Bronx ; 

Mrs.  Dorothy  Berber,  139-68  Pershing  Crescent,  Jamaica ; 

Mrs.  David  L.  (Rhetta)  Friedman,  340  East  Sixty-sixth  Street,  New  York 
City; 

Dr.  A.  Novkoff,  418  West  Twentieth  Street,  New  York  City ; 

Dr.  Sarah  R.  Riedman,  1066  Park  Place,  Brooklyn ; 

Dr.  Francine  Bradly,  10  Downing  Street,  New  York  City  ;  and 

Dr.  Bernard  F.  Riess,  Institute  for  Research  in  Child  Psychology,  695  Park 
Avenue,  New  York  City. 

The  anniversary  dinner  for  the  school  was  held  at  Hotel  Roosevelt, 
New  York  City.  About  750  people  were  present.  Tickets  were  $5 
each.  Howard  Selsam,  a  Communist  and  director  of  the  Jefferson 
School,  ^ave  a  talk  in  which  he  stated  that  there  were  nine  "people's 
universities"  in  the  United  States  at  that  time.  He  stated  that  all  of 
these  schools  should  be  oriented  toward  the  labor  movement  and  more 
or  less  integrally  connected  with  it.  Labor  unions  were  represented 
on  the  governing  boards  of  all  nine  schools.  The  California  Labor 
School,  operating  centers  in  San  Francisco  and  Oakland,  was  spon- 
sored by  some  150  AFL  and  CIO  unions,  most  of  whom  contribute  to 
its  support.  Selsam  reported  that  this  school  was  also  supported  by 
business  leaders  representing  important  banks  and  industries  of  that 
area. 

98330—50 — pt.  2 9 


r>S2     ooMMi'Msr  A('ri\  1  riKs  in  ai.ikn  and  nationai,  (auu'rs 

Sclsiim  iloi'lartHl  (hnl  {\\c  Ji'iVorson  Sc1uh)1  of  Stn-iiil  Srioiu-o  in  Now 
^ Ork  h;ul  I.IOD  shulonts,  (iikiuii-  [()(>  (.nmrsos;  Oalil'oi-nia  Lubor  Srln)i)l, 
1,000  sliulonls  in  ils  '2  oomUm-s  niul  ovor  700  nioiv  in  oxionsion  i-lnssos; 
Saniuol  Atlnnis  Si'hi>oI  in  In>s( on,  100  shulonis  in  its  opiMiino- 
tiMiu;  Abi';ih:nn  liiui'tUn  S^hoiW  in  CliioMii't*.  ^^--^  n\iiis(  runls,  with  ;>."iO 
nioi'o  in  oxtonsion  ooursos;  IMiihulolpiiiii  School  oC  Sooinl  Soionoo  ;ind 
Art,  ,')8(MMirolIiHl,  and  was  planning-  I'xtonsion  oinirsos  in  (ho  indus(rial 
ronlors  of  Canidon  ami  C'hoslor;  Ohio  School  of  Social  Scicnoo  in 
CK'vohnui,  i.*.'»(^  shulon(s  in  ll>  courses;  (Jooriio  Washiniilon  Carver 
School  in  New  York's  Uarlenu  ;>00  shulents  in  (he  openinij;  term  of  i(s 
second  year;  People's  E(luc:.(  ional  Associa(ion  o{  \jos  Aniivles,  5>;>0 
s(uiien(s  in  i(sclown(own  and  Hollywood  divisiinis. 

lie  said: 

11  Is  lu^t  unlilvtMy  th;it  (hem>\i  "J  years  will  sco  tlnM>st;ililishuuMil  of  ccinrMi  able 
schools  In  a  scor(>  of  new  rilios  siirli  as  l>t'tr«>il,  Ualliuiori',  \\asliir,,u(;>n.  I'llls- 
I'ur.uh.  Allauta.  St.  I.ouis,  Milwaukoe.  Sealdo.  ami  other  lar.:e  eilios  whieh  eouhl 
wtil  sot  up  (his  type  of  sehool  with  the  support  o\  luiions  auil  ]>rouiessivo 
I'iti/ens  of  the  middle  class. 

He  slated  lha(  a  n»o\  on)en(  was  ihuKm-  way  ii\  New  York  and  cUher 
lilies,  and  Ihal  it  needed  antl  deserved  support  and  encourai2;enien(. 

Mr.  Dkkom.  "Was  Keirina  Wilson  a  nieniber  of  your  branch  of  the 
par(y. 

Mr.  Hi  lU'iw  Yes;  sl\c  was.  She  was  oi\e  of  the  n>o-;(  active  loadtM's 
in  the  ,letVerst>n  School.  She  suporxisod,  as  mentioned  previously,  for 
(he  .lelferson  School  of  Si>cial  Science,  a  I'antiviiiiu  io  raise  $;>r>,OtH>  to 
cnlariio  the  school  by  ilistribut  inii  booklets  (hnnioh  C\Humunity  Party 
branches  i'ov  the  ct>mrades  (t)  sell. 

Mr.  I>kko:m.  l^id  the  Coimnmiists  wi>rk  (hrouuh  anv  other  {loliiical 
party? 

Mr.  HiniK.  They  wiuked  (hr»niah  (he  .Vmerican  liabor  rar(y, 
which  is  now  wholly  com  rolled  bv  (he  C\Mnnnmis(  PaHy.  Every 
member  of  the  I'niiy  (\M\ter,  which  numbers  some  r>;>0,  was  also 
retiuireti  to  becmne  a  member  o'l  the  .Vmerican  Lalmr  Party  Klevemh 
.\ssemblv  nis(rict  CMub  at  lH>SS  Hroadway,  New  York. 

The  cliairmnn  and  cliairlady  (Linda  lu^ss)  ft>r  the  dislrict  were 
bo(h  members  tif  (he  Connolly  branch  of  the  party.  .Vrcliio  Maskin, 
labor  tiirectiM-  of  the  Kleventh  Assembly  District  Club,  Communist 
Party,  -7I4  Hroadway,  was  permitted  the  use  of  American  Lab(M* 
Party  headquarters  at  i.H>S8  Broadway,  io  meet  with  the  CIO  Com- 
munily  Council.  They  planned  to  iie(  all  union  members  of  Klevenlh 
.Vssombly  District  CMub  aclive  and  politically  conscious,  in  order  to 
help  recruit  new  members  fi\>m  amoiiii'  their  labor  unions. 

Our  club,  as  well  as  (he  other  Commuiiis(  clubs  in  the  district, 
wiu'ked  tirelessly  for  the  reelection  o(  \\{o  MarcaiUonio  to  Compress. 

Tuesday,  March  'J8.  n)14,  while  at  ALP  headquarters  at  'JOSS  Bnvid- 
way,  waitinii"  for  results  of  the  primary  elections,  T  observed,  from  my 
phu'o  a(  the  desk  where  ivsults  of  the  returns  were  handed  in,  that  all 
oleciiou  dis(rict  cap(ains — more  than  1(>0 — were  members  of  the 
l''le\iMi(h  .Assembly  Dislrict  Club.  C\mimiinist  Party.  The  work  was 
(abulated  by  Liiula  Koss  and  (loldie  Youiiii-.  Kesuhs  showed  (he  left 
wino-  in  the  lead  at  that  time  and  (loldie  expressed  jubilation  with 
(he  wcM'k  comrades  had  accomplished. 

I  spent  'J  hiuirs  at  .MarcaiUonio's  headt|uar(ors  a(  MSI  Firs(  .Vvenue. 
New   York  C''itv.  on  June  ii;>,  15MI.     During'  this  (ime  about  -00  cou\- 


COMMUNIST  ACT1V1TJI<:S  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       583 

radi'-s  from  Coinmunist  Ptirty  clubs  throiij>hout  New  York  City  rc- 
poi-tod  for  assignments  to  districts  to  canvass  for  Marcantonio's 
reelection.  Elizabeth  liarkcr,  member  of  the  State  committee,  Com- 
munist Party,  was  in  charge  of  IMarcantonio's  headquarters  at  the 
above  address. 

On  April  23,  1945,  the  American  Lahor  Party,  at  2088  Broadway, 
inaugurated  an  intensive  membership  drive  to  start  May  1.  They 
enlisk'd  the  aid  of  the  conu'ades  of  Conununist  clubs  on  the  upper  West 
Side  in  their  attempts  to  get  new  members. 

At  the  membership  meetings  of  all  Comminiist  clul)s  on  the  upper 
West  Side  comrades  were  ujged  to  participate  in  this  campaign 
through  a  door-to-door  canvass.  Those  who  could  not  publicly  iden- 
tify themselves  as  Communists  were  asked  to  report  to  American  Labor 
Party  to  give  clerical  assistance.  This  drive  was  in  preparation  for 
the  11)1:5  elections,  to  enable  the  American  Labor  Party  to  have  a  large 
working  force  at  its  disposal,  to  insure  election  of  American  Labor 
Party  candidates,  especially  Ben  Davis,  Jr.  This  membership  drive 
was  under  the  leadeiship  of  Harry  Abrams,  chairman,  and  Linda 
Ross,  (;()chairman,  in  the  eleventh  assembly  district,  American  Labor 
Party,  who  were  both  members  of  the  Unity  Center  branch  of  the 
Coinmunist  Party. 

Mr.  Dekoini.  Were  any  written  instructions  issued  to  members  of 
your  party  unit  concerning  the  American  Labor  Party? 

Mr.  HuBER.  Yes,  sir;  there  were.  I  have  here  with  me  one  of  these 
instructions.  It  was  issued  in  the  11)47  election,  and  shows  how  the 
Connrninist  Party  was  behind  the  American  Labor  Party  in  the 
campaign. 

Mr.  l)EKt)M.  With  the  permission  of  the  chairman,  this  document 
will  be  placed  in  the  record  at  this  point  as  exiiibit  7. 

(The  document  was  marked  "Iluber  Exhibit  7"  and  is  as  follows:) 

Jamics  Connolly  Ci.uii 

Communist  Party^ 

2744  Broadway 


August  6,  1946. 


EMERGENCY    NOTICES 


1.  Our  answer  to  the  Georgia  lynchings  is  to  elect  a  progressive  Negro  State 
senator  in  this  district.  The  Charles  Collins  campaign  needs  canvassers  and 
ciei-ks  every  day  and  evening  from  now  to  primary  day,  August  20. 

Repoi-t  to  American  Lahoi-  Parly,  2744  IJroadway.     Oflice  liours  7  to  11  p.  m. 
In  order  lo  help  during  the  day,  if  you  are  free  then,  you  must  report  for 
advance  instructions,  once  only,  some  evening. 

2.  In  order  to  spur  the  election  campaign^  special  short  Tuesday  evening  club 
meetings  will  be  held  1  hour  later  than  the  usual  time;  that  is,  at  0: 15  p.  m. 
These  short  meetings  will  concentrate  on  the  election  cami)aign.  Drop  in  after 
canvassing.  Time  is  short.  Your  absence  from  canvassing  and  meetings  may 
cause  the  defeat  of  Charles  Collins.  Other  mobilizations  will  be  announced  at 
tlie  club  ni(;etings. 

.'?.  Our  regular  7 :  .'W  Saturday  evening  street-corner  meetings  at  One  Hun- 
di-''d  and  Tliiid  Street  and  Columbus  Avenue  are  a  great  help  to  the  campaign. 
Come  to  the  club  this  Saturday  and  any  Saturday  thereafter,  at  7  p.  m.  sliarp, 
for  last-miiuit(>  instructions.  In  case  you  can't  make  it  at  7,  come  directly  to  the 
corner  at  7 :  30.     We  need  supporters  at  the  meetings. 

BJvery  little  bit  helps.     Build  the  democratic  coalition. 

EXECUTl  VIO    (  'OM  M  n  "IKE. 


584       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

Mr.  Dekom.  You  have  made  references  to  Norman  Corwin,  who  is 
now  employed  by  the  UN.  In  your  testimony,  you  reported  his  speech 
at  a  Communist-front  meeting.  You  also  stated  that  he  had  appeared 
at  other  meetings  and  had  been  associated  with  other  Connnunist 
fronts.     Will  you  give  us  specific  instances  of  that  ? 

Mr.  HuBER.  Norman  Corwin  made  a  collection  speech  at  a  party  and 
dinner  that  was  held  in  honor  of  William  Gropper,  cartoonist  for  the 
Daily  Worker. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Is  the  Dailj^  Worker  the  official  organ  of  the  Commu- 
nist Party  ? 

Mr.  Huber.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Were  you  there;  is  this  first-hand  information  which 
you  have? 

Mr.  Huber.  That  is  right,  sir,  and  I  will  give  you  a  complete  repoH 
on  it,  if  you  like. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Please  do  so. 

Mr.  Huber.  The  birthday  party  and  dinner  in  honor  of  William 
Gropper,  cartoonist  for  Daily  Worker,  was  held  on  Monday,  December 
4,  1944,  in  the  ^rand  ballroom  of  the  Commodore  Hotel.  About  500 
or  more  people  were  present,  admission  was  $4  per  person.  Festivities 
started  with  singing  of  the  national  anthem. 

Dr.  Edward  K.  Barsky,  chairman  of  Joint  Anti-Fascist  Eefugee 
Committee,  tiianked  those  present  for  their  kind  cooperation  with  the 
committee  during  the  past  year,  saying  that  without  their  help  hun- 
dreds of  people  in  many  foreign  countries  would  now  be  dead.  He 
said  that  that  dinner  would  be  the  last  affair  for  that  year,  but  he  hoped 
those  present  would  show  the  same  cooperation  during  the  coming 
year.  The  chairman  for  the  evening  was  Edward  Chodorov,  play- 
wright, whose  play  that  year  was  Decision.  Chodorov  praised  the 
work  of  Bill  Gropper,  reviewing  his  activities  during  the  25  years  he 
had  known  him  and  related  an  incident  which  occurred  25  years  ago, 
when  Gropper  worked  for  the  Herald  Tribune :  Gropper's  boss  had 
sent  him  down  to  get  material  for  pictures  at  an  IWW^  meeting. 
Gropper  expected  to  meet  people  who  had  bombs  sticking  out  of  their 
pockets  and  he  was  afraid ;  instead,  he  met  the  chairman  of  the  meet- 
ing and  was  so  impressed  with  their  conversation  he  asked  for  more 
information  about  their  organization.  He  then  requested  a  member- 
ship card  which  he  immediately  filled  out,  called  up  the  Tribune  and 
resigned.     He  had  been  with  the  progressive  movement  ever  since. 

Chodorov  introduced  people  seated  at  speakers'  tables,  as  follows: 
Stanley  Isaacs,  Sophie  Gropper,  Helen  Bryan,  Muriel  Draper,  Morris 
Muste,  Herman  Shumlin,  Saul  Mills,  and  Geraldine  Fitzgerald.  He 
called  on  the  following  people,  who  lauded  the  efforts  of  Bill  Gropper, 
made  in  behalf  of  his  fellowmen:  Dorothy  Parker,  Mrs.  Lombardo 
Tolandro,  Dean  Dickson,  Carl  Sandburg,  Norman  Corwin,  and  Fred- 
erick (Blackie)  Myers. 

Myers  said  he  had  just  received  word  of  the  appointment  to  the  State 
Department  of  Archibald  MacLeish,  Nelson  Rockefeller,  and  William 
Clayton ;  and  that  if  that  were  true,  these  men  would  replace  Howland 
Shaw,  Adolf  Berle,  Jr.,  and  Breckinridge  Long,  which  would  be  the 
best  news  in  many  a  day  for  him  and  for  the  forces  fighting  fascism. 


*  Industrial  Workers  of  the  World,  an  organization  designated  as  subversive  by  the 
Attorney  General. 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       585 

He  denounced  the  attitude  of  State  Department  toward  Franco,  and 
said  that  in  the  union  he  represents  the  membership  think  this  attitude 
"stinks  to  high  heaven." 

Norman  Corwin  appealed  for  funds,  relating  that  the  monthly  ex- 
penses of  the  committee  are  $2,000  for  Lisbon,  $3,000  for  north  Africa, 
$7,000  or  $8,000  for  Mexico,  and  $3,000  for  Santo  Domingo  and  other 
Central  and  South  American  countries,  in  addition  to  $1,000  monthly 
for  Svritzerland.  Contributions  resulted  in  $12,506  collected,  which 
Moe  Fishman  and  I  counted  in  order  that  the  total  sum  could  be  an- 
nounced from  the  platform.  The  largest  contribution  was  $2,000  from 
the  Hotel  and  Restaurant  Workers  Union. 

Seated  at  a  table  near  mine  were  Harry  Bridges,  Saul  Mills,  Blackie 
Myers,  and  their  wives.  Other  guests  included  Earl  Browder,  Israel 
Amter,  Mike  Gold,  Joseph  North,  A.  B.  Magil,  Dave  Goldway,  Regina 
Wilson,  Abe  Heller,  Alexander  Trachtenberg,  Frederick  V.  Field,  and 
Charlotte*  Honig.  Entertainment  was  furnished  by  Richard  Dyer- 
Bennett. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Mr.  Huber,  I  have  here  a  program  of  a  testimonial 
dinner  in  honor  of  Ferdinand  C.  Smith  which  lists  among  its  com- 
mittee of  sponsors  Norman  Corwin. 

Can  you  identify  Ferdinand  C.  Smith  in  whose  honor  the  dinner 
was  given  ? 

Mr.  Huber.  Yes,  sir ;  he  was  a  member  of  the  Communist  Party  and 
conducted  classes  for  seamen  in  communism  at  the  National  Maritime 
Union  Hall  on  West  Seventeenth  Street. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Do  you  know  whether  or  not  he  is  an  alien  ? 

Mr.  Huber.  Yes,  sir;  he  is  now  under  deportation  proceedings. 

In  the  December  1939  issue  of  the  magazine  Tac,  Norman  Corwin 
wrote  an  article  entitled  "Miss  Hogan,  Take  a  Poem." 

He  was  a  member  of  the  sponsoring  committee  for  mass  demonstra- 
tions for  republican  Spain  at  Madison  Square  Garden  on  January  2, 
1945. 

He  was  a  speaker  at  a  Spanish  Refugee  Appeal  rally  of  the  Joint 
Anti-Fascist  Refugee  Committee  at  Madison  Square  Garden  on  Sep- 
tember 24, 1945. 

He  appeared  as  an  actor  in  a  sketch,  taking  the  part  of  Hank,  at 
Madison  Square  Garden  on  May  29,  1946,  at  a  rally  sponsored  by  the 
National  Council  of  American-Soviet  Friendship. 

On  June  19,  1946,  he  made  a  trip  to  the  Soviet  Union  as  a  writer 
and  director.  The  article  telling  about  this  appears  in  the  Daily 
Worker  under  the  same  date  line. 

He  was  a  speaker  at  a  dinner  of  the  Committee  for  a  Democratic 
Far  Eastern  Policy. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Is  that  a  Communist-front  organization? 

ISIr.  Huber.  Yes.  I  was  there  when  that  front  was  organized.  It 
was  organized  by  Freddy  Field. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Is  that  Frederick  Field? 

Mr.  Huber.  That  is  Frederick  Vanderbilt  Field. 

Norman  Corwin  was  a  speaker  at  a  dinner,  a  get-together-with- 
Russia  rally  at  Madison  Square  Garden  which  was  sponsored  by  the 
National  Council  of  American-Soviet  Friendship.  That  dinner  was 
held  on  December  3, 1946. 

He  is  vice  chairman  of  the  Progressive  Citizens  of  America,  which 
resulted  from  a  merger  with  the  Arts,  Sciences,  and  Professions  with 


586       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIwN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

the  National  Citizens  Political  Action  Committee  on  February  24, 
1947. 

Norman  Corwin  also  was  a  speaker  at  a  crisis  meeting  on  Greece  and 
Turkey  that  was  sponsored  by  the  Progressive  Citizens  of  America 
at  Madison  Square  Garden  on  March  31,  1947. 

He  wrote  a  skit  for  a  rally  sponsored  by  the  Voice  of  Freedom  at 
Town  Hall  on  May  8,  1947,  calling  for  action  in  reinstating  left-wing 
news  commentators  who  were  following  the  Communist  Party  line  on 
various  radio  networks. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Do  you  know  to  which  commentators  they  were  re- 
ferring? 

Mr.  HuBER.  Yes,  sir.  Robert  St.  John,  Frank  Kingdon,  William 
Gailmor,  and  Johannes  Steel. 

Corwin  signed  a  resolution  drawn  up  by  the  committee  for  the 
first  amendment,  protesting  against  the  House  Un-American  Activi- 
ties Committee's  investigating  the  film  industry. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Was  that  organization  formed  to  support  the  so-called 
Hollywood  10 — the  10  writers,  directors,  and  actors — who  were 
identified  as  Communists  or  Communist  sympathizers  before  the 
Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  ? 

Mr.  HuBER.  That  is  right. 

Mr.  Dekom.  And  who  are  now  under  conviction  for  contempt  of 
Congress  ? 

Mr.  Huber.  That  is  right. 

Corwin  was  a  sponsor  of  the  Action  Committee  to  Free  Sjiain,  which 
was  under  the  auspices  of  the  Veterans  of  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade, 
and  the  American  Committee  for  Spanish  Freedom,  March  15,  1940. 
Once,  this  Action  Committee  to  Free  Spain  did  not  have  enough 
workers  to  go  around  with  collection  cans  and  to  pass  out  leaflets,  so 
they  called  on  members  of  the  Communist  Party  branches. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Have  you  any  personal  knowledge  of  the  activities 
of  the  Action  Committee  to  Free  Spain? 

Mr.  Huber.  Yes.  The  Action  Committee  to  Free  Spain  sent  rep- 
resentatives throuirhout  the  Communist  Party  branches  in  the  five 
boroughs  of  New  York  to  call  on  the  Communist  Party  members  for 
their  support  in  soliciting  funds  on  the  street,  in  passing  out  leaflets, 
in  demonstrations,  rallies,  and  other  activities  in  working  toward 
making  that  organization  a  success. 

Norman  Corwin  was  a  sponsor  of  the  American  Committee  for 
Spanish  Freedom  along  with  Johannes  Steel  and  Mrs.  William  L. 
Shirer. 

He  was  an  entertainer  for  the  American  Friends  of  the  Chinese 
people,  with  such  well  knowii  pro-Communists  as  Ray  Lev,  Earl 
Robinson,  Lionel  Stander,  and  Joshua  White. 

Norman  Corwin  was  a  sponsor  for  a  dinner  given  at  the  grand 
ballroom  of  the  Hotel  Pennsylvania  by  the  American-Russian  In- 
stitute. Among  the  sponsors  were  Vilhjalmur  Stefansson  and  Corliss 
Lamont;  also  John  Howard  Lawson,  who  has  been  cited  for  contempt 
by  the  Un-American  Activities  Committee. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Wasn't  Victor  Yakhontoff  a  sponsor  of  that  front? 

Mr.  Huber.  Yes,  sir ;  he  was. 

Norman  Corwin  wrote  an  article  for  a  magazine  called  Slavic- 
American. 


COMMUlSriST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       587 

Mr.  Dekom.  Is  that  the  official  organ  of  the  American  Slav 
Congress  ? 

Mr.  HuBER.  Yes,  sir.     That  organization  is  a  Communist  front. 

Norman  Corwin  is  a  sponsor  of  the  Committee  for  a  Democratic  Far 
Eastern  Policy. 

Norman  Corwin  was  also  a  member  of  the  initiating  committee  for 
the  Coiigress  on  Civil  Eights. 

Mr.  Dekom.  What  is  the  principal  function  of  that  organization? 

Mr.  HuiiER.  To  defend  Communists. 

Mr,  Dekom.  Is  that  the  successor  of  the  International  Labor 
Defense  ? 

Mr.  HuBER.  That  is  right. 

Mr.  Dekom.  What  was  the  International  Labor  Defense? 

Mr.  IItjt.er.  It  was  set  up  to  defend  Communists  who  have  broken 
or  violated  our  laws. 

Norman  Corwin  appeared  at  a  rally  to  spotlight  demands  for  a 
"free  Africa,"  sponsored  by  the  Council  on  African  Affairs. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Who  were  some  of  the  other  speakers  there,  or  persons 
who  appeared  ? 

Mr.  HuBER.  Paul  Robeson,  Betty  Garrett,  Pearl  Primus,  Howard 
De  Silva,  and  Canada  Lee. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Was  Benjamin  J.  Davis,  Jr.,  present  at  that  meeting? 

Mr.  HuBER.  Yes,  sir;  he  spoke  at  that  meeting.  He  is  on  the  Na- 
tional Committee  of  the  Communist  Party. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Mr.  Huber,  I  notice  that  your  list  of  Communist-front 
connections  of  Norman  Corwin  is  rather  extensive.  We  will  ask 
you,  if  it  is  all  right  with  the  chairman,  to  submit  that  list  for  the 
information  of  the  subcommittee  in  written  form.^ 

Mr.  Huber,  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Dekom.  According  to  evidence  which  has  been  presented  to  this 
subcommittee  and  information  which  has  appeared  in  the  press, 
Millard  Lampell  has  also  been  employed  by  UN  alon^  with  Norman 
Corwin  to  write  scripts  for  the  current  broadcast  series.  Have  you 
any  information  on  this  person  ? 

Mr.  Huber,  Yes,  I  have.  He  has  been  very  active  in  the  Com- 
munist movement.  There  is  one  particular  instance  concerning  him 
which  I  might  mention:  On  March  3,  1949,  the  Voice  of  Freedom 
Committee,  which  is  a  Communist-front  organization,  gave  a  testi- 
monial dinner  as  "a  tribute  to  William  S.  Gailmor,"  at  the  Park 
Sheraton  Hotel. 

Mr,  Dekom.  Was  not  Gailmor,  whom  you  identified  earlier  in  your 
testimony  as  a  member  of  the  Communist  Party,  a  campaigner  for 
Hein^y  Wallace  ? 

Mr.  Huber.  That  is  right.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  Henry  Wallace 
was  one  of  the  speakers  at  this  meeting.  The  chairman  was  Millard 
Lampell,  I  have  here  a  mimeographed  song  which  was  distributed 
at  the  dinner  and  which  all  the  guests  sang  to  Gailmor.  This  song 
was  written  by  Millard  Lampell  and  two  others. 

Mr.  Dekom.  With  the  permission  of  the  chairman  we  will  receive 
the  program  and  the  copy  of  the  song  in  evidence  for  presentation 
in  the  record  as  exhibit  8. 


^  The  list  of  Communist-front  connections  of  Norman  Corwin  appears  In  appendix  V, 
p.  A77. 


588       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

(The  documents  referred  to  were  marked  "Huber  Exhibit  8"  and 
are  as  follows:) 

We  Got  Gailmob 

( This  is  a  gang  song ) 

(By  Millard  Lampell,  E.  Y.  Harburg,  Judy  Rosen) 

We  got  Gailmor 

Winning  Willy  Gailmor 

We  got  Gailmor 

And  he  means  our  life 

When  he  does  his  song  and  dance 

Brother  hold  your  shirt  and  pants 

He  can  make  you  wanna  hock  your  kids  and  wife. 

The  Republicans  they  hate  him 

The  Du  Fonts  and  McCormacks  they  Red  BAIT  him 

But  the  people  who  are  people  celebrate  him 

So  let's  keep  Gailmor  on  the  air ! 

So  while  they  roast  Bill  Gailmor 

We  will  toast  Bill  Gailmor 

We  will  sing  about  his  courage  everythere  * 

Happy  is  the  day 

When  the  people  have  their  say 

So  let's  keep  Gailmor  on  the  air. 

We  got  Gailmor 

Fighting  Willy  Gailmor 

We  got  Gailmor 

The  man  the  people  like 

He  can  scare  the  Standard  Oil 

Make  the  J.  P.  Morgans  boil 

And  he  does  it  all  with  just  a  little  mike  ! 

Oh  the  Peglers  they  abuse  him 
The  bankers  and  the  networks  all  refuse  him 
But  the  people  who  are  people  dare  not  lose  him 
So  let's  keep  Gailmor  on  the  air. 

Let  him  shout  for  freedom, 

Let  him  spout  for  freedom 

There's  a  magic  in  his  voice  that  reaches  way  out  there. 

Happy  is  the  day 

When  the  people  have  their  say 

So  let's  keep  Gailmor  on  the  air. 

Written  especially  for  Gailmor  testimonial  dinner  given  by  the  Voice  of 
Freedom  Committee  at  the  Hotel  Park  Sheraton,  March  3, 1949. 

Mr.  Dekom.  I  will  ask  you  again  for  purposes  of  the  record:  Is 
William  S.  Gailmor — the  man  to  whom  Millard  Lampell  paid  these 
tributes — to  your  knowledge,  a  member  of  the  Communist  Party  ? 

Mr.  Huber.  Yes ;  he  is. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Is  Millard  Lampell  a  member  of  the  Communist  Party  ? 

Mr.  Huber.  I  do  not  know.  I  only  know  that  he  has  been  con- 
nected with  numerous  Communist  fronts. 

Mr.  Dekom.  I  note  that  there  are  two  other  authors  to  the  song. 
Can  you  give  us  any  information  concerning  these  people? 

Mr.  Huber.  I  can  about  E.  Y.  Harburg,  the  composer  of  many 
musical  shows.  I  know  him  to  have  been  a  member  of  the  Communist 
Party  front  organizations  for  many  years.  I  do  not  know  anything 
about  Judy  Rosen. 

1  Ever  there  (?) 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       589 

Mr.  Dekom.  Have  you  further  information  on  Lampell  ? 

Mr.  HuBER.  Yes ;  I  have.  On  Thursday,  January  24,  1946,  he  was 
chairman  of  a  so-called  anti-discrimination  rally,  sponsored  by  the 
Committee  of  Veterans  Against  Discrimination,  which  was  a  Com- 
munist-front organization.  Approximately  1,500  people  were  present, 
a  few  hundred  being  turned  away  because  of  the  lack  of  accommoda- 
tions. This  meeting,  which  was  trumpeted  as  an  "anti-discrimination" 
meeting  actually  turned  out  to  be  directed,  to  a  large  extent,  against 
Catholics. 

The  rally  was  originally  scheduled  to  be  in  the  form  of  a  mock 
trial,  to  try  John  O'Donnell  and  James  Patterson  of  the  Daily  News 
as  war  criminals.  Because  of  circumstances  not  made  public  by  the 
veterans  committee,  this  trial  developed  into  just  another  rally  de- 
nouncing the  Daily  News,  its  publisher,  James  Patterson,  and  its  lead- 
ing columnist,  John  O'Donnell.  The  trial  was  to  have  been  presided 
over  by  Judge  Rivers,  with  Fiorello  H.  LaGuardia  as  prosecutor, 
and  12  Purple  Heart  veterans  as  the  jury;  none  of  these  individuals 
appeared  at  the  rally. 

The  following  speakers  addressed  the  rally,  confining  their  re- 
marks to  similar  denunciations  of  the  Daily  News,  Patterson,  and 
O'Donnell :  Jose  Ferrer,  actor ;  Thelma  Dale,  executive  member  of  the 
National  Negro  Congress;  Representative  John  M.  Coffee;  Rev.  Ben 
Richardson,  associate  editor  of  The  Protestant;  Sgt.  Ben  Kurocki; 
Rabbi  Louis  D.  Gross,  editor  of  the  Jewish  Examiner;  Rev.  L.  M. 
Birkhead,  national  director  of  Friends  of  Democracy ;  Assemblyman 
Leo  Isaacson ;  and  Henry  Morgan  of  the  radio  program  "Here's  Mor- 

Representative  Coffee  also  said  that  it  was  time  that  the  people  of 
America  should  make  sure  that  they  cleanse  the  halls  of  Congress  of 
such  Congressmen  who  have  reactionary  tendencies.  Thelma  Dale 
stated  that  if  the  United  States  would  stop  supporting  the  Peron 
government  in  Argentina  the  people  would  overthrow  that  govern- 
ment and  elect  a  government  which  would  be  truly  democratic. 

Reverend  Richardson  brought  the  audience  to  its  feet  by  declaring 
that  it  is  easily  foreseen  by  the  present  strike  situation  that  monopo- 
list capital  is  in  its  death  struggle  and  socialism  for  the  people  of  the 
United  States  is  following  close  behind. 

Henry  Morgan  made  a  collection  speech,  and,  after  calling  for 
larger  contributions,  said  that  he  would  also  "accept  Catholic  money." 
The  contributions  amounted  to  about  $2,300. 

Henry  Morgan's  reference  to  "Catholic  money"  was  made  with  very 
derogatory  connotations,  and  I  think  this  shows  clearly  his  attitude 
and  the  attitude  of  the  people  at  this  meeting. 

Entertainment  was  furnished  by  the  CIO  Chorus  and  Josh  Wliite. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Is  this  type  of  attack  on  religious  groups  or  religion 
customary  in  Communist  circles  ? 

Mr.  HuBER.  It  most  certainly  is.  The  Communist  party  is  pledged 
to  destroy  all  religion,  just  as  it  has  destroyed  it  in  the  Soviet  Union. 
To  destroy  religion  is  just  part  of  their  program — what  Lenin  has 
called  the  opiate  of  the  people.  They  are  particularly  vicious  against 
the  Catholics  and  the  Catholic  Church  because  the  Catholic  Church 
is  one  of  the  most  important  barriers  to  the  Communists  and  their 
best  organized  enemy.  This  is  something  you  see  at  very  many  meet- 
ings, and,  if  you  like,  I  can  give  you  one  more  example. 


590       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

Mr.  Dekom,  Go  ahead. 

]SIr.  HuBER.  On  Sunday,  July  23,  1944,  the  Fifth  Annual  Fiesta 
Republicana  was  held  under  the  auspices  of  the  Joint  Anti-Fascist 
Refugee  Committee,  at  Harmony  Park,  Staten  Island.  About  1,500 
people  attended.  Customary  games  of  chance  were  well  patronized 
by  the  guests.  During  the  entertainment,  when  performers  had  fin- 
ished their  dancing  numbers  and  the  spectators  were  applauding, 
shouts  from  groups  (which  I  believe  were  prearranged)  of  "Down 
with  the  Pope!"  "The  Pope  and  Hitler  are  one  man!"  "When  is  the 
Pope  going  to  work?"  "I  would  like  to  see  the  Pope  signing  an  appli- 
cation for  home  relief  !"  were  heard.  Looking  around  to  get  the  reac- 
tion of  the  people  to  these  shouts,  I  found  that  most  of  the  people,  by 
their  expressions  of  laughter,  were  in  sympathy  with  the  shouters, 
who  seemed  to  be  well-organized  groups  scattered  in  separate  parts 
of  the  park. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Mr.  Huber,  are  the  Communist  fronts  used  as  a  medium 
of  identifying  potential  party  members,  as  a  means  of  preparatory 
indoctrination  ? 

Mr.  Huber.  Yes,  of  course ;  that  is  one  of  the  more  important  jobs 
for  the  front  organizations,  to  work  on  prospects  for  the  party. 

Mr.  Dekom.  You  have  also  mentioned  the  name  of  Corliss  Lamont 
in  your  testimony.  What  do  you  know  of  his  connection  with  the 
Communist  Party? 

Mr.  Huber.  On  June  IG,  1944,  while  I  was  in  conversation  with  Paul 
Crosbie  and  Charlotte  Honig,  the  name  of  Corliss  Lamont  was  men- 
tioned. Crosbie  stated  that  Lamont  has  been  a  member  of  the  Com- 
munist Party  for  several  years.  Charlotte  Honig  related  that  the  rea- 
son for  his  being  disinherited  by  his  father  Thomas  was  because  Corliss 
became  a  member  of  the  Communist  Party ;  that  he  willingly  gave  up 
everything  and  was  living  on  proceeds  of  a  small  trust  fund  left  to  him 
by  his  grandmother.  I  have  attended  several  parties  given  in  honor 
of  Corliss  Lamont  where  all  the  guests  were  Communist  Party  mem- 
bers. His  closest  associates  in  the  organization  he  heads  are  members 
of  the  Communist  Party.  When  the  Upper  West  Side  Council  on 
American-Soviet  Friendship  was  established,  he  named  Regina  Wilson 
as  its  chairman,  an  enrolled  member  of  Unity  Center,  Communist 
Party,  2744  Broadway. 

Mr.  Dekom.  On  the  basis  of  your  experience,  what  occupation  or 
profession  would  you  say  has  been  most  successfully  infiltrated  by  the 
Communists  ? 

Mr.  Huber.  I  would  say  the  entertainment  industry — show  business. 
I  believe  that  the  Communist  Party  made  a  special  effort  in  this  field 
because  of  the  tremendous  propaganda  value  that  they  can  get  from 
this  source.  First  of  all,  because  they  can  introduce  their  propaganda 
where  it  will  be  received  by  the  masses  in  the  easiest-to-take  form  and 
without  any  suspicion.     I  have  seen  that  done  in  many  instances. 

Secondly,  show  business  is  important  because  the  people  in  it  are 
well  known  and  liked  and  listened  to  by  the  people,  so  that  if  their 
names  are  used  by  the  Communists  and  Communist  fronts  they  make 
a  great  impression  on  the  masses.  For  example,  if  the  average  person 
would  see  the  name  of  John  Garfield,  Betty  Garrett,  Larry  Parks, 
Hester  Sondergaard,  Frederic  March,  Edward  G.  Robinson,  Charlie 
Chaplin,  and  others,  he  would  be  very  much  impressed  and  would 
likely  be  persuaded  by  the  organizations  which  they  represent. 


COMMUN"IST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       591 

Mr.  Dekom.  Can  you  name  specifically  people  in  show  business  who 
you  know  to  be  members  of  the  Communist  Party  ? 

Mr.  HuBER,  I  will  give  you  several. 

Zero  Mostel,  who  got  his  start  as  an  entertainer  at  social  functions 
of  the  Communist  Party.  I  remember  when  his  remuneration  was  as 
low  as  $2  a  night  and  never  more  than  $10  a  night.  He  was  paid  ac- 
cording to  the  success  of  the  affair  and  his  pay  would  increase  with  a 
good  take  in  admissions. 

While  I  have  never  seen  Paul  Draper  at  a  Communist  Party 
meeting,  I  do  know  that  he  has  been  connected  with  the  Communist 
fronts  for  many  years.  At  a  social  function  held  on  November  10, 
1944,  at  the  home  of  Mrs.  Lionel  S.  Perera,  Jr.,  which  was  given  by  the 
water  front  section  of  the  Communist  Party  and  to  which  I  was 
invited,  he  appeared  as  one  of  the  guest  j)erformers.  Everybody 
who  was  invited  to  this  function  was  a  Communist.  He  has  been  a 
featured  attraction  at  Communist  front  meetings  throughout  much 
of  my  connection  with  the  Communist  Party. 

Tamara — I  remember  a  very  significant  event  in  comiection  with  her. 
On  February  19,  1943,  there  was  a  party  held  in  honor  of  the  cast  of 
the  play  Counter  Attack  attended  by  such  leading  Communists  as 
Earl  Browder,  Max  Yergan,  Matt  Hall,  Helen  Bryan,  Paul  Crosbie, 
Muriel  Draper  (mother  of  Paul),  and  others.  The  master  of  cere- 
monies was  Tamara.  After  introducing  all  the  members  of  the  cast 
and  the  entertainers  at  the  party,  she  was  asked  to  dance,  but  she  de- 
clined because  there  was  no  music  to  which  she  could  dance.  She  added, 
however,  that  when  the  i-evolution  comes  she  would  have  music  writers 
compose  special  music  to  be  used  on  such  occasions.  She  left  the  plat- 
form with  the  clenched  fist  salute,  shouting,  "Long  live  the  revolu- 
tion !" 

Pearl  Prim^us,  the  Negro  dancer,  who  does  interpretative  dancing. 
As  I  already  told  you  before,  she  was  brought  up  by  Camp  Wo-Chi-Ca, 
the  Communist  camp  for  children. 

Harry  Green,  who  was  a  violinist  in  the  orchestra  of  Arturo  Toscan- 
ini.  I  met  him  in  the  home  of  Dr.  I.  Engel  Kaufman  at  a  closed  party 
meeting. 

Mr.  Dekom.  What  is  the  principal  role  of  show  people  in  party 
work? 

Mr.  HuBER.  The  most  active  part  played  by  people  in  show  business 
was  in  promoting  the  Communist-front  movement,  which  as  I  ex- 
plained, is  their  most  useful  contribution  to  the  Communist  Party. 
The  list  of  names  of  show  people  who  have  been  connected  with  fronts 
or  who  have  contributed  their  services  to  the  Communist  front  is  very 
impressive.  I  can  name  Paul  Draper,  Larry  Adler,  Myrna  Loy, 
Hester  Sondergaard,  Sono  Osato,  Canada  Lee,  Kenneth  Spencer, 
Richard  Dyer-Bennett,  Burl  Ives  (he  is  another  who  used  to  entertain 
for  two  or  three  dollars  an  evening  at  party  social  affairs) ,  Josh  A^^iite, 
Lena  Home,  Hazel  Scott,  Jose  Ferrer,  Uta  Hagen,  Pete  Seeger, 
Orson  Welles,  Lillian  Hellman,  Bela  Lugosi,  Herman  Shumlin, 
Margo,  and  others. 

There  have  been  very,  very  many  occasions  in  which  show  people — 
sometimes  even  an  entire  cast  of  a  shoAv — have  entertained  free  at  Com- 
munist affairs.  I  have  already  given  you  the  case  of  the  cast  of  Counter 
Attack  and,  if  you  like,  I  will  give  you  some  other  illustrations. 


592       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

Mr.  Dekom.  Yes ;  do,  please. 

Mr.  HuBER.  On  Sunday,  December  26,  1943,  there  was  a  theater 
party  sponsored  by  the  Joint  Anti-Fascist  Eefugee  Committee  at  the 
Imperial  Theater.  The  master  of  ceremonies  was  Melville  Cooper. 
Performers  volunteering  their  services  were  Hazel  Scott,  Celeste 
Holm,  Georgia  Sothern,  Zero  Mostel,  Mary  Small,  Howard  Da  Silva, 
John  Sebastian,  and  Pearl  Primus.  The  music  was  furnished  by 
Teddy  Wilson's  orchestra.  Most  of  the  performers  came  from  Cafe 
Society  Uptown.  Telegrams  came  to  the  theater  from  Milton  Berle 
and  Jimmy  Savo,  regretting  their  inability  to  appear  because  of  colds. 

On  May  14, 1944,  there  was  a  concert,  sponsored  at  Carnegie  Hall  by 
the  Joint  Anti-Fascist  Refugee  Committee,  with  entertainment  fur- 
nished by  Jinnny  Savo,  Paul  Draper,  Rosario  and  xintonio,  arid  Duke 
Ellington.  They  volunteered  their  services.  The  speaker  who  ap- 
pealed for  funds  was  William  S.  Gailmor,  a  Communist  Party  member. 

On  June  26,  1944,  at  a  meeting  in  Madison  Square  Garden  spon- 
sored by  the  Negro  Labor  Victory  Committee,  a  Communist  front, 
there  was  a  "Broadway  Salute"  performance,  including  members 
of  the  following  casts  of  shows  then  playing  on  Broadway :  Paul 
Robeson,  Uta  Hagen,  Jose  Ferrer,  from  Othello;  Philip  Loeb,  from 
Over  21;  David  Leonard,  from  Mexican  Hayride;  P.  Jay  Sidney  and 
Muriel  Smith,  from  Carmen  Jones;  Paula  Lawrence,  from  One  Touch 
of  Venus;  Irina  Baronova,  from  Follow  the  Girls;  J.  Edward  Brom- 
berg,  from  Jacobowsky  and  the  Colonel ;  Mercedes  Gilbert,  from  The 
Searching  Wind ;  and  members  from  Pick-Up  Girl  and  Wall-Flower. 
All  paid  tribute  to  the  colored  race,  pledging  their  support  in  the 
fight  for  equality  of  all  races. 

On  July  1,  1944,  at  a  fiesta  held  at  the  home  of  William  Gropper, 
cartoonist  for  the  Daily  Worker,  at  Croton-on-the-Hudson,  enter- 
tainment was  furnished  by  musicians  from  the  bands  of  Benny  Good- 
man and  Count  Basie,  and  Pearl  Primus. 

On  September  21,  1944,  there  was  a  meeting  by  the  Independent 
Voters  Committee  of  the  Arts,  Sciences,  and  Professions  for  Roose- 
velt, which  was  a  subsidiary  of  the  Independent  Citizens  Committee 
of  the  Arts,  Sciences,  and  Professions,  a  well-known  Communist 
front.  Chairman  of  the  rally  was  Fredric  March,  who  represented 
himself  as  the  representative  of  the  actors  of  Hollywood.  This  meet- 
ing was  attended  by  such  well-known  Communist  fronters  as  Jo 
Davidson,  Channing  H.  Tobias,  Dr.  Harlow  Shapley,  of  Harvard, 
Orson  Welles,  and  others. 

On  September  28,  1944,  at  Madison  Square  Garden,  Laura  Duncan 
sang  at  a  meeting  sponsored  by  the  Communist  Party  to  celebrate 
the  twenty-fifth  anniversary  of  the  Communist  Party  in  the  United 
States,  with  Earl  Browder  as  the  principal  speaker. 

On  December  3,  1944,  a  birthday  party  was  given  in  honor  of  Alex- 
ander Trachtenberg,  of  the  National  Committee  of  the  Communist 
Party,  at  the  home  of  Seymour  Copstein,  285  Central  Park  West,  New 
York  City.  Entertainment  was  furnished  by  Richard  Dyer-Bennett. 
As  I  have  already  mentioned.  Gen.  Victor  A.  Yakontoff,  who  now 
works  for  the  United  Nations,  was  introduced  at  that  party  by  Harry 
Sacher,  one  of  the  attorneys  for  the  11  convicted  Communists.  Sey- 
mour Copstein  was,  at  that  time,  a  teacher  of  biology  at  the  City  Col- 
lege of  New  York  and  is  now  at  the  Jefferson  School,  of  which  his 
uncle,  A.  A.  Heller,  is  treasurer. 


COMMUlSriST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       593 

On  Tuesday,  May  1,  1945,  all  clubs  and  branches  in  New  York  City 
received  a  directive  from  the  State  committee  of  the  party  announcing 
that  a  celebration  would  be  held  in  honor  of  Ben  Davis,  Communist 
Party  councilman  in  the  New  York  City  Council  and  one  of  the  11 
defendants  in  the  recent  trial.  The  celebration  was  to  be  held  on 
Sundav,  May  6,  at  the  Golden  Gate  Ballroom.  The  directive  stated 
that—"' 

We  are  paying  triimte  to  a  leader  that  we,  as  Communists,  can  well  be  proud 
of  for  his  fine  qualities  of  Communist  leadership.  *  *  *  We  expect  our 
New  York  membership  to  turn  out  en  masse,  not  only  because  of  Its  major 
political  implication,  but  also  because  of  the  following  impressive  array  of 
talent:  Lena  Home,  Josh  White,  Kenneth  Spencer,  Mary  Lou  Williams,  Art 
Tatum,  Ray  Lev,  Max  Poliakoff,  Will  Geer,  and  dozens  of  other  outstanding 
artists  who  are  contributing  their  talent.  It  will  be  one  of  the  cultural  events 
of  the  year. 

In  the  spring  of  1946  the  James  Connolly  branch  of  the  Communist 
Party  ran  a  theater  party  featuring  Canada  Lee. 

Another  instance  which  I  might  mention  is  a  meeting  of  the  Amer- 
ican Slav  Congress  in  September  1946  at  Manhattan  Center  at  which 
the  entire  cast  of  Call  Me  Mister  entertained. 

The  Communist  Party  also  controlled  two  entertainment  places 
wdiich  were  owned  by  Leon  and  Barney  Josephson,  both  leading  Com- 
munist Party  members.  They  w^ere  Cafe  Society  Uptown  and  Cafe 
Society  Dow^ntown.  I  understand  that  Cafe  Society  Uptown  has 
been  recently  sold. 

Also,  the  Communist  Party  controls  the  Stanley  Theater  in  New 
York,  which  makes  available  special  rates  to  party  members  and  party 
groups  for  movies  produced  principally  by  the  Soviet  Union. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Have  you  ever  heard  or  had  any  contact  with  Gerhart 
Eisler? 

Mr.  HuBER.  Yes ;  I  have. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Will  you  tell  us  about  it? 

Mr.  Huber.  I  attended  a  meeting,  which  was  in  the  German  lan- 
guage, sponsored  by  German- American,  Inc.,  (with  headquarters  at 
305  Broadway,  room  207,  in  New  York  City)  publishers  of  the  Ger- 
man-American, a  Communist  paper.  The  meeting  was  held  at  the 
Fraternal  Clubhouse,  110  West  Forty-sixth  Street,  with  Gerhart  Eis- 
ler as  the  principal  speaker.  About  1,000  people  were  present.  The 
hall  was  filled  to  capacity  with  standees  in  the  rear.  The  admission 
charge  was  72  cents  with  tax  included.  The  meeting  was  held  on 
December  12,  1946.  If  you  like  I  can  give  you  a  complete  report  on 
that  meeting. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Please  do  so. 

Mr.  HiTBER.  The  meeting  was  opened  by  Gus  Faber,  who  stated  that 
that  meeting  had  been  called  by  the  German-American,  which  had 
been  in  existence  for  about  5  years.     He  said : 

The  German-American  has  done  everything  possible  during  the  war  ana 
after  the  war,  to  bring  unity  between  the  German-Americans  in  this  country. 
It  has  done  an  outstanding  job  to  reeducate  the  German  soldiers — that  were  taken 
prisoners  in  this  country.  It  has  done  everything  possible  to  be  a  real  anti-Nazi, 
anti-Fascist  newspaper.  After  the  war,  it  has  done  everything  to  tell  the  people 
in  the  United  States,  especially  the  German  population,  and  rally  them  behind 
the  peace  efforts.  We  have  been  very  successful  and  we  are  going  to  continue 
doing  that.  This  newspaper  is  the  sponsor  of  this  meeting  and  we  hope  that 
Mr.  Eisler  will  have  the  chance,  that  he  did  not  get  in  Washington,  to  speak  and 
tell  the  other  side  of  his  story,  because  in  America  we  believe  there  are  always 


594       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

two  sides  to  a  story.  I  have  the  pleasure  of  introducing  the  chairman  of  this 
meeting,  Abe  Isserman,  counsel  of  the  Civil  Rights  Congress,  vpho  has  been  in  the 
forefront  of  the  fight  for  civil  rights  for  20  years.  He  will  do  everything 
possible  to  help  carry  this  fight  to  a  successful  conclusion. 

Abe  Isserman  stated : 

Only  a  short  time  ago  I  met  Mr.  Eisler  and  got  from  him  the  true  story 
of  the  tangle  which  he  had  with  the  Wood-Rankin  committee.  If  it  were  not 
for  that  committee,  Mr.  Eisler  would  now  be  landing  in  Germany.  Mr.  Eisler 
was  a  refugee  who  came  to  this  country  on  his  way  to  Mexico,  fleeing  from  the 
Nazi  oppressors ;  because  of  the  war  situation,  he  was  obliged  to  remain  in  this 
country.  At  the  first  opportunity  he  had,  he  sought  to  leave  to  go  back  to 
Germany  and  the  State  Department,  after  considering  the  matter  carefully  with 
the  FBI — and  they  conducted  all  the  investigations  they  wanted — gave  him  an 
exit  permit  to  leave  the  country.  But  the  Wood-Rankin  committee  stopped  that. 
A  few  things  are  very  certain  in  this  matter ;  that  Mr.  Eisler  has,  at  all  times 
and  at  the  risk  of  his  life,  been  anti-Fascist.  He  is  a  Communist  and  has  never 
denied  it. 

He  was  one  of  the  anti-Fascists  who  are  Communists  who  made  easy  our  victory 
in  Europe.  Sometime  in  October,  when  Mr.  Eisler  was  to  leave  for  Germany, 
the  Wood-Rankin  committee  said.  No,  they  didn't  want  him  to  go ;  they  wanted 
him  to  testify  and  tell  them  about  himself;  they  gave  as  the  reason,  that  Mr. 
Budenz  had  called  Mr.  Iilisler  a  boss  of  the  Communists — a  foreign  agent  in 
this  country — and  that  he  was  a  character  who  should  be  investigated.  This 
committee  felt  that  a  person  they  charged  with  being  un-American,  although 
he  is  not  American  at  all,  should  remain  in  this  country.  Why?  Before  the 
evening  is  over,  we  v.'ill  know  why.  The  functions,  purpose,  and  activities  of 
the  Wood-Rankin  committee,  by  high  lights,  is,  to  use  the  words  of  the  great 
scientists,  as  stated  by  Professor  Shapley : '  "I  stand  on  my  rights  as  an  Ameri- 
can citizen  and  will  not  submit  to  the  Gestapo  and  chamber-of-torture  methods 
jsed  by  the  Wood-Rankin  committee.  This  is  a  Nazi  method,  and  it  should  be 
eliminated  so  that  private  citizens  can  be  free  under  our  Constitution."  One  of 
the  most  fundamental  rights  of  an  alien  is  the  right  to  go  back  to  his  country 
and  fight  for  his  principles  there.  The  roots  of  Nazi  fascism  penetrated  into 
the  old  Dies  committee  and  still  permeate  the  Wood-Rankin  committee.  We 
have  now  a  pro-Fascist  committee  and  an  anti-Fascist  fighter. 

Isserman  quoted  from  the  ofRcial  record  of  the  Un-American  Ac- 
tivities Committee  regarding  the  investigation  of  Gerald  L.  K.  Smith, 
commenting : 

If  that  is  the  way  they  treat  men  like  him,  why  didn't  they  treat  Mr.  Eisler, 
Professor  Shapley  and  the  many  others  who  appeared  before  them  in  that  same 
courteous  way?  It  only  proves  that  the  committee  is  pro-Fascist.  I  charge  that 
the  only  reason  Mr.  Eisler  was  detained  was  because  somebody  in  the  Wood- 
Rankin  committee  believes  that,  as  an  anti-Fascist,  he  was  less  dangerous  to 
the  interests  of  America  than  he  would  be  in  Germany,  where  some  Americans 
are  trying  to  establish  a  stronghold.  Russell  Nixon  ^  says  the  British  and 
Americans  are  refusing  to  use  the  anti-Fascist,  anti-Nazi  refugees  in  the  de- 
Nazification  of  Germany.  Part  of  the  technique  used  by  the  Committee  was 
their  subpena  of  him,  but  they  didn't  want  him  to  testify  or  hear  his  story; 
it  is  only  part  of  the  smear  campaign  directed  against  anti-Fascists. 

Isserman  read  excerpts  from  Hearst  newspapers  regarding  Red  spy 
scares  involving  the  atom  bomb,  et  cetera,  and  pointed  out  how  such 
stories  were  never  substantiated  by  facts.     He  said  then : 

The  Civil  Rights  Congress  will  give  support  to  Eisler  on  the  basis  that  he  is 
a  human  being,  entitled  to  leave  this  country  and  go  back  to  his  own  country, 
if  there  is  no  valid  reason  for  his  staying  here.  His  lawyer  is  the  foremost 
expert  on  immigration,  Carol  King,  representative  of  Communists,  trade-un- 
ionists, and  progressives. 


1  Harlow  Shapley,  of  Harvard.  .       ,    ,  .  . 

2  Russ  Ni.\on,  of  the  United  Electrical,  Radio,  and  Machine  Workers  of  America  (which 
was  expelled  from  the  CIO  in  1949)  and  a  former  employee  of  the  United  States  Military 
government  in  Germany. 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       595 

Carol  King  stated: 

This  is  the  first  time  in  my  practice  that  I  have  ever  tried  to  get  anyone 
out  of  the  country.  I'm  usually  trying  to  keep  them  in  this  country.  I  can't 
understand  why  they  won't  let  a  man  go  back  where  he  came  from.  Many 
times,  when  I've  handled  cases  for  Communists  and  other  progressives,  I've 
been  told  to  go  back  where  I  came  from.  But  I  happen  to  have  been  born  in 
Manhattan.  They  seem  to  do  all  right  when  it  comes  to  deporting  citizens  of 
the  United  States.  The  only  solution  I  can  see  for  Gerhart  Eisler  is  to  have 
him  made  a  citizen  of  the  United  States  and  then  the  Immigration  Service  would 
arrange  to  have  him  deported  at  Government  expense. 

She  then  gave  a  sarcastic  description  of  the  FBI  trailing  Eisler 
to  her  office,  where  they  carefully  copied  the  names  of  the  two  CPA's 
and  an  Assistant  Attorney  General  which  were  on  her  door.  She 
added  that  Eisler  was  also  followed  and  escorted  by  FBI  men  when 
she  invited  him  to  her  home  for  dinner.  The  FBI  men,  not  having 
been  themselves  invited  for  dinner,  waited  outside  and  later  escorted 
Eisler  home.  King  wrote  a  letter  to  the  FBI  requesting  that,  as  a 
private  citizen,  she  be  accorded  her  constitutional  rights  of  privacy, 
but,  despite  a  follow-up  letter  to  them,  she  never  received  a  reply  or 
acknowledgment.  A  few  days  later,  Eisler  informed  King  that  the 
FBI  had  outwardly  stopped  trailing  him  and  she  sarcastically  boasted 
that  she  guessed  she  was  the  first  one  who  had  made  the  FBI  go  under- 
ground. She  concluded  by  promising  to  do  her  utmost  to  secure 
Eisler's  return  to  Germany,  where  he  could  contribute  his  share  in 
shaping  a  democratic  Germany. 

Jack  Bjoze,  executive  secretary  of  the  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade 
and  veteran  of  World  War  II,  recounted  the  fight  of  the  International 
Brigade  and  told  him  the  members  of  the  brigade  had  been  subjected 
to  the  same  indignities  as  had  Eisler — by  being  subpenaed  by  the  Dies 
and  Wood-Rankin  committees.  He  stated  that  the  FBI  had  finally 
given  up  persecuting  the  brigade  members  after  many  futile  raids  and 
hours  of  questioning.  He  pledged  the  support  of  the  Abraham  Lin- 
coln Brigade  to  the  honorable  repatriation  of  Eisler,  and  announced 
that  a  Spanish  Republican  rally  would  be  held  at  Madison  Square 
Garden  on  December  16  and  appealed  for  an  overflow  crowd. 

Gus  Faber,  editor  of  the  German-Amierican,  and  secretary-treasurer 
of  the  Transport  Workers  Unions  (CIO),  stated: 

Eisler  constantly  and  actively  contributed  to  the  German-American.  He  was 
never  paid  for  this  work.  I  have  only  high  praise  for  Eisler  as  an  anti-Fascist ; 
there  is  need  for  him  in  Germany. 

Faber  denounced  the  State  Department  for  preventing  Eisler's  re- 
turn to  Germany,  and  stated  that  his  organization,  the  German-Amer- 
ican, would  begin  a  drive  to  flood  the  State  Department  with  letters, 
telegrams,  and  cards  demanding  that  Eisler  be  permitted  to  leave  the 
country. 

Tonight  we  are  forming  a  committee  to  do  everything  necessary  to  obtain  per- 
mission for  Eisler  to  leave.  The  German-American  pledges  full  support  to  this 
end.  We  must  unite  and  show  the  new  Congress  that  we  are  fighting  for  the 
privileges  of  everybody  in  this  country  to  speak  his  mind.  The  time  will  come 
that  fascism  will  prevail  and  the  fight  against  the  liberal  forces  will  begin,  so  we 
must  do  everything  we  can  to  delay  its  arrival. 

The  chairman  then  read  messages  from  Charles  A.  Collins,  Russell 
Nixon,  Howard  Fast,  Councilman  Peter  Cacchione,  and  Rockwell 
Kent,  who  declared  their  intentions  of  becoming  members  of  the  Eisler 
defense  committee. 


596       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

Dorothy  Langston,  secretary  of  Justice  for  Freeport  Committee, 
declared  that  the  fight  for  Eisler  was  based  on  the  same  phxtf orm  as 
the  fight  for  Negroes,  Germans,  and  all  Americans  who  are  entitled 
to  the  right  to  speak  their  own  minds.  She  denounced  the  Wood- 
Kankin  committee  and  made  the  collection  speech,  appealing  for  funds 
to  continue  Eisler's  fight  and  to  cover  traveling  expenses  for  a  speaking 
tour.  Contributions  included  $200  from  Mrs.  Ida  Guggenheimer,  $50 
from  Max  Bedacht  (IWO),  $35  from  Charlotte  Honig,  and  $50  from 
the  Veterans  of  the  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade.  Approximately  $1,000 
was  collected. 

The  principal  sjDeaker,  Gerhart  Eisler,  stated : 

I  have  nothing  but  contempt  for  certain  happenings  in  the  last  few  weeks. 
During  my  wanderings  as  a  German  anti-Fascist  refugee,  I  found  out  that  the 
attitude  toward  anti-Fascist  refugees  is  a  barometer  for  the  political  climate  of 
the  country.  Whenever  reactionary  and  Fascist-minded  groups  are  lighting  for 
power  and  for  the  political  atomization  of  the  working  class,  the  anti-Fascist 
exiles  go  through  a  lot  of  trouble.  I  want  to  inform  the  Rankin  committee  that  I 
never  denied  being  a  Communist.  Do  they  know  that  two  great  Germans  were 
also  Communists?  But  Marx  and  Engels  are  dead;  no  use  investigating  them. 
At  this  time,  I  should  be  home  in  Germany  and  applying  for  membership  in  the 
German  Socialist  Party. ^  No  American  would  have  been  harmed  by  my  departure, 
but  every  German  would  have  been  helped  toward  a  peaceful  anti-Fascist  demo- 
cratic Germany. 

Every  anti-Fascist  is  needed  in  Germany  against  those  who  spread  hate  against 
Jews,  Communists,  English,  French,  Americans,  Yugoslavs,  and,  lastly  but  not 
least,  against  the  people  of  the  Soviet  Union.  Budenz,^  who  has  apparently  found 
only  one  hero  in  the  Bible,  namely,  .Judas  Iscariot,  would  then  have  to  find  other 
victims  for  his  lies.  In  all  modesty,  I  say  you  could  do  without  me  here.  There 
are  plenty  of  other  people  in  the  United  States  who  could  stand  investigation.  I 
don't  like  to  play  the  role  of  the  hare  to  the  reactionary  hounds.  I  never  become 
intimidated  by  reaction ;  I  always  hit  back  and  as  united  as  possible ;  that  goes 
for  nations,  classes,  and  for  every  individual,  for  trade  unions,  progressive  organ- 
izations and  progi'essive  parties,  for  racial  and  religious  minorities.  I  remind 
you  here  tliat  the  Nazi  dictatorship  Vv^as  the  most  developed  group  against  uu- 
German  democratic  people.  In  America,  the  attitude  is :  ''For  every  person  an 
investigator  in  the  garage  and  a  subpena  in  the  pot."  Let  the  Catholics  watch  the 
persecution  of  other  political  minorities — they  might  be  called  the  agents  of  the 
Vatican  state  themselves  some  day.  I  offer  to  the  sponsors  of  Budenz,  "don't  get 
laughing  too  soon  on  the  joke  you  played  on  the  German  Communists."  It  was 
people  like  Budenz  who  used  to  call  the  German  Catholics  Fascists.  As  long  as 
my  forced  stay  in  this  country  lasts,  as  long  as  I  can  use  my  pen,  and  as  long  as 
I  am  not  kept  from  speaking,  I  shall  hit  back,  using  every  opportunity  to  do  so  and 
shall  be  grateful  for  every  opportunity  given  me.  I  think  the  liberal  and  pro- 
gressive forces  who  give  me  more  opportunity  for  the  fight  against  reaction  are 
indivisible. 

If  I  shall  land  in  a  prison  of  postwar  democracy,  I  shall  forget  nothing  and 
shall  continue  somewhat  later.  You  know  the  policy  of  frame-ups  had  a  long 
history  in  your  country  and  has  developed  to  an  art.  It  belongs  to  the  American 
way  of  life,  as  sometimes  sickness  belongs  to  your  way  of  life.  I  remind  you  of 
Sacco-Vanzetti  and  Scottsboro.  I  figiit  for  the  freedom  of  a  political  exile  to 
return  home.  After  all,  the  United  States  is  not  a  displaced-persons  camp.  I 
fight  against  the  slanders  that  I  have  used  the  trust  given  me  by  this  country 
to  act  as  a  foreign  agent.  I  want  here  to  mention  that  I  fight  for  my  brother, 
Hanns  Eisler,  against  whom  a  vicious  campaign  has  been  started.  I  shall  not 
allow,  without  protest,  that  the  memory  of  the  late  Dr.  Kurt  Rosenfeld,^  who 
became  a  citizen  of  your  country,  be  smeared  by  reptiles  in  the  Hearst  press. 
I  never  have  been  an  agent  in  my  life,  and  as  long  as  I  live  I  have  other  worries 


^The  Socialist  Unity  Party  of  Germany  (Sozialistische-Einheitspartei  Deutschlands)  is 
the  Communist-flominated  coalition  party  of  the  Soviet-occupied  zone  of  Germany. 

2  Louis  Budenz  identified  Gerhart  Eisler  as  the  Soviet  representative  in  the  United 
States  controlling  the  Communist  Party,  before  the  House  Committee  on  Un-American 
Activities. 

» Dr.    Kurt   Rosenfeld,    former   Minister   of   Justice   of  Bavaria,   who  was   very  active   in 
Communist-front  organizations  while  in  this  country. 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       597 

than  to  trouble  about  overthrowing  the  American  Government.  I  was  never  in 
the  service  of  any  government  except  my  3  years  in  the  German  Army.  I  never 
received  a  penny  from  any  government — oh,  yes,  I  did  get  $27  from  the  Wood- 
Rankin  committee  to  pay  my  expenses  to  Washington.  I  never  was  an  agent  of 
the  former  and  now  dissolved  Comnumist  International.  This  agent  stuff  of  the 
dissolved  Communist  International  lias  been  taken  over  by  ignoramuses.  In  my 
lifetime,  I  have  been  in  a  great  many  countries,  but  wherever  I  went  all  my 
activities  were  of  an  alien  connected  with  the  fight  against  German  reaction  and 
fascism  on  the  international  network  and  with  the  idea  of  helping  the  German 
people.  I  went  only  to  ask  for  help  and  advice  in  our  war  asainst  the  Nazis, 
which  started  long  before  1939.  So  I  did  not  come  to  this  country  to  boss  any- 
one:  I  came  here  on  my  way  to  Mexico  and  was  forced  to  stay  here  oy  tiie 
American  authorities  against  my  will,  intentions,  and  plans.  In  this  country, 
I  considered  it  my  duty  to  do  everything  I  could  in  the  fight  against  German 
fascism  and  Japanese  imperialism.  If  I  mention  such  activities,  it  is  not 
because  I  want  to  boast,  but  I  am  forced  to  account  for  my  activities.  I  am 
thinking  about  the  future  of  peace  and  not  about  new  wars  against  anyone  or 
anybody. 

I  gave  material  to  Joseph  Starobin  of  the  Daily  Worker  for  his  paper,  and  he 
wrote  articles  using  the  pen  name  of  Hans  Berger.  He  was  honest  enough  not  to 
write  under  his  own  name,  not  wanting  credit  that  he  felt  did  not  belong  to  him. 
There  are  a  few  journalists  who  could  take  advantage  of  such  honesty.  I  also 
wrote,  with  two  other  friends.  The  Lesson  of  Germany,  which  deals  with 
German  reaction  and  nazism.  I  hope  a  similar  book.  The  Lesson  of  the  United 
States,  need  never  be  written.  During  my  stay  in  this  country  I  learned  to  like 
the  American  people  very  much.  I  have  only  high  praise  for  the  late  Franklin 
D.  Roosevelt.  But  it  isn't  easy  to  please  everybody — everything  a  German  does 
is  "un."  I  wrote  about  the  philosophy  which  motivates  Mr.  Rankin,  for  which 
I  have  nothing  but  contempt.  If  my  writings  would  have  been  pro-Nazi,  I  should 
have  been  treated  like  a  decent  man  by  reactionaries  and  Rankin,  and  nobody 
would  have  accused  me  of  un-American  activities.  If  I  liked  Franco,  Mon- 
signor  Sheen  ^  would  have  liked  me  as  much  as  Budenz.  If  I  should  be  an  agent 
for  a  war  against  the  Soviets,  I  guess  I  would  be  back  in  Germany  and  would 
not  have  any  troubles.  Well,  I  want  to  tell  Mr.  Walter  Winchell,  I  just  want  to 
say  that  all  the  oceans  in  the  world  cannot  wash  away  the  sins  of  my  being  a 
Communist. 

Eisler  interjected  with  a  story  that  an  American  Communist  sup- 
posedly came  to  him  for  advice,  and  he  told  this  person  that  he  didn't 
know  what  to  say  but  that  he  would  ask  Moscow.  This  story  was 
supposed  to  show  the  ridiculousness  of  the  charge  that  he  gets  orders 
from  Moscow : 

The  FBI  made  a  big  mistake  during  the  war ;  they  should  have  watched  the 
House  in  Queens,"  and  not  the  House  on  Ninety-second  Street.  So  much  has  been 
invented  about  my  relations  with  American  Communists  that  I  must  clarify  this. 
I  respect  the  American  Communists  because  of  their  fight  against  reaction  and 
for  peace.  I  am  grateful  to  the  American  Communists  because  whenever  the 
German  Communists  ask  them  for  material  and  moral  help,  they  have  helped  us. 
I  only  wish  the  governments  of  the  western  powers  would  have  been  far-sighted 
enough  to  follow  the  American  Communists'  example  of  helping  the  forces  that 
fought  Hitler.  Then  we  might  have  averted  this  war.  I  saw  American  Com- 
munists fight  side  by  side  with  Germans  in"~the  ranks  of  the  International  Brigade 
against  Mussolini  and  Franco.  They  are  courageous  in  their  fight  for  a  good 
cause.    There  were  no  men  like  Rankin. 

Eisler  compared  the  grouping  together  of  Catholics  throughout  the 
world  with  similar  gathering  together  of  Communists  throughout  the 
world,  stating : 

Naturally  1  sought  out  Communists  here,  for  they  are  my  kind  of  people. 
The  merger  of  British  and  American  reaction  in  Germany  brings  only  more 
reactions.    What  happens  today  in  Germany  is  the  encouragement  by  the  western 


^  Rt.    Rpv.    Msgr.    Fulton    J.    Sheen,    profe.ssor    of    philosophy,    Catholic    University    of 
America,  Washington. 

'  Gerhart  Eisler  lived  in  Queens  during  his  United  States  residence. 

98330— 50— pt.  2 10 


598       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

powers  of  all  those  forces,  prejudices,  and  ideas  that  played  Germany  into  the 
hands  of  nazism  after  1918.  History  is  being  repeated  in  Germany ;  new  power 
is  being  given  German  imperialist  warmongers.  I  have  never  been  a  member  of 
the  Communist  Party  of  the  United  States,  but  I  have  been  for  28  years  a  German 
Communist.  I  can  tell  you  that  there  never  was  a  Communist  Party  in  the 
world  which  would  allow  anyone  to  run  its  business.  I  do  not  boss  the  American 
Communists ;  they  would  have  thought  me  crazy  if  I  would  have  tried.  Budenz 
is  nothing  but  an  agent  provocateur.  Budenz  may  have  been  a  spy  or  an  agent, 
but  not  because  of  me.  I  never  talked  with  him  or  gave  him  orders.  He  may 
know  that  I  gave  information  to  Starobin  for  articles  and  wrote  some  literature, 
but  that's  all.  To  change  one's  opinion,  as  Budenz  did,  is  one  thing;  but  to 
spread  lies  in  order  to  open  the  doors  of  persecution  is  another  story.  That  is  why 
Budenz  has  nothing  to  do  with  true  politics,  religion,  or  ideals.  That  belongs  in 
textbooks  of  different  methods  of  persecution. 

Eisler  illustrated  by  reciting  the  Pied  Piper  of  Hammelin  attracting 
the  rats  of  Hammelin,  stating  that  Budenz  was  the  American  pied 
piper  leading  the  American  people  to  drown  in  the  river  of  reaction. 

I  have  only  one  wish — to  return  home  to  share  the  misery  of  my  people  and  to 
work  in  the  ranks  of  those  Germans  who  are  working  for  a  decent  way  of  life. 
Don't  you  think  my  wishes  should  be  granted  despite  my  being  a  German 
Communist? 

The  meeting  was  then  adjourned  by  the  chairman. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Are  you  familiar  with  the  Committee  for  a  Democratic 
Far  Eastern  Policy? 

Mr.  HuBER.  Yes,  I  am.  That  is  a  Communist  front  set  up  to  promote 
the  Communists  in  China  and  tiie  Far  East  generally ;  that  is,  to  propa- 
gandize the  American  people  on  behalf  of  communism  in  Asia.  This 
organization  was  formed  at  the  home  of  Frederick  Vanderbilt  Field, 
who  is  an  ardent  supporter  of  the  Communist  Party  as  well  as  a  writer 
for  its  publications.  In  connection  with  this  organization,  I  was  able 
to  attend  a  closed  meeting  of  the  Committee  for  a  Democratic  Far 
Eastern  Policy  held  in  the  library  of  the  building  at  23  West  Twenty- 
sixth  Street,  New  York,  which  houses  the  offices  of  a  number  of  Com- 
munist-front organizations.  Paul  Eobeson  has  his  offices  there.  The 
building  is  owned  by  Frederick  Field.  Only  known  persons  were  ad- 
mitted to  this  meeting  and  about  60  were  present.  Ira  Golubilin  was 
the  chairman. 

The  first  speaker,  Hernando  Abaya,  a  Filipino,  and  author  of  the 
new  book,  Betrayal  in  the  Philippines,  stated  that  not  only  during  the 
war,  but  throughout  the  liberation  period  and  up  to  that  date,  vitally 
important  facts  concerning  the  inner  social  and  political  conflicts  in 
the  Philippines  had  been  kept  from  the  American  public  and  that  he 
had  access  to  a  great  deal  of  inside  information.  He  said  that  before 
the  war,  he  had  been  a  journalist  in  Manila  and  one  of  the  confidential 
secretaries  of  the  late  President  Manuel  Quezon.  During  the  war, 
he  was  planted  as  an  intelligence  operative  in  the  puppet  government 
by  the  free  Philippine  guerrilla  unit.  After  the  liberation  of  Manila, 
he  served  as  a  political  analyst,  first  for  United  States  Armv  Counter- 
intelligence, and  later  for  Paul  V.  McNutt,  United  States  High  Com- 
missioner. He  declared  that  it  was  necessary  for  the  American  people 
to  understand  the  antidemocratic  character  of  United  States  policy 
toward  the  "free"  Philippines. 

He  denounced  the  McNutt  administration  in  the  Philippines,  ex- 
plaining that  since  he  had  been  "released"  by  McNutt,  he  no  longer 
felt  it  necessary  to  keep  confidential  such  information  as  he  had  been 
able  to  obtain.     He  emphasized  that  while  President  Truman  and 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       599 

other  high  officials  continued  to  support  Manuel  Roxas'  Philippine 
Government,  there  remained  in  the  files  of  the  White  House  and  Attor- 
ney General  Tom  Clark  two  copies  of  a  report  which,  if  made  public, 
would  be  explosive.  He  stated  that  the  Philippine  people  were  easily 
swayed  by  newspapers  and  personalities ;  that  75  percent  of  them  were 
illiterate;  and,  consequently,  the  collaborationists  in  the  Philippines 
were  high  in  official  positions  and  that  this  was  with  American  support 
and  approval.  He  denounced  President  Roxas,  stating  that  American 
intervention  had  saved  Roxas  from  prosecution  for  high  treason — an 
event  which  led  to  the  exoneration  of  many  other  Filipino  collaborators 
and  eventually  put  the  entire  state,  as  it  was  then,  in  the  hands  of 
men  who  had  worked  closely  with  the  Japanese  and  the  entire  economy 
under  the  control  of  men  who  had  done  business  with  Hirohito.  He 
called  for  repeal  of  the  Bell  Act  (the  Philippine  Trade  Act),  stating 
that  the  present  policy  of  independence  in  the  Philippines  was  merely 
a  continuation  of  American  imperialism,  with  only  American  capital 
interests  and  the  Spanish  people  in  the  Philippines  benefiting  from  the 
so-called  Philippine  Trade  Act. 

Senator  Ramon  Diokno,  who  was  elected  to  the  Philippine  Senate 
in  1946  as  one  of  the  opposition  senators  but  who  had  been  prevented 
from  taking  his  seat  by  the  Roxas  administration,  spoke  next.  He 
stated  that  the  Americans  in  the  Philippines  were  receiving  more 
rights  and  privileges  than  the  native  Filipinos;  that  the  Filipinos 
had  merely  exchanged  one  slavery — Japanese — for  another — Ameri- 
can ;  and  that,  in  fact,  they  had  been  better  off  economically  under  the 
Japanese  than  they  were  at  the  time.  He  stated  that  the  Philippines 
were  not  genuinely  independent  but  only  a  "banana  republic,"  com- 
plete with  American  military  bases;  that  the  orderly  and  free  demo- 
cratic processes  of  government  did  not  exist  there.  He  condemned  the 
Bell  Act,  pointing  out  that  it  had  established  an  American  monopoly 
over  the  principal  interests.  He  further  charged  that  this  act  had 
obstructed  new  Filipino  enterprises.  He  denounced  Paul  V.  McNutt, 
stating  that  American  policy  was  based  solely  on  holding  the  Philip- 
pines economically,  even  though  lost  politically,  through  the  so-called 
granting  of  independence.  He  stated  that  the  American  Rehabilita- 
tion Act,  which  had  granted  a  maximum  of  $500  for  war  claims,  was 
insufficient ;  that  the  Philippine  people  would  rather  not  receive  such 
assistance  if  the  price  therefor  was  to  be  economic  slavery.  He 
charged  that  the  United  States  was  supporting  with  arms  and  money 
the  former  collaborators  who  then  ruled  the  Philippine  Government, 
and  he  called  for  major  amendments  to  the  Bell  Act.  He  called  upon 
the  American  Government  to  give  his  country  a  square  deal,  and  de- 
manded the  type  of  government  for  the  Philippines  which  would 
deserve  the  financial  and  military  support  of  the  United  States. 

A  Mr.  Babcock,  who  participated  in  the  discussions  following  the 
principal  speakers,  stated  that  he  had  spent  most  of  his  life  as  a  mer- 
chant in  the  PhilipDines  and  that  he  thoroughly  agreed  with  them 
except  on  one  point.  He  felt  that  the  Filipinos  should  accept  the  Bell 
Act  as  the  lesser  of  two  evils;  then,  in  the  near  future,  they  should  work 
toward  amendment  of  the  unfavorable  portions  of  the  Bell  Act.  He 
agreed  that  the  United  States  was  not  treating  the  Philippines  fairly 
as  an  independent  nation,  but  said  that,  at  the  same  time,  the  Fili- 
pinos should  try  to  make  the  best  of  things  until  economic  conditions 


600       COMMXTNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

in  the  islands  improved.  He  stated  that  when  economic  conditions 
improved,  the  Filipinos  could  demand  that  the  United  States  loosen 
the  restrictions  then  contained  in  the  Bell  Act. 

Maude  Kussell  announced  that  the  committee  would  conduct  a 
speakers'  class  on  China  on  January  18  and  19  at  the  library,  23  West 
Twenty-sixth  Street,  which  would  train  speakers  to  thoroughly  dis- 
cuss the  problems  of  China. 

Chairman  Ira  Golubin  then  reminded  the  audience  that  this  was  an 
"off-the-record"'  meeting,  and  asked  that  the  members  govern  them- 
selves accordingly  in  discussions  outside.  He  announced  that  the 
nest  committee  meeting  would  be  on  the  question  of  Japan,  and  that 
the  people  on  the  committee's  mailing  list  would  be  notified  of  the 
time  and  place  of  the  meeting. 

A  proposed  statement  to  Congress  and  the  President  for  the  repeal 
of  the  Bell  Act  was  distributed  to  each  one  present.  Then  Frederick 
V.  Field  made  a  motion  that  the  statement  be  submitted  immediately 
for  action  when  the  new  Congress  convenes  and  this  motion  was  passed 
unanimously. 

The  chairman  announced  that  members  of  the  Veterans  of  the 
Philippine  Campaign  who  were  present  at  the  meeting  would  meet 
immediately  after  that  meeting  had  adjourned. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Mr.  Huber,  do  you  know  of  the  violation  of  our  borders 
by  Communists? 

Mr.  Huber.  Yes;  I  know  of  thousands  of  Spanish  Communists 
who  have  crossed  the  Mexican  b  rder  :nto  t!ie  Ui:ited  States.  It  was 
told  to  me  by  various  party  members  in  the  course  of  my  connection 
with  them  through  the  years. 

These  Spanish  Communists  have  meetings  in  the  building  at  2S 
West  Twenty-sixth  Street,  New  York,  which  is  owned  by  Frederick 
Vanderbilt  Field,  a  member  of  the  Communist  Party.  These  per- 
sons are  a  serious  potential  danger  to  the  country ;  they  are  potential 
spies  and  saboteurs,  particularly  in  the  event  of  war  with  Russia. 
Being  aliens,  they  have  no  feelings  of  loyalty  for  this  country  which 
might  sway  an  American-born  Communist  in  the  event  of  war  with 
a  foreign  power. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Mr.  Huber,  I  will  read  to  you  a  summary  of  S.  1832,  as 
presented  by  Senator  McCarran,  and  I  will  ask  you  to  comment  on 
that : 

I  have  today  introduced  a  bill  to  revise  our  immigration  laws  in  such  a  way 
as  to  place  in  the  hands  of  the  Government  adequate  powers  to  cope  with  the 
fifth-column  tactics  of  international  communism.  Tlie  purpose  of  this  bill  is  to 
plug  the  loopholes  of  the  present  law  so  that  any  alien — and  I  emphasize  the 
word  "any"^ — who  engages  in  espionage  or  other  subversive  activity  must  be 
excluded  or  deported. 

Let  me  emphasize  in  the  beginning  that  this  legislation  will  not  in  any  way 
curb  the  legitimate  activities  of  anyone,  whether  he  be  an  immigrant,  a  visitor, 
a  diplomat,  or  a  delegate  to  an  international  organization. 

This  bill  has  only  one  purpose — to  protect  the  people  of  the  United  States 
from  any  alien  who  abuses  the  traditional  American  hospitality  by  working  for 
the  overthrow  of  our  Government.     And,  Mr.  President,  I  mean  any  alien. 

My  bill  is  designed  to  sever  the  international  life  line  which  is  feeding  the 
Communist  conspiracy  in  this  country. 

Mr.  Huber,  on  the  basis  of  your  experience  in  the  Communist  move- 
ment, as  well  as  your  knowledge  of  Communist  Party  policies  and 
tactics,  will  you  comment  on  this  proposed  legislation  ? 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       601 

Mr.  HuBER.  I  feel  that  there  is  a  vital  need  for  additional  security 
laws  as  well  as  a  need  for  more  strict  enforcement  of  the  laws  that  we 
have.  It  is  my  opinion  that  the  agencies  interested  in  promoting  the 
welfare  of  the  United  States  should  concentrate  more  of  their  forces 
on  the  menace  of  communism  as  being  directed  against  our  form  of 
Government. 

Those  Americans  who  ignorantly  and  foolishly  follow  the  so-called 
liberal  line  of  the  Communists  should  be  awakened  to  the  dangers 
facing  them  in  the  achievement  of  the  party's  true  purpose. 

Communists  in  civil  and  public  service  should  be  thoroughly  purged 
by  declaring  the  Communist  Party  illegal  and  unconstitutional  and 
refusing  it  a  place  on  the  American  election  ballot ;  by  revoking  the 
citizonsliip  of  any  foreign-born  member  of  the  party,  followed  by 
deportation;  by  prison  sentences  for  the  native-born  members;  and, 
finally,  by  the  complete  liquidation  and  eradication  of  communism 
and  its  adherents  from  the  American  scene. 

JNIr.  Dekom.  That  is  all,  Mr.  Huber.    Thank  you  very  much. 

(Thereupon  the  subcommittee  adjourned  at  12:30  p.  m.,  subject 
to  call.) 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  AMONG  ALIENS  AND 
NATIONAL  GROUPS 


FRIDAY,   SEPTEMBEB  9,   1949 

United  States  Senate, 
Special  Subcommittee  to  Investigate 
Immigration  and  Naturalization  of  the 

Committee  on  the  Judiciary, 

Washington,  D.  C. 
The  subcommittee  met  in  executive  session  at  3  p.  m.,  in  room  424, 
Senate  Office  Building,  Senator  Herbert  R.  O'Conor  presiding. 
Present :  Senator  O'Conor. 

Also  present:  Messers.  Frank  W.  Schroeder  and  Otto  J.  Dekom, 
professional  staff  members. 

Senator  O'Conor.  Let  us  proceed,  gentlemen. 
Will  you  raise  your  right  hand,  please  ? 

In  the  presence  of  Almighty  God,  do  you  swear  that  the  testimony 
you  shall  give  in  this  hearing  shall  be  the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and 
nothing  but  the  truth  ? 
Dr.  Draskovich.  I  do.^ 

TESTIMONY  OF  DR.  SLOBODAN  M.  DEASKOVICH,  FOEMER 
PROFESSOR  OF  ECONOMICS,  UNIVERSITY  OF  BELGRADE 

Senator  O'Conor.  Will  you  please  state  your  full  name? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  My  full  name  is  Slobodan  M.  Draskovich. 

Senator  O'Conor.  In  what  city  are  you  now  residing? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  In  New  York. 

Senator  O'Conor.  How  long  have  you  been  in  this  country  ? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  A  little  over  2  years. 

Senator  O'Conor.  And  from  what  country  did  you  come? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  I  came  directly  from  Paris,  France. 

Senator  O'Conor.  What  is  your  native  land? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  My  native  land  is  Yugoslavia. 

Senator  O'Conor.  What  profession  did  you  follow  in  Yugoslavia? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  I  was  professor  of  economics  at  the  University  of 
Belgrade. 

Senator  O'Conor.  You  are  familiar  with  the  subject  matter  under 
inquiry  by  this  subcommittee  ? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  I  think  so. 

Senator  O'Conor.  Mr.  Dekom,  will  you  take  up  the  matter  from 
there,  then  ? 


The  witness  appeared  under  subpena. 

603 


604       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

Mr.  Dekom.  Dr.  Draskovich,  have  you  ever  been  a  member  of  the 
Yugoslav  armed  forces  which  fought  against  the  Fascist  and  Nazi 
armies  ? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  Yes ;  I  was,  in  1941,  wlien  the  war  broke  out,  when 
Yugoslavia  was  invaded  by  Nazi  Germany.  I  was  an  infantry  lieu- 
tenant of  the  reserve  in  the  Yugoslav  Army.  I  was  called  up  and  I 
was  in  the  army  during  the  10  days  of  the  war. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Then  what  happened  to  you  ? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  I  was  made  a  prisoner  by  the  Italians  and  Ger- 
mans and  taken  to  a  prison  camp  in  Italy ;  first  to  Aversa,  a  prison 
camp  for  Yugoslav  officers  in  Italy,  and  then  to  Gavi,  in  Italy.  I 
spent  2l^  years  there,  that  is,  until  the  downfall  of  Italy,  and  then  I 
was  taken  to  Germany  to  the  Osnabriick  prison  camp,  where  I  stayed 
until  the  end  of  the  war. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Then  what  did  you  do  ? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  Then  I  stayed  in  Germany  for  almost  a  year  and 
a  half.  I  was  in  DP  camps.  I  was  fighting  Communist  propaganda, 
especially  of  the  Tito  regime.  After  that,  I  went  to  Paris,  in  August 
of  1946,  "where  I  stayed  until  June  of  1947,  when  I  came  to  the  United 
States  on  the  invitation  of  the  American  Serb  organizations  in  this 
country. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Did  you  hold  any  position  in  any  organizations  in 
your  native  country  prior  to  the  war  ? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  I  was  professor  of  economics  at  the  University  of 
Belgrade  and  I  was  a  regular  member  of  the  institute  of  national 
defense  of  the  Ministry  of  War. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Did  you  have  any  connection  with  the  Serbian  Cultural 
Club? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  I  was  general  secretary  of  the  Serbian  Cultural 
Club. 

Mr.  Dekom,  As  a  professor  of  economics  did  you  have  occasion  to 
study  Communist  doctrine  or  Communist  economics? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  As  a  professor  I  had  not  only  the  occasion  and 
the  duty  to  study  communism  theoretically,  but,  unfortunately,  I  had 
also  the  opportunity  of  studying  at  the  University  of  Belgrade — which 
was  one  of  the  mam  centers  of  Communist  activity  in  Yugoslavia — 
the  Communist  practices. 

In  1920,  the  Communist  Party  of  Yugoslavia  was  outlawed  in  a 
most  democratic  manner  by  the  overwhelming  majority  of  the  Yugo- 
slav Parliament,  which  was  freely  elected.  The  Communist  Party 
did  not  officially  exist  after  that,  but  it  was  active  underground,  and 
especially  after  1929,  one  of  tlie  main  centers  of  their  activity  was 
the  University  of  Belgrade.  So  a  great  part  of  the  leaflets,  demon- 
strations, strikes,  and  the  intellectual  direction  of  the  Communist 
activities  in  Yugoslavia  were  centered  at  the  University  of  Belgrade. 

Mr.  Dekom.  In  other  words,  your  knowledge  of  communism  is  not 
only  theoretic  and  academic  but  comes  from  personal  observation  and 
experience  ? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  Definitely  so. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Dr.  Draskovich,  did  you  prepare  a  statement  on  the 
Yugoslav  Communist  press  in  the  United  States  at  the  request  of  the 
subcommittee? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  Yes ;  I  have. 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS      605 

Mr.  Dekom.  Do  you  have  that  statement  with  you  now  ? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  Yes ;  I  have  it  here. 

Mr.  Dekom.  We  have  studied  your  statement,  Dr.  Draskovich,  and 
we  believe  you  have  done  an  exceedingly  careful  and  scholarly  re- 
search job  in  your  analysis.  In  view  of  the  length  of  the  material 
which  you  have  here — over  100  single-spaced  pages,  in  addition  to  a 
number  of  exhibits  which  you  have  in  your  possession — may  I  sug- 
gest that  you  at  this  time  summarize  your  report.  The  report  itself 
will  then  be  made  a  part  of  our  record. 

Dr.  Draskovich.  If  there  is  no  objection  to  it,  I  might  read  the 
conclusion,  which  consists  of  four  pages. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Would  you  then  also,  in  addition  to  reading  your  con- 
clusion, provide  the  suticommittee  with  illustrative  examples  and  ex- 
planations as  you  go  along,  taken  from  the  text  of  your  material  ? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  Yes,  of  course.    My  conclusion  is  the  following : 

All  the  evidence  presented  in  this  report  points  to  a  few  elementary 
facts  concerning  the  "progressive"  American  Serbs  and  Croats,  and 
more  particularly,  the  Narodni  Glasnik  and  the  Slobodna  Eec. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Dr.  Draskovich,  you  have  named  two  newspapers. 
Would  you  tell  us  where  these  newspajDers  are  published  ? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  Both  newspapers  are  published  in  Pittsburgh,  Pa. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Before  you  go  on,  Dr.  Draskovich,  would  you  care  to 
comment  on  the  word  "progressive"  that  you  have  used  in  your  pre- 
pared statement 

Dr.  Draskovich.  I  use  all  through  this  work  the  term  "progressive" 
because  I  thought  I  had  to  prove  that  they  were  Communists.  They 
are  definitely  Communist,  but  officially  it  is  not  known  that  they  are 
affiliates  of  the  Communist  Party. 

Mr.  Dekom.  In  other  words,  you  used  the  term  "progressive"  to 
indicate  that  they  call  themselves  "progressive"'? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  That  is  right ;  and  I  have  also  put  it  in  quotations. 

Mr.  Dekom.  In  other  words,  you  mean  so-called  progressives,  self- 
styled  progressives  ? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  That  is  right. 

Mr.  Dekom.  So  that  you  mean  actually,  when  you  use  the  term 
"progressive,"  that  it  indicates  the  Communist  or  pro-Communist  or- 
ganizations calling  themselves  progressive  organization  ? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  Definitely.  I  think  it  is  just  a  cover  for  their 
Communist  activities,  because  many  people  who  dislike  communism 
will  fall  for  progressiveness. 

Mr.  Dekom.  You  do  not,  however,  imply  that  every  progressive  is 
a  Communist  ? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  No;  definitely  not.  But  the  term  "progressive" 
has  long  ago  ceased  to  be  used  only  to  indicate  people  who  believe  in 
human  progress  and  work  for  it  and  has  become  a  weapon  in  the  hands 
of  tiie  Communists.  So  I  think  that  this  weapon  should  be  forced 
from  their  hands  by  disclosing  the  links  between  so-called  progressiv- 
ism  and  communism.  At  the  moment  this  term  is  being  used  to  the 
greatest  profit  by  the  Communists. 

Mr.  Dekom.  These  particular  self-styled  progressive  organizations 
are  actually  all  Communist  organizations  ? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  That  is  right. 

For  example,  I  mean  the  Narodni  Glasnik  and  Slobodna  Kec.  I 
think  all  of  the  organizations  that  are  connected  with  these  two  news- 


606       COIVCVIU^IST  ACTI\'ITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

papers  are  listed  as  subversive  organizations  by  former  Attorney 
General  Clark.  For  instance,  the  Slobodna  Eec,  the  Serbian  Progres- 
sive Movement,  the  Vidovdan  Council,  are  all  in  fact  on  and  the 
same  thing.  Of  course,  I  was  not  repeating  all  that,  but  when  I  say 
"progressive"  I  mean  these  two  newspapers  and  the  American  Serbs 
and  American  Croats  who  are  rallying  around  them. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Dr.  Draskovich,  I  merely  wanted  to  make  the  record 
clear  on  that  score  so  that  tliere  will  be  no  mistaking  your  intention 
and  your  meaning,  that  you  are  referring  to  these  Communists  and 
pro-Communist  organizations  and  not  to  progressives  in  general. 

Dr.  Draskovich.  Definitely,  that  is  the  correct  meaning  of  the 
term  "progressives"  that  I  am  using  here. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Please  proceed. 

Dr.  Draskovich.  All  the  evidence  presented  in  this  report  points 
to  a  few  elementary  facts  concerning  the  progressive  American  Serbs 
and  Croats,  and  more  particularly,  the  Narodni  Glasnik  and  the 
Slobodna  Rec,  namely : 

(1)  That  these  two  newspapers  have  never,  on  any  single  occasion,  on  any 
single  issue,  supported  the  stand  of  the  United  States  Government. 

If  I  may  add  one  more  comment,  there  have  been  a  few  occasions 
where  these  newspapers  agreed  with  the  United  States  Govermiient, 
but  only  on  issues  of  second-rate  importance  and  only  if  the  stand  of 
the  United  States  was  identical  with  the  stand  of  the  Soviet  Union. 

For  instance,  as  in  the  case  of  the  Charter  of  Human  Rights  or  any 
matter  concerning  the  United  Nations,  or  such  things.  But  in  any 
case  where  the  stand  of  the  United  States  Government  was  different 
from  the  stand  of  the  Soviet  Union,  they  sided  with  the  Soviet  Union. 
That  is  the  second  point. 

(2)  That  they  always,  without  a  single  exception,  have  given  full,  uncondi- 
tional, and  unrestricted  support  to  the  official  stand  of  the  Government  of  the 
Soviet  Union. 

(3)  That  their  attitude  toward  Yugoslavia,  the  country  of  their  origin, 
depended  solely  and  entirely  on  the  existing  relations  between  Yugoslavia  and 
the  Soviet  Union ;  that  is,  on  the  policy  of  the  Yugoslav  Government  in  power 
toward  the  Soviet  Union,  or,  to  put  it  more  precisely,  on  the  policy  of  the  Soviet 
Government  toward  the  regime  in  Yugoslavia. 

I  have  put  in  the  last  sentence  because  of  the  Cominform-Tito  clash. 
Tito  claims  that  he  is  faithful  to  Marxism  and  Leninism  and,  until 
recently,  he  claimed  that  he  was  also  faithful  to  Moscow.  But  that 
was  immaterial ;  the  important  thing  was  that  Moscow  did  not  approve 
of  him.  So  that  was  decisive  for  the  people  we  are  considering  here 
to  decide  against  Tito'. 

Mr.  Dekom.  So  that  regardless  of  what  the  policy  of  any  govern- 
ment, including  our  own,  might  be,  they  accept  it  only  if  it  happens  to 
coincide  with  Soviet  policy? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  That  is  right. 

Mr.  Dekom.  And  if  it  should  happen,  as  it  has  on  many  occasions, 
that  the  Soviet  policy  makes  drastic  and  radical  changes  on  a  certain 
question,  they  have  changed  with  it,  regardless  of  what  their  own 
previous  stand  was? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  Definitely.  I  think  I  have  presented  a  rather  ac- 
curate documentation  regarding  Yugoslavia  after  the  Cominform- 
Tito  clash. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Your  contention.  Dr.  Draskovich,  is  that  these  so-called 
progressive  Yugoslavs  in  the  United  States  have  faithfully  followed 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS      607 

every  twist  and  turn  of  the  Communist  Party  line  as  dictated  in 
Moscow  ? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  That  is  right.  Even  in  that  respect  I  have  pointed 
out  here  that  there  are  three  distinctive  phases,  after  the  First  World 
War  through  today,  in  the  position  of  these  papers  toward 
Yugoslavia. 

The  first  one  is  priot  to  the  rise  of  Tito  to  power.  Until  then  Yugo- 
slavia was  a  thoroughly  anti-Communist  country.  Until  1940,  it  had 
no  diplomatic  relations  with  the  Soviet  Union.  So  the  stand  of 
Slobodna  Rec  and  Narodni  Glasnik  was  100  percent  inimical  to  Yugo- 
slavia. They  used  the  usual  slogans  that  they  are  using  against  the 
United  States,  of  course  adapted  to  the  circumstances  of  Yugoslavia. 

'F'hen  en  me  Tito;  from  that  m.oment  of  August  1944,  until  the  28th 
of  June  1948,  was  the  second  phase.  All  of  a  sudden  they  became 
ardent  Yugoslav  patriots.  Everything  in  Yugoslavia  was  fine  and 
all  right,  general  progress  and  democracy  and  freedom,  all  problems 
solved,  nnd  so  forth.  During  that  period  Moscow  was  with  Yugo- 
slavia and  approved  of  the  regime  in  Yugoslavia,  and  that  was  the 
reap-on  for  the  stand  I  just  mentioned. 

Then  comes  the  third  phase,  where  the  stand  of  Moscow  toward 
Yugoslavia  changed,  and  the  Slobodna  Rec  and  the  Narodni  Glasnik 
closely  followed  in  its  wake — as  I  have  proven  in  this  document — 
using  the  same  arguments  and  very  often  reprinting  the  articles  from 
the  Daily  Worker,  So,  after  a  very  short  while,  their  stand  was — as 
I  affain  proved  bv  examples — 100  percent  against  Yugoslavia. 

Mr.  Dekom.  What  change  took  place  on  June  28  in  the  Government 
of  Yugoslavia;  it  was  the  same  Government  in  existence  before  and 
after  June  28,  was  it  not  ? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  It  was  exactly  the  same  government. 

Mr.  Dekom.  So  that  actuallv  the  sudden  propagarda  campaign  of 
these  Communist  newspapers  in  the  United  States  had  nothing  to  do 
with  the  real  situation? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  Certainly  not. 

Mr.  Dekom.  What  did  it  depend  on  ? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  It  depended  solely  and  exclusively  on  the  change 
of  the  ISIoscow  ]:)olicy  toward  Yugoslavia. 

To  continue: 

(4)  That  the  criticism  by  the  Sloboda  Rec  and  the  Narodni  Glasnik  leveled 
at  the  existing  social  and  political  order  in  the  United  States  follows  to  the 
letter  the  line  of  Communist  strategy  and  tactics.  These  two  newspapers  not 
only  are  doing  their  best  to  illustrate  the  main  theses  of  the  Marxist-Leninist 
theory,  but  follow  closely  and  conscientiously  the  line  of  Communist  tactics  them- 
selves, especially  the  new  tactics  of  the  Communist  Party  of  the  so-called  anti- 
Fascist  peoples'  front  adopted  at  the  Seventh  Congress  of  the  Communist 
International  and  elaborated  in  detail  in  the  two  most  recent  works  of  William 
Z.  Foster,  The  Twilight  of  World  Capitalism  and  In  Defense  of  the  Communist 
Party  and  the  Indicted  Leaders. 

Reduced  to  its  essentials,  the  Communist  theory  consists  of  the  following 
theses ; 

(a)  Capitalism  is  the  source  of  exploitation,  oppression,  and  all  evil  in  this 
world. 

(&)  Capitalism,  owing  to  its  inner  structure  and  the  laws  of  its  development,  is 
doomed  to  failure. 

(c)  On  the  ruins  of  capitalism  a  new  order  will  be  installed — the  Socialist 
order. 

(d)  Although  the  downfall  of  capitalism  is  unavoidable  because  it  is  subject 
to  laws  as  unchangeable  as  natural  laws,  the  downfall  of  capitalism  will  not  be 


608       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

achieved  automatically.  The  working  class,  which  is  the  creator  of  socialism, 
in  order  to  achieve  victory  must  necessarily  be  organized  into  a  party ;  not  a 
bourgeois  party  which  follows  the  rules  and  can  function  only  within  the 
parliamentary  system,  the  party  of  the  working  class  must  be  a  "new  type"  party, 
a  militant  vanguard  party,  which  will  prepare  and  organize  the  workers  for 
direct  revolutionary  action  and  a  forcible  overthrow  of  the  existing  capitalistic 
order  and  government. 

Mr.  ScHROEDER.  Does  that  mean  the  overthrow  of  all  capitalistic 
governments  in  the  world? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  This  centers  now  on  the  United  States,  because,  as 
William  Z.  Foster  points  out  in  both  of  his  mentioned  works — and 
the  argument  is  used  in  the  Narodni  Glasnik  and  the  Slobodna  Kec — 
the  roots  of  all  evil,  the  center  of  all  evil  in  the  world,  is  in  the  United 
States.  At  the  same  time,  the  strongest  capitalistic  country  in  the 
world  is  the  United  States.  So  they  believe  that  if  they  destroy  the 
United  States,  capitalism  will  come  to  an  end  everywhere  else  in  the 
world  because  capitalism  can  live  in  other  countries  only  as  long  as  it 
lives  in  the  United  States. 

Mr.  ScHROEDER.  In  other  words,  the  United  States  is  No.  1  on 
the  list? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  Definitely,  yes.  I  think,  if  I  may  quote,  that  that 
is  the  term  that  Mr.  Foster  uses' — "enemy  No.  1." 

Mr.  Dekom.  Would  you  identify  the  source  of  your  material,  please? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  This  is  William  Foster's  book.  The  Twilight  of 
World  Capitalism. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Please  read  the  entire  quotation. 

Dr.  Draskovich.  This  appears  on  page  43,  in  the  chapter  which 
bears  the  title  "Capitalism  Grows  Cannibalistic."    He  says : 

This  country,  precisely  because  it  is  the  chiof  center  of  monopoly  capitalism,  is 
at  the  same  time  the  main  fortress  of  world  reaction  and  warmongering.  Such  a 
democratic  government  as  the  Progressive  Party  aimed  at  in  the  1948  elec- 
tions— a  government  based  on  a  coalition  of  the  workers,  farmers,  Negroes,  pro- 
fessionals, and  small  businessmen — could  lay  important  curbs  upon  the  big  mo- 
nopolists, who  are  the  No.  1  enemies  of  present-day  peace  and  democracy. 

Mr.  ScHROEDER.  In  other  words,  their  theory  is'  to  destroy  this  Nation 
where  the  people  have  the  highest  standard  of  living  in  the  world? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  Not  only  that,  but  I  think  what  worries  them  and 
why  they  are  so  much  against  the  United  States  is  that  the  United 
States  is  a  living  example  that  people  of  all  nationalities  and  races  and 
origins  can  live  together  and  prosper,  and  that  this  country,  which  is 
composed  of  people  from  all  over  the  world,  is  doing  well  owing  to  its 
traditions  and  its'  democracy.  That  fact,  of  course,  is  very  harmful  to 
their  propaganda  in  the  world. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Is  it  your  opinion  that  they  expect  to  obtain  world 
domination  by  destroying  the  democratic  strength  of  the  United 
States? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  Definitely  so. 

Mr.  Dekom.  So  actually  their  goal  is  world  domination,  but  the  first 
and  principal  obstacle  in  their  way  is  that  the  United  States  is  still  a 
powerful  democracy  whose  people  are  willing  to  fight  for  its  defense  ? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  That  is  correct.  If  I  may  cite,  in  that  connection, 
the  Daily  Worker,  which  in  its  issue  of  February  11,  1949,  carries  an 
interesting  interview  with  Mao  Tse-tung,  the  leader  of  the  Chinese 
Communists,  by  Anna  Louise  Strong. 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS      609 

In  that  interview,  Mao  Tse-tung  explains  that  America  must  be 
destroyed,  and  he  says  that  between  the  Soviet  Union  and  the  Govern- 
ment of  the  United  States  are  the  American  people.  So  the  United 
States,  which  wants  to  fight  the  Soviet  Union,  must  first  fight  its  own 
people.  That  is  what  the  Government  is  doing  by  introducing 
Fascist  methods  into  the  United  States.  Then  iVmerica,  before  reach- 
ing the  Soviet  Union,  will  further  have  to  fight  other  countries  which 
are  not  socialistic,  and  so  will  turn  the  whole  world  against  them- 
selves. 

In  other  words,  he  tries  to  prove  that  the  root  of  all  evil  is  the 
United  States.  It  is  the  main  impediment  for  world  domination  by 
the  Communist  Party,  so  it  must  be  destroyed. 

Mr.  Dekom.  You  mentioned  the  name  of  Anna  Louise  Strong — 
is  she  not  the  same  woman  who  was  editor  of  the  Moscow  Daily  News  ? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  That  is  the  person.  My  impression  from  her 
articles  on  Mao  Tse-tung  and  the  Chinese  Communists  was  that  she 
is  thoroughly  Communist. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Please  continue. 

Dr.  Draskovich.  To  continue : 

(e)  The  United  States  is  no  exception  to  the  above  rules.  On  the  contrary, 
capitalism  in  the  United  States  exemplifies  most  drastically  all  the  main  theses 
of  Leninism,  which  is  Marxism  in  the  imperialistic  phase  of  capitalistic  develop- 
ment. Capitalism  in  America  is  thus  bound  to  fall,  owing  to  its  own  internal 
contradictions  and  inability  to  solve  the  growing  difficulties  inherent  in  capitalism 
as  a  system. 

(/)  But  since,  according  to  Marx,  Lenin,  and  Stalin,  no  ruling  class  in  history 
ever  gave  up  its  privileged  position  without  struggle — never  voluntarily  disap- 
peared from  the  world  stage — American  capitalism  is  doing  its  best  to  keep,  at 
all  costs,  the  unique  position  whicli  it  has  in  the  present  world. 

(g)  These  efforts  of  American  capitalism  to  keep  its  position  at  any  price 
are  entirely  undemocratic.  Since  its  downfall  is  inexorable,  American  capi- 
talism— i)ersonified  by  Wall  Street  bankers  and  political  reaction — must  neces- 
sarily pursue  a  policy  of  fascism  in  America  and  the  policy  of  imperialism  which 
leads  to  war  in  its  relations  with  other  countries. 

(h)  In  pursuing  such  a  policy.  Wall  Street  and  American  reaction  must  neces- 
sarily clash  with  the  interests  of  the  common  people  in  America  as  well  as  with 
the  interests  of  all  people  in  the  world.  The  internal  and  international  tension 
which  ensue  must  necessarily  lead  to  an  open  conflict  between  world  capitalism, 
headed  by  Wall  Street,  and  the  front  of  democracy  and  peace,  headed  by  the 
Soviet  Union, 

(t)  The  growing  violence  of  the  capitalists  must  be  met  by  violence  on  the 
part  of  the  people.  The  entire  program  of  the  Communist  Party,  its  press,  and  all 
affiliated  organizations,  is  to  prepare  the  people  for  the  conflict  which  is  bound 
to  come,  so  that  the  sinister  intrigues  of  capitalists  can  be  met  and  "the  people 
smash  the  power  of  the  ruling  capitalists,  take  control  themselves,  and  enter 
into  genuinely  fraternal  relations  with  other  peoples,  particularly  with  the 
USSR." 

This  background  is  necessary  for  the  correct  understanding  and 
appraisal  of  the  policy  and  propaganda  of  any  "progressive"  organi- 
zation in  the  United  States,  since  the  Marxist-Leninist  theory  requires 
a  special  technique  of  propaganda. 

This  special  technique  is  well  illustrated  in  the  pages  of  the  Slobodna 
Rec  and  the  Narodni  Glasnik.  This  technique  is  to  follow  a  few 
simple  rules : 

No  news  or  articles  must  be  published  which  could  possibly  harm  the  mental 
and  political  preparation  of  the  people  for  the  overthrow  of  capitalism.  All  news 
must  be  carefully  selected  so  as  to  support  any  one  of  the  main  theses  of  Marxism- 
Leninism.     This  applies  not  only  to  the  editorials  but  to  the  most  insignificant 


610      COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

item  published  in  tlie  papers,  such  as  cartoons,  photographs,  announcements,  and 
advertisements. 

Moreover,  every  single  item  must  be  carefully  selected  so  as  to  increase  the 
belief  of  the  readers  in  the  inevitability  of  the  downfall  of  capitalism  in  the  right- 
eousness of  the  Communist  cause,  and  to  increase  their  w^illingness  to  take  an 
active  part  in  the  decisive  revolutionary  struggle. 

In  our  case  these  simple  rules  are  carried  out  by — 

1.  Always  presenting  the  United  States  in  an  unfavorable  light.  Every  single 
copy  of  the  newsi^ayers  must  present  new  evidence  of  the  rottenness  of  American 
capitalism,  of  the  deep  rift  between  the  interests  of  Wall  Street  and  reaction  on 
the  one  hand,  and  the  workers  and  the  people  on  the  other. 

2.  Always  presenting  the  Soviet  Union  in  a  favorable  light  by  giving  examples 
of  its  domestic  policy  favorable  to  the  people,  and  foreign  policy  favorable  to 
peace,  and  serving  the  interests  of  all  mankind. 

3.  Commenting  on  all  events  and  all  problems  so  as  to  indict  the  United  States 
and  praise  the  Soviet  Union. 

4.  Proving  that  there  is  no  conflict  of  interest  between  the  United  States  as  a 
whole  and  the  Soviet  Union,  but  that  the  main  conflict  exists  inside  America  itself ; 
namely,  beween  its  ruling  class  and  the  broad  masses  of  the  people. 

5.  Presenting  all  the  United  States  Government's  policies  and  activities  which 
tend  to  strengthen  America  as  militaristic.  Fascist,  and  imperialistic,  and  recom- 
mending a  policy  of  weakening  America  militarily,  politically,  and  spiritually  as 
being  favorable  to  the  cause  of  the  American  people  and  international  peace 
and  well-being. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Would  you  cite  at  this  point  some  specific  example  of 
the  attacks  on  the  United  States  or  its  Government,  please  ? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  I  can  do  that,  sir. 

I  have  here  examples  of  the  Sloboclna  Rec  and  Navodni  Glasnik 
propaganda  concernnig  the  foreign  policy  of  the  United  States,  and 
the  domestic  policy  or  the  internal  situation. 

For  instance,  in  the  Slobodna  Rec  of  June  17,  1947,  No.  67,  page  3, 
a  "poem  of  the  workers"  is  published  under  the  title,  "Oh,  Great 
Justice"  by  Jovan  Radulovich,  Detroit,  Mich.  The  author  attacks 
the  Truman  doctrine,  which  he  calls  un-American,  stating  that  all 
that  is  the  deal  of  a  clique  of  wealthy  people  "against  communism  and 
against  the  Russians."  But  the  workers  "are  graduated  politically 
and  will  not  tolerate  dictatorship.  Whatever  happens,  they  will  not 
be  blind  slaves." 

Then  in  the  Slobodna  Rec  of  December  13, 1947,  Nikola  Baltich,  one 
of  the  leading  Communists  among  American  Serbs  in  New  York  City, 
Avrites  an  article  in  which  he  says : 

All  reactionary  cliques  of  this  country  and  the  rest  of  the  world  are  firmly 
determined  to  annihilate  progress  and  install  reaction,  to  deprive  the  people  of 
their  civil  rights,  and,  instead  of  democratic  rights  and  liberties,  to  organize 
the  persecution  of  all  progressive  persons  and  organizations,  as  well  as  of 
national  minorities. 

In  the  Narodni  Glasnik  of  December  1, 1948,  page  1,  under  the  title, 
"Plan  for  the  Three  Months'  Campaign  of  the  Narodni  Glasnik,"  is 
published  a  report  by  Editor  Mary  Sumrak  at  the  National  Confer- 
ence of  the  Narodni'  Glasnik  in  Cleveland,  Ohio.  Before  outlining 
the  tasks  of  this  paper,  Mary  Sumrak  makes  herself  clear  on  the  situ- 
ation in  America : 

'  *  *  The  principal  forces  against  the  establishment  of  peace  in  the 
world  are  just  in  this  country.  These  forces  are  threatening  a  new  war.  They 
are  responsible  for  the  big  armaments  in  our  country.  They  are  creating  hysteria 
and  warmongering,  and  preventing  a  peaceful  settlement  of  disputes  between 
nations — in  the  first  place  in  agreement  with  the  Soviet  Union  and  the  new  democ- 
racies in  Europe. 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS      611 

In  the  Slobodna  Rec  of  May  27,  1947,  page  3,  a  report  by  Marko  J. 
Murisich,  of  San  Francisco,  is  published  on  the  case  of  an  elderly  man 
^Yllo  applied  to  the  State  Department  for  a  passport  to  visit  his  ailing 
son  in  Tiigoslavia  but  was  refused.  In  the  report,  which  bears  the 
title,  "Do  They  Have  Any  Parents'  Love  at  All  f  it  is  said : 

Can  such  a  thing  happen  in  the  country  of  Washington,  in  the  country  of 
Jefferson,  in  the  country  of  Lincoln  ? 

It  can  happen.     *     *     * 

The  old  man  asked  me  "Do  people  in  the  State  Department  have  children?" 

"Ihey  certainly  have,"  said  I. 

How  would  they  feel  if  some  ill-famed  government  of  some  foreign  country 
would  deny  them  the  right  to  go  abroad  to  see  their  own  children?     *     *     * 

The  history  of  this  war  has  shown  that  the  Fascist  beasts  have  no  more  feeling 
toward  a  child  than  they  have  toward  the  most  dangerous  wild  beasts.  I  do  not 
Ivuow  then  how  people  in  the  State  Department  can  be  without  parental  love  or 
how  it  is  possible  that  they  do  not  think,  at  least  in  cases  like  this  one,  of  parental 
love. 

It  seems  to  me  that  reaction  in  America  is  not  much  different  from  that  of  the 
Fascists. 

All  this  is  concerning  the  American  foreign  policy. 

As  for  the  internal  situation,  they  say,  for  instance,  in  the  article 
again  of  Mary  Sumrak  in  the  Narodni  Glasnik  of  May  9, 1947,  page  3, 
under  the  page-wide  heading  "Croatian  Women  at  Work  for  a  Better 
and  Happier  Future" : 

On  Mother's  Day  this  year  not  all  graves  of  all  soldiers  who  fell  have 
yet  been  found.  The  tears  of  bereaved  mothers  have  not  yet  dried  and  already 
new  black  clouds  are  casting  shadows  over  the  earth;  already  those  who  from 
the  blood  of  sons  and  daughters  are  drawing  personal  profits  are  warmongering 
and  provoking  a  third  world  war.  They  do  not  care  about  mothers'  feelings ; 
they  do  not  care  about  anything  but  their  greed.  A  handful  of  billionaires  who 
are  ruthlessly  plundering  American  mothers  and  taking  away  from  them  the 
bread  from  their  table,  being  afraid  of  the  people,  afraid  that  they  will  lose  the 
unlimited  right  to  profit  and  plunder,  have  plotted  against  the  democratic  peoples 
who  have  risen  from  the  ruins  of  Fascist  military  power,  who  have  acquired  free- 
dom, and  who,  in  their  ranks,  are  building  a  new  world  of  equality  and  brother- 
hood. This  small  handful  of  ruthless  and  greedy  people  is  threatening  with, 
a  new  war,  is  threatening  with  atomic  bombs,  and  is  bent  upon  taking  away  from 
millions  of  mothers  what  is  most  precious  to  them — their  children. 

Again,  it  is  interesting  in  connection  with  the  question  of  violence 
that  there  appeared  in  the  Slobodna  Eec  of  May  27,  1947,  a  poem 
published  by  Sofia  Mark,  of  Detroit,  Mich.,  entitled  "To  My  Son 

Charlie": 

To  raise  your  fist  against  slavery,  fascism, 

And  all  other  cynicism     *     *     * 

There  will  be  waves  of  struggle  for  you  yet, 

Because  the  world  has  freedom  to  get. 

To  worry  for  food  and  other  things. 

In  the  land  of  plenty  and  everything     *     *     * 

Your  name  will  be  in  line  with  others 

Who  gave  their  lives  to  break  the  chains  and  orders. 

It  is  interesting  to  quote  an  article  by  Nikola  Baltich,  in  the  Slo- 
bodna Rec  of  September  20,  1947,  No.  105,  against  the  decision  of  the 
Department  of  State  not  to  issue  passports  for  visitors  to  Yugoslavia, 
under  the  title  "The  Voice  of  the  People  Ought  To  Be  Heard."  It 
is  noteworthy  that  here,  again,  the  writers  of  the  Slobodna  Rec  make 
a  distinction  betw^een  the  Government  and  the  people  of  the  United 
States,  whereas  they  always  identify  people  and  Go\  ernment  when  the 
Soviet  Union  is  concerned. 


I 


612      COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

There  is  an  interesting  comparison  between  Wall  Street  and  Hitler 
and  Mnssolini  in  a  letter  allegedly  received  from  Yugoslavia  by 
Obrenija  Biberdzic,  of  Chicago,  111.,  and  published  in  the  Slobodna 
Kec  of  November  26, 1947,  page  3.     It  reads,  in  part : 

On  the  whole,  everything  is  all  ri-ht.  But  it  seems  to  me  that  those  trusts 
of  yours  hate  us.  They  would  like  us  to  be  obedient  slaves  of  Wall  Street, 
but  we  want  to  lead  our  own  lives.  If  anyone  goes  off  his  head  and  touches  us, 
we  will  send  him  along  the  same  road  as  Hitler  and  Mussolini ;  that  is  the  message 
of  eastern  Europe  to  all  those  who  want  to  subdue  and  oppress  otiier  peoples.  *  *  * 
With  us  are  justice  and  the  working  people  of  the  whole  world. 

Besides  comparing  Wall  Street  to  Hitler  and  Mnssolini,  this  piece 
of  "progressive"  prose  also  repeats  the  Communist  thesis  of  the  unity 
of  the  working  people  of  the  whole  world. 

There  is  no  doubt  that  the  simple  rules  of  Communist  propaganda 
have  been  very  carefully  applied  by  the  Slobodna  Rec  and  the  Narodni 
Glasnik,  although  it  might  have  appeared  to  readers  not  well  enough 
acquainted  with  Marxist  theory  and  tactics  that  they  were  sometimes 
strongly  deviating  from  the  Communist  line  and  assuming  an  unbiased 
or  even  patriotic  attitude. 

This  is  best  exemplified  in  the  insistence  with  which  the  Com- 
munists of  the  Slobodna  Rec  and  Narodni  Glasnik  underline  the  neces- 
sity for  America  to  remain  faithful  to  the  struggle  of  the  American 
people  in  the  Second  Woi-ld  War — I  am  using  the  word  "Communists" 
here  because  I  consider  tliat  I  have  proved  already  that  people  around 
these  two  papers  really  are  Communists,  so  that  now  I  can  use  the 
correct  term — this  insistence  is  only  apparently  patriotic,  since  the 
Slobodna  Rec  and  the  Narodni  Glasnik,  in  the  same  way  as  the  Daily 
Worker,  always  speak  of  the  anti-Fascist  struggle  and  carefully  avoid 
speaking  of  the  struggle  for  America  and  for  American  democracy. 
It  is  not  by  accident  that  George  Pirinsky  of  the  American  Slav  Con- 
gress entitles  his  fiery  "patriotic"  article  published  in  the  Narodni 
Glasnik  and  the  Slobodna  Rec  of  December  18, 1948,  "We  remain  True 
to  Our  Wartime  Pledge  to  Fight  Fascism."  Such  patriotism  fits 
exactly  into  the  Communist  picture  of  the  present  world ;  namely,  that 
the  Second  World  War  was  not  waged  against  Nazi  Germany  and 
Fascist  Italy  and  Japan,  but  against  fascism  in  the  world,  whose  main 
representatives  are  today  the  Government  of  the  United  States  and 
the  political,  economic,  social,  and  cultural  leaders  of  this  coimtry. 

The  stand  of  the  Slobodna  Rec  and  the  Narodni  Glasnik  is  more 
clearly  illustrated  by  their  very  close  connections  and  cooperation  with 
other  organizations  which,  undoubtedly,  follow  the  Communist  line. 
The  similarity  of  the  propaganda  of  these  two  newspapers  with  that 
of  the  Daily  Worker,  organ  of  the  Communist  Party  of  the  United 
States,  or  with  the  writings  of  William  Z.  Foster,  chairman  of  the 
American  Communist  Party;  the  role  which  these  two  newspapers 
have  admittedly  played  in  the  creation  of  the  American  Communist 
Party;  the  role  which  they  have  admittedly  played  in  the  creation  of 
the  American  Slav  Congress ;  their  strong  links  with  the  All-Slav  Com- 
mittee in  Moscow ;  the  full  and  unconditional  support  they  gave  and 
are  giving  to  the  Progressive  Party  of  Henry  A.  Wallace;  and  their 
close  connections  with  that  particular  party— all  of  these  facts  point 
to  the  conclusion  that  these  two  newspapers  and  the  people  gathered 
around  them  are  neither  American  nor  Yugoslav  nor  Serb  nor  Croat 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS      613 

patriots,  but  members  of  the  world-wide  organization  of  the 
Communist  Party. 

As  had  been  strikingly  proved  by  the  variations  of  their  stand  toward 
Yugoslavia  in  the  course  of  the  last  10  or  15  years,  these  people  have 
no  loyalty  either  toward  America,  whose  citizens  they  are,  or  toward 
Yugoslavia,  the  country  of  their  origin,  but  one  single  loyalty^ — the 
loyalty  to  the  Soviet  Union  and  its  Communist  Party.  These  two 
newspapers  are  not  independent  and  well-intentioned  organs  of  Amer- 
ican public  opinion,  but  only  links  in  a  world-wide  organization  which 
sees  in  the  United  States,  its  present  order,  its  democratic  conditions 
and  institutions,  and  all  that  this  country  stands  for,  is  the  main  enemy 
which  must  be  crushed  at  any  price.  Instead  of  objectively  inform- 
ing their  readers,  who  are  one  part  of  the  American  people,  and  edu- 
cating them  to  better  citizenship,  they  are  conditioning  them  mentally 
to  become  tools  in  the  hands  of  a  foreign  power  against  their  own 
country.  They  are  preparing  them  for  the  "big  undertaking"  of 
defeating  capitalism  (Foster),  for  the  "ultimate  emancipation  from 
capitalism  (Weinstone^),  which,  in  simple  terms,  amounts  to  saying 
that  it  is  preparing  them  to  take  an  active  part  in  transforming  any 
future  international  war  against  the  enemies  of  the  United  States  into 
a  civil  war  inside  the  United  States.  They  are  preparing  them  and 
conditioning  them  mentally  and  politically  to  be  traitors  to  their  own 
country. 

Mr.  ScHROEDER.  Doctor,  the  two  newspapers  that  you  discuss  in  your 
statement,  do  you  have  any  knowledge  of  the  circulation  of  those  two 
newspapers  in  the  United  States  ? 

Dr.  Draskovicii.  That  I  could  not  tell  you.  I  think  that  the 
Slobodna  Kec  is  somewhere  around  4,000  or  5,000  copies. 

Mr.  ScHROEDER.  Is  that  daily  or  weekly  ? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  It  is  published  three  times  a  week. 

Mr.  Dekom.  That  is  not,  however,  its  total  readership?  More 
people  read  the  paper  than  subscribe  to  it ;  is  that  right  'i 

Dr.  Draskovich.  That  is  right. 

Mr.  Dekom.  They  are  family  papers? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  That  is  right. 

]Mr.  Dekom.  You  have  made  an  exhaustive  analysis  of  these  two 
newspapers.  Could  you  name  other  newspapers  published  in  any  of 
the  three  Yugoslav  national  languages  which  follow  the  Communist 
Party  line  in  the  United  States. 

Dr.  Draskovich.  The  Zajednicar,  which  is  an  organ  of  the  Croatian 
Fraternal  Union,  is  not  100  percent  on  the  same  line  as  Narodni  Glas- 
nik.  Until  1943,  that  organization  was  not  in  Communist  hands. 
Its  editor  was  not  a  Communist,  At  the  convention  in  1943,  a  queer 
thing  happened.  The  ruling  board  was  mixed.  Some  people  were 
"progressives";  some  were  not,  but  the  editor,  Filip  Vukelich,  was, 
to  say  the  least,  a  fellow  traveler. 

Then  the  second,  even  stronger  push  toward  the  left,  happened  in 
1947;  at  that  convention  the  Communists  took  over.  They  won 
a  victory.  From  1947  on,  the  Zajednicar  has  been  fairly  closely  fol- 
lowing the  Communist  line.  It  is  interesting  to  note  that  in  the 
Cominform-Tito  rift,  although  inclined  m/ore  favorably  toward  Mos- 


>  William  Welnstone,  educational  director,  New  York  State  Communist  Party. 
S.8.S30 — 50— pt.  2—11 


614       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

COW  than  to  Tito,  they  were  still  hesitating  and  hoping  for  concilia- 
tion. 

Mr.  Dekom.  What  is  the  approximate  circulation  of  that  news- 
paper ? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  I  would  not  be  sure,  but  I  imagine  it  is  about 
30,000. 

Mr.  Dekom.  That,  too,  is  a  family  newspaper  and  is  read  by  many 
more  people  than  subscribe  to  it  ? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  It  is  a  family  paper  in  the  same  way  that  the 
Srbobran,  the  organ  of  the  Serb  National  Federation,  is. 

Mr.  Dekom.  That  is  not  a  pro-Communist  organization? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  Definitely  not.  The  Serb  National  Federation, 
the  Serbian  National  Defense  Council  of  America,  together  with  the 
Serbian  Orthodox  Diocese,  are  organizations  around  which  are  cen- 
tered the  great  majority  of  American  Serbs  who  definitely  are  good 
American  patriots,  and,  at  the  same  time,  respect  Serbian  traditions 
and  are  cultivating  their  Serbian  customs  and  Serbian  national  life 
in  this  country. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Does  the  fact  that  some  of  the  newspapers  in  the  Yugo- 
slav language  are  Communist  or  pro-Communist  imply  in  any  way 
that  a  majority  of  the  Yugoslavs  in  this  country  are  either  Commu- 
nists or  pro-Communists  ? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  No.  The  situation  is  the  clearest  with  the  Serbs, 
because  with  the  Serbs  the  percentage  of  Communists,  as  I  have  quoted 
in  this  report,  is  the  lowest  of  all  Slavic  national  groups — well  under 
10  percent.  So,  the  Srbobran  plays  a  much  greater  role  than  the 
Slobodna  Kec,  because  it  has  a  much  larger  circulation — over  30,000 
copies  are  circulated. 

Mr.  Dekom.  If  legislation  were  enacted  which  would  provide  for 
the  deportation  of  aliens  involved  in  Communist  fronts  or  Communist 
activities,  would  that  seriously  affect,  let  us  say,  the  Serbian  popula- 
tion of  this  country  ? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  I  doubt  it,  since  most  of  them  are  American  citi- 
zens. 

Mr.  Dekom.  So  that  it  would  affect  only  a  small  number  who  are 
disloyal? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  I  think  so. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Do  you  see  any  objection  to  such  legislation? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  No.  If  I  may  utter  my  opinion  on  a  matter  con- 
cerning the  United  States,  I  think  that  it  would  be  most  propitious 
and  for  the  best  interests  of  this  country,  because  the  least  which  can 
ba  asked  from  people  living  in  this  country,  whether  citizens  or  not, 
is  to  be  loyal  to  the  institutions  and  traditions  of  this  country.  People 
who  are  violating  this  rule  definitely  do  not  deserve  to  live  in  this 
country. 

Mr.  Dekom.  You  do  not  believe  that  would  work  an  injustice  on 
anyone  ? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  On  the  contrary,  I  think  it  would  be  a  most  right- 
eous and  just  measure. 

Mr.  Schroeder.  Doctor,  you  have  mentioned  three  or  four  of  the 
pro-Communist  newspapers  printed  in  this  country.  Do  you  have  any 
knowledge  that  these  papers  are  being  subsidized  or  receiving  finan- 
cial aid  from  any  foreign  governments? 


COMRiUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS      615 

Dr.  Draskovich.  I  really  could  not  tell  you.  That  is  the  usual 
Communist  practice.  That  is  what  they  do  elsewhere.  For  instance, 
the  two  former  editors  of  Slobodna  Roc,  Srdjan  Prica  and  Stevan 
Dedijer— who,  by  the  way,  were  highly  praised  in  1947  and  are  bitterly 
attacked  now  in  the  Slobodna  Rec  because  the»y  are  siding  with  Tito — 
have,  to  my  knowledge,  bought  the  Croatian  paper  Novi  Swiet,  and 
they  intend  to  publisli  it  as  a  Communist  paper— but  a  Tito  paper. 

That,  of  course,  is  not  quite,  an  answer  to  your  question.  I  mean,  that 
is  just  an  example  of  their  usual  practice  of  trying  to  meddle  in  the 
affairs  of  this  country  from  abroad. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Can  you  name  any  additional  newspapers  published 
in  this  country  which  follow  the  Communist  line? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  A  very  strongly  communistic  paper  is  Narodna 
Volya,  which  is  a  Macedonian  and  Bulgarian  newspaper. 

For  instance,  in  the  issue  of  January  16,  1948,  the  Narodna  Volya 
carried  an  excerpt  from  the  Daily  Worker  of  "Mao  Tse-tung's 
Thoughts,"  to  the  effect  that  the  atomic  bomb,  which  belongs  to  Amer- 
ica, "will  not  destroy  the  people,  but  the  people  will  destroy  the  atomic 
bomb,"  and  that  Avill  be  the  end  of  American  capitalism. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Have  you  examined  the  issues  of  the  Narodna  Volya  ? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  Just  a  few  of  them. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Did  you  notice  whether  or  not  they  reprinted  articles 
from  the  Daily  Worker  ? 

Dr.  DijASKOvicH.  Yes,  sir.  I  think  that  all  these  papers  are  molded 
after  the  same  pattern.  If  one  studies  the  Slobodna  Rec  and  the 
Narodni  Glasnik  with  tlie  Narodna  Volya,  one  finds  exactly  the  same 
thing  m  another  language— the  same  news,  the  same  editorials,  the 
same  stand  on  all  issues  concerning  this  country. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Is  there  a  Slovene  Communist  newspaper  published 
m  the  United  States,  to  your  knowledge? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  Yes;  the  Enakopravnost,  which  means  "equalitV 
of  rights."  ^         -^ 

Mr.  Schroeder.  Doctor,  with  all  of  these  pro-Communist  news- 
papers that  you  have  cited  which  are  printed  and  circulated  in  the 
United  States,  do  you  think  they  sway  the  opinion  of  the  people  that 
read  them  ?  ^     ^ 

Dr.  Draskovich.  I  think  they  do  to  a  certain  extent,  because,  for 
mstance,  it  we  consider  the  Serbian  or  Croatian  national  o-roups  there 
are  quite  a  few  people,  especially  those  who  are  foreign-born,  who  do 
not  sufliciently  understand  English.  For  them,  it  is  simpler  to  read 
a,  newspaper  m  their  own  language  than  to  read  the  paper  in  English 
Lonsequently,  they  rely  on  that  single  newspaper,  and  the  information 
they  get  is  from  that  single  newspaper.  So,  even  though  there  are 
people  who  are  not  Communists  among  the  subscribers,  in  the  course 
at  time  they  certainly  get  biased  or  indoctrinated  by  reading  every 
iay,  or  three  tmies  a  week,  the  same  paper,  which  is  following  strictlv 
the  Communist  Party  line. 

Mr.  Schroeder.  In  other  words,  if  our  immigrants  or  aliens  that 
:ome  to  the  United  States  would  be  taught  English,  and  the  American 
way  of  lite,  they  would  have  a  broader  knowledge  of  our  system  of 
government  and  would  not  be  so  susceptible  to  the  propaganda  that 
is  published  m  these  foreign-language  Communist  newspapers? 

Dr.  Draskoa^ch.  I  thmk  there  might  be  a  difference,  but  less  than 
s  expected,  because,  if  they  would  not  have  their  papers  in  their  own 


616       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

language,  tliey  would  be  obliged  to  learn  English  properly.  Then  it 
is  certain  that  the  Daily  Worker  would  come  in  and  would  try  to  fill 
the  place  of  the  Narodni  Glasnik  and  Slobodna  Rec. 

Mr.  Dekom.  In  view  of  the  limited  success  with  which  the  Daily 
Worker  has  met  with  the  English-speaking  people,  would  you  con- 
sider that  their  chances  of  success  would  be  very  great  ?  i 

Dr.  Draskovicii.  I  do  not  think  so. 

Mr.  Dekom.  So  it  would  actually  be  a  benefit  if  these  people  were 
required  to  learn  our  language  and  our  way  of  life,  as  Mr.  Schroeder 
pointed  out?  tt  •     j 

Dr.  Draskovich.  I  think  it  would  be  rather  fairer  to  the  United 
States  to  do  that,  but  I  do  not  think  it  would  make  much  difference. 
The  Daily  Worker,  as  much  as  I  can  appraise,  would  not  be  able  to 
make  new  inroads.  But,  on  the  other  hand,  I  do  not  think  the  result 
of  their  learning  English  would  be  very  considerable. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Would  it  make  any  difference  in  persuading  them  to 
read  American  newspapers  written  in  English,  such  as,  for  example, 
the  American  newspapers  published  in  Pittsburgh  ?  Would  the  peo- 1 
pie  be  persuaded  to  read  them  ? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  If  that  was  possible— to  make  them  read  American 
newspapers  that  are  unbiased.  ' 

Mr.  Dekom.  Could  they  be  persuaded  of  their  own  volition  to  read 
them  if  they  could  speak  and  read  English  well?     Or  well  enough? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  I  wonder.  I  say  that  because  some  of  the  stanch- 
est  Communists — Mary  Sumrak,  editor  of  the  Narodni  Glasnik,  a£ 
well  as  Stanko  Vuich  and  Drago  Kosic,  editors  of  the  Slobodna  Rec— 
are  all  American-born,  and  they  speak  English  better  than  they  do 
Serbian  or  Croatian. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Dr.  Draskovich,  I  notice  in  your  report  a  considerable 
amount  of  information  concerning  involvement  of  the  official  Yugo- 
slav family  in  the  United  States  in  these  Communist  activities.  li 
mean,  of  course,  the  Yugoslav  Embassy  staff  and  the  Yugoslav  dele- 
gations to  the  United  Nations. 

I  wonder  if  you  would  summarize  your  testimony  there  by  givino 
us  illustrative  material  or  examples  which  you  might  consider  advis- 
able at  this  time  ? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  I  think  that  the  material  which  can  be  founo 
on  representatives  of  Yugoslavia  in  the  United  States  proves  that; 
those  people  who  came  here  as  official  representatives  and,  of  course 
were  supposed  not  to  meddle  in  internal  politics  or  make  Communist 
propaganda,  did  not  respect  that  rule.  They  have  taken  part  in  manj 
meetings. 

Mr.  Dekom.  What  sort  of  meetings? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  All  of  them  were  organized  by  Communist  or-i 
ganizations,  so  the  meetings  were  by  that  fact  alone  communistic! 
too.  I  mean,  for  instance,  meetings  organized  by  the  Slobodna  Rec 
or  the  Croatian  American  Council,  or  the  Serbian  Progressive  move- 
ment. So  that  all  the  organizers,  whether  local  clubs  or  chapters  or 
national  organizations,  are  Communists.  We  do  not  have  in  al, 
oases  the  texts  of  their  speeches,  but  on  some  occasions  the  texts  art! 
published,  and  they  definitely  transgress  the  limits  of  a  greeting  of  8 
foreign  representative.  They  present  direct  help  to  Communis! 
propaganda  in  this  country. 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       617 

For  instance,  there  is  an  interesting  account  in  the  Slobodna  Rec  of 
the  entire  United  States  tour  of  Dimitar  Vhihov,  who  is  vice  president 
of  the  Presidium  of  the  Federated  People  of  Yugoslavia  which  cor- 
responds roughly  to  a  position  of  the  Vice  President  of  the  United 

^^Mr^DEKOM.  Is  it  not  a  fact  that  Dimitar  Vlahov  is  one  of  the  oldest 
of  the  South  Slav  revolutionaries? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  Most  definitely  so.  „,-r^^,  i  ^. 

Mr.    Dekom.  Did    he    not    organize    the    IMRO '    revolutionary 

^'dT  Draskovich.  That  is  correct.     His   revolutionary   activities 
started  when  he  was  a  student,  and  they  say  that  from  his  earliest  age, 
he  was  a  very  strong  advocate  of  revolutionary  methods,  hrst  m  iur- 
kev  and  later  on  in  Yugoslavia  and  in  the  Balkans  m  general. 
Mr.  Dekom.  Did  he  not  establish  a  revolutionary  newspaper  m 

Austria?  ,     n  ,        •    tt- 

Dr.  Draskovich.  He  had  several  of  them  m  Vienna. 

Mr.  Dekom.  To  your  knowledge,  did  Dimitar  Vlahov  collect  funds 
for  transmission  to  Yugoslavia  in  his  tour?       ,     ^        ,.  , 

Dr.  Draskovich.  Yes,  definitely.  That  can  be  f  ound  m  my  pi;epai;ed 
statement.  I  think  they  collected  on  one  occasion  $7,000.  Ihe  blo- 
bodna  Rec  of  December  31, 1946,  No.  188,  page  4,  publishes  an  account 
of  Vlahov's  visit  to  Detroit.   It  is  stated : 

At  the  banquet,  $14,000  was  collected  for  a  hospital  in  Skoplje  *  *  *  This 
sum  was  the  beginning  of  the  campaign  to  collect  $250,000. 

Mr.  Schroeder.  Where  was  that  banquet  held,  Doctor?  , 

Dr.  Draskovich.  In  Detroit,  Mich.,  at  the  Hotel  Book-Cadillac  in 
the  Crystal  Ballroom.  „    ,     .^        ■,       t  ^       ^-       . 

Mr.  Dekom.  Was  Vlahov  a  member  of  the  Yugoslav  delegation  to 
the  United  Nations  ? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  Vlahov  was  in  the  United  Nations. 

Mr.  Schroeder.  Doctor,  do  you  know  whether  he  ever  attended  any 
affairs  at  the  Yugoslav  Dom  ^  in  New  York  City? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  I  would  not  know  that. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Is  it  customary  for  Yugoslav  officials  to  appear  there  ? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  I  notice  that  the  consul,  Miodrag  Markovich,  is  a 
regular  visitor.  He  used  to  go  there  very  often.  I  do  not  know  how  it 
is  at  the  moment,  but  definitely,  before  the  break  with  the  Cominf orm 
and  even  later,  he  was  a  regular  guest  at  the  American  Yugoslav 
Home.2 

Mr.  Dekom.  TVHiat  is  the  American  Yugoslav  Home  ^ 

Dr.  DRASK0viCH.lt  is  the  mainx^enter  of  Communist  activities 
among  the  American  Yugoslavs  in  this  country. 

Mr.  Schroeder.  Do  you  know  any  of  the  officials  of  the  Yugoslav 
Home?  ^  ,  . 

Dr.  Draskovich.  People  connected  with  it  are  Toma  Babm— and 
evidence  can  also  be  found  in  the  Slobodna  Rec  to  that  effect— who  js 
certainly  one  of  the  most  active  Communists  of  Yugoslav  origin  in 
this  country.  He  openly  stated  at  one  occasion— it  is  in  my  ]:»repared 
statement— that  the  Yugoslav  Seaman's  Club,  of  which  he  is  the  presi- 


1  IMRO — Internal  Macedonian  Revolutionary  Organization. 

2  The  Yugoslovenslsi-Amerieki  Dom  (Yugoslav-American  Home). 


618       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

dent,  was  the  center  of  progressive  activity  in  this  country  and  that 
people  were  educated  and  schooled  for  later  activities,  that  is,  revolu- 
tionary activities,  in  Yugoslavia.  He  said  that  many  people  who 
were  members  of  the  seaman's  club  and  who  went  through  its  courses, 
now  occupy  positions  of  responsibility  in  Yugoslavia. 

Mr.  Dekom.  That  is  the  Yugoslav  Seamen's  Club  in  New  York 
City? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  That  is  right. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Again,  when  the  term  "progressive"  is  used  there,  it 
actually  means  "Communist"  does  it  not  ? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  Definitely. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Do  you  know  of  Mirko  Markovic? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  Yes;  very  well.  For  a  while  he  was  editor  of  the 
Slobodna  Rec,  and  he  published  a  very  interesting  pamphlet  in  Bel- 
grade in  1946,  when  he  returned  to  Yugoslavia,  entitled  "The  Struggle 
in  Am.erica  for  the  New  Yugoslavia."  I  think  that  document  is  very 
interesting.  I  used  all  of  the  material  I  could  in  my  prepared  state- 
ment. From  what  can  be  seen  in  this  material,  according  to  him,  the 
American  Yugoslavs,  more  particularly  the  Croats,  played  a  role  of 
the  first  importance  in  bringing  about  the  American  Slav  Congress. 
He  says  that  the  fate  of  the  American  Slav  Congress  depended  on  the 
American  Yugoslavs,  because  they  were  the  most  dynamic  group. 
Consequently,  the  merit  of  creating  the  American  Slav  Congress  rests 
on  the  American  Yugoslavs,  especially  the  Narodni  Glasnik.  He  notes, 
obviously  with  regret,  that  the  Narodni  Glasnik  did  more  for  the 
Communist  cause  than  did  his  own  paper,  the  Slobodna  Rec. 

The  so-called  Yugoslav  revolutionary  workers'  movement  centered 
around  the  Narodni  Glasnik. 

Mr.  Dekom.  You  say  he  returned  to  Yugoslavia.  Do  you  mean  that 
he  returned  permanently  to  Yugoslavia  after  staying  here  some  years, 
after  serving  as  an  editor  of  a  Yugoslav  Communist  paper  in  Pitts- 
burgh ? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  That  is  correct. 

Mr.  Dekom.  That  is  the  Slobodna  Rec? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Do  you  know  what  position  he  received  when  he  went 
back? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  Shortly  after  returning,  he  became  professor  of 
economics  at  the  University  of  Belgrade. 

Mr.  Dekom.  What  educational  qualifications  did  he  have  to  occupy 
such  a  position? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  I  think  membership  in  the  Communist  Party  and 
his  Communist  activities  in  the  United  States  among  the  American 
Yugoslavs. 

Mr.  Dekom.  To  your  knowledge,  what  are  his  educational  achieve- 
ments ? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  I  think  he  graduated  from  high  school. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Is  it  customary.  Doctor,  from  your  personal  knowl- 
edge as  a  former  professor  of  economics  at  Belgrade  University,  for  its 
professors  merely  to  have  a  high-school  education  ? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  No.  It  was  an  indispensable  condition  that  who- 
ever applied  for  the  position  of  a  professor  must  be  a  doctor  of  science 
in  the  field  in  which  he  wants  to  teach. 

Mr.  Dekom.  It  was  changed  by  the  Communists? 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS      619 

Dr.  Drasko\t:ch.  It  certainly  was.     The  rule  has  been  abolished. 

Mr.  ScHROEDER.  Doctor,  do  you  know  how  long  he  resided  in  the 
United  States? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  I  think  about  7  or  8  years,  but  I  would  not  be 
sure.  If  I  may  add  one  more  comment.  After  the  Cominform-Tito 
rift,  he  sided  with  the  Cominform. 

Mr.  Dekom.  And  as  a  result  he  went  to  jail? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  That  is  right. 

Mr.  Dekom.  You  mentioned  the  name  of  Srcljan  Prica,  as  a  Yugo- 
slav official  in  this  country.  Can  you  tell  us  something  about  his  prior 
record  ? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  Srdjan  Prica  was,  at  one  time,  editor  of  the  Slo- 
bodna  Rec.  As  I  have  quoted  in  my  prepared  statement,  Nikola 
Drenovac,  who  was  the  fourth  editor  of  the  Slobodna  Pec,  before  re- 
turning to  Yugoslavia,  spoke  at  a  farewell  banquet  expressing  the 
highest  respect  and  appreciation  for  the  work  of  Srdjan  Prica,  which, 
as  he  says,  laid  down  the  pattern  for  his  work. 

Mr.  Dekom.  In  other  words,  Dr.  Draskovich,  at  least  three  editors, 
recent  editors  of  the  Slobodna  Rec,  have  returned  to  Yugoslavia  to 
participate  in  the  activities  of  the  Communist  government  there? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  That  is  correct. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Would  they  be  acceptable  to  that  government  if  they 
themselves  had  not  been  Communists  or  had  not  been  active  in  pro- 
moting the  Communist  cause? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  I  do  not  think  so.  I  think  that  they  are  in  these 
positions  because  they  worked  for  the  Communist  cause  in  the  United 
States. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Would  the  knowledge  of  that  fact  be  indicative  of  the 
philosophy  which  governs  the  Slobodna  Rec,  that  its  former  editors 
have  all  been  highly  rewarded  by  a  notorious  Communist  government  ? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  I  think  so.  I  think  it  is  a  very  good  indication  of 
how  things  really  stand. 

Mr.  Dekom.  That  fact,  together  with  the  analysis  of  the  material 
contained  in  these  newspapers  which  you  have  made,  leads  you  to  the 
conclusion  that  these  newspapers  are  Communist  newspapers? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  I  think  no  other  conclusion  is'  possible. 

Mr.  Dekom.  And  that  the  people  who  are  the  guiding  forces  and 
run  them  must  of  necessitv  also  be  Communists ;  is  that  your  conclusion 
also? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  That  is  right. 

Mr.  Schroeder.  And  on  their  return  to  their  native  land  they  are 
rewarded  with  high  positions  for  spreading  communism  while  they 
were  residing  in  the  United  States? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  That  is  the  case. 

In  an  issue  of  the  Slobodna  Rec  it  is  openly  said  that  "Drenovac,  the 
fourth  editor,  is  returning  to  Yugoslavia  in  the  same  way  as  his  pre- 
decessors, to  continue  the  work  for  the  progressive  cause,  or  for  the 
cause  of  tlie  people,"  as  he  was  doing  in  this  country. 

Mr.  DEK0]\t.  I  notice  in  your  discussion  here,  Dr.  Draskovich,  that 
you  make  reference  on  a  number  of  occasions  to  Maj.  Branko  Vukelic, 
who  was  at  one  time  connected  with  the  Yugoslav  Embassy  in  the 
United  States  and  who  was  extremely  active  in  participating  in  the 
activities  of  the  Yugoslav  Communist  fronts.  Can  you  tell  us  any- 
thing about  the  present  condition  of  Maj.  Branko  Vukelic? 


620       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

Dr.  Draskovich.  Major  Viikelic  is  one  of  the  most  interesting  cases. 
Major  Vukelic  was  certainly  one  of  the  most  active  propagandists 
among  the  Yugoslav  officials  coming  to  the  United  States.  I  have 
here  a  quotation  from  the  Slobodna  Kec  of  December  4,  1946,  page  2, 
wherein,  speaking  of  the  new  regime  in  Yugoslavia,  he  goes  so  far  as 
to  defend  in  the  most  categorical  terms,  the  ill-famed  Yugoslav  secret 
police,  OZNA,  which  other  people  usually  avoid  speaking  about.  It  is 
stated : 

Finally,  Vukelic  praised  the  secret  police,  "OZNA,"  as  being  the  people  itself. 
"The  Communists  *  *  *  gave  the  power  to  the  peasants  and  workers  in 
Yugoslavia,  and  they  will  see  to  it  that  nobody  will  ever  be  able  to  take  the 
power  from  the  hands  of  the  people." 

Major  Vukelic  sided  with  the  Cominform,  so  now  he  is  in  the  Ininds 
of  that  very  OZNA  he  had  praised  as  being  the  people  themselves. 

Another  interesting  thing  in  connection  with  Vukelic  is  that  recently 
in  the  Slobodna  Rec  of  May  14,  1949,  page  3,  a  letter  was  ptiblished 
by  officials  of  the  Serbian  Progressive  Club,  "Karageorge,"  in  Gary, 
Ind.  (not  to  be  confused  with  the  thoroughly  democratic  singing  and 
choir  society  "Karageorge"  from  Gary,  Ind.),  addressed  to  Dr.  Ivan 
Ribar,  chairman  of  the  Presidium  of  the  People's  Assembly  of  F.  P.  R. 
of  Yugoslavia,  in  which  these  people  requested  Dr.  Ribar  to  use  his 
influence  to  have  Branko  Vukelic  released.  What  is  most  interesting, 
after  3  years,  they  now  themselves  admit  and  describe  openly  what 
Vukelic  was  doing  in  this  country.    I  would  like  to  read  these  passages : 

*  *  *  For  your  government's  and  your  information,  we  take  the  liberty 
of  telling  you  this  about  the  activities  wliich  Branko  Vukelic  carried  out  among 
tlie  Yugoslavia  immigrants  in  America  and  Canada. 

Before  Branko's — 

They  use  just  the  first  name — 

arrival  in  our  midst  at  the  beginning  of  1946,  all  of  us  had  rather  poor  in- 
formation about  your  heroic  and  superhuman  struggle  against  the  invader  and 
domestic  traitors,  because  among  us  worked  the  anti-people's  Yugoslav  press 
which  was  under  the  influence  of  the  exiled  government  in  London. 

With  the  arrival  of  Vukelic,  the  situation  changed  completely.  His-  fiery 
speeches  at  conventions  and  other  meetings  exerted  so  much  influence  upon  the 
people,   that   the   anti-people's   press   was   obliged   to   apologize  to   the  public 

Branko  Vukelic  succeeded,  during  his  brief  stay  in  our  midst,  to  make  our 
immigrants  acquainted  with  the  hardship  and  suffering  of  our  people  in  the  old 
country  during  the  struggle  for  national  liberation.  It  is  just  on  account  of 
the  fact  that  Branko  knew  how  to  present  to  our  immigrants,  the  real  picture 
of  the  struggle  and  suffering  of  our  people,  that  our  people  here  started  to  give 
and  send  help  to  their  people  with  both  hands. 

Second,  Branko,  with  his  energetic  work  has  done  more  for  making  your 
national  leadership  popular,  your  national  leadership  and  the  great  struggle 
of  the  people  for  Socialist  ideas,  than  any  one  of  your  representatives  in 
America  or  Canada.     *     *     * 

Dr.  Dp:kom.  This  same  man  was  an  attache  at  the  Yugoslav  Em- 
bassy in  Washington  while  he  was  carrying  out  such  Communist 
propaganda  work  ? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  They  gave  him  various  titles,  that  is  right. 

Mr.  Dekom.  But  he  w\as  an  official  of  the  Yugoslav  Government, 
assigned  to  the  Washington  Embassy? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  Definitely. 

Mr.  ScHROEDER.  Dr.  Draskovich,  you  have  heard  a  lot  about  Com- 
munist assertions  that  they  could  bring  about  world  communism 
without  bloodshed,  have  you  not  ?  i 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       621 

Dr.  Draskovich.  Yes. 

Mr.  ScHKOEDER.  What  is  your  answer  to  that  claim  ? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  My  answer  is  that  it  is  entirely  wrong.  I  think 
it  takes  typical  Communist  impudence  to  deny  that.  From  Marx  on 
lip  to  the  present  time  their  thesis  was  always  the  forcible  overthrow 
of  the  capitalistic  society. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Dr.  Draskovich,  have  you  any  specific  examples  on  that 
subject  which  you  care  to  point  out  to  the  subcommittee? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  I  think  I  have  here  a  few  examples  which  might 
be  interesting,  with  regard  to  that  question — the  forcible  overthrow 
of  government. 

In  the  Communist  Manifesto  of  Karl  Marx  and  Frederic  Engels, 
published  in  Moscow  in  1848,  it  is  said : 

The  proletariat,  the  lowest  stratum  of  one  present  society,  cannot  stir,  cannot 
raise  itself  up,  without  the  whole  superincumbent  strata  of  official  society  being 
sprung  into  the  air. 

Even  more  outspoken  is  the  following  sentence : 

In  depicting  the  most  general  phases  of  the  development  of  the  proletariat,  we 
traced  the  more  or  less  veiled  civil  war,  raging  within  existing  society,  up  to 
the  point  where  that  war  breaks  out  into  open  revolution,  and  where  the  violent 
overthrow  of  the  bourgeoisie  lays  the  foundation  for  the  sway  of  the  proletariat. 

Then  I  w^ould  like  to  quote  from  the  History  of  the  All-Union  Com- 
munist (Bolshevik)  Party,  abbreviated  edition,  Serbian  text,  Moscow, 
1938.     They  say: 

Marx  and  Engels  taught  that  it  is  impossible  in  a  peaceful  way  to  break  the 
power  of  capital  and  transform  capitalist  ownership  in  social  ownership.  That 
the  working  class  can  achieve  that  only  through  revolutionary  violence  against 
the  bourgeoisie,  through  a  proletarian  revolution  by  creating  its  own  political 
rule — the  dictatorship  of, the  proletariat — which  has  to  stifle  the  resistance  of 
the  exploiters  and  create  a  new,  classless  Communist  society. 

Then  the  conclusion  of  that  history  is  summed  up  in  a  few  points, 
and  in  the  first  of  these  points  we  can  read  the  following : 

The  history  of  the  party  teaches  us,  first  of  all,  that  the  victory  of  the  prole- 
tarian revolution,  the  victory  of  the  dictatorship  of  the  proletariat,  is  impossible 
without  a  revolutionary  proletarian  party  *  *  *  revolutionary  with  regard 
to  the  bourgeoisie  and  its  government. 

I  think  that  this  point  is  important  because  the  Communists  claim 
that  the  correct  interpretation  of  world  revolution  is  social  change. 
I  think  this  clearly  refutes  that  contention.  They  are  not  speaking 
only  of  the  bourgeoisie  but  its  government ;  so  revolution  with  regard 
to  that  government  definitely  imj^lies  force. 

Then,  as  a  last  quotation,  I  would  like  to  quote  the  famous  Stalin 
letter  to  Comrade  Ivanov,  which  was  written  in  1938,  in  answer  to  a 
question  by  Comrade  Ivanov  asking  whether  socialism  is  possible  in 
one  country  or  not.     Here  is  the  answer  of  Stalin,  who  quotes  Lenin : 

*  *  *  the  existence  of  the  Soviet  Republic  next  to  a  number  of  imperialist 
states  for  a  long  time  is  unthinkable.  In  the  end  either  the  one  or  the  other 
will  have  the  better  of  it.  Until  that  end  comes  a  series  of  most  terrible  conflicts 
between  the  Soviet  Republic  and  the  bourgeois  states  is  inevitable.  This  means 
that  the  ruling  class— the  proletariat — if  it  wants  to  and  will  rule,  must  prove 
this  also  by  its  military  organization. 

And,  finally,  a  little  further  on,  he  says  : 

The  second  problem  *  *  *  the  problem  of  the  complete  security  of  our 
country  from  the  dangers  of  military  intervention   and   restoration     *     *     * 


622       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

cannot  be  solved  *  *  *  by  the  unaided  efforts  of  our  country  alone.  The 
second  problem  can  be  solved  only  by  combining  a  serious  effort  of  the  interna- 
tional proletariat  with  a  still  more  serious  effort  of  the  whole  of  our  Soviet  people. 

There  are  also— cand,  unfortunately,  I  do  not  have  them  here — some 
very  interesting  passages  in  Stalin's  Foundations  of  Leninism,  where 
he  also  stresses  that  the  bourgeois  government  must  be  overthrown  by 
violence.  So  I  think  there  is  not  a  shadow  of  doubt  that  the  Com- 
munist theory  is  not  a  theory  of  a  peaceful  development,  but  a  theory 
of  the  forcible  overthrow  of  the  so-called  capitalistic  government  and 
order  in  any  country,  including  the  United  States. 

Mr.  Dekom.  What  has  been  the  actual  practice  in  countries  where 
communism  has  been  established  ?    How  has  that  theory  been  applied  ? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  There  have  been  some  deviations  from  that  rule, 
but  not  because  the  Communists  changed  their  ideas.  It  was  because 
their  policy  of  anti-Fascist  people's  fronts  was  so  successful  that  they 
actually  succeeded  in  harnessing  many  non-Communists  to  the  cart  of 
the  Communist  Party.  In  that  way  they  broke  the  resistance  of  the 
non-Communists  to  such  an  extent  that  they  did  not  need  to  use  full- 
scale  violence  to  establish  their  domination.  Thus,  if  the  free  countries 
would  not  strike  back  at  their  attempts  to  dominate  the  whole  world 
by  the  Trojan-horse  tactics,  then  they  would  not  need  to  use  much  force 
and  violence  to  establish  their  dictatorship,  but  only  to  consolidate  it. 

I  would  like  at  this  point  to  quote  Stalin  and  Lenin  (from  Stalin's 
Foundations  of  Leninism)  : 

"The  dictatorship  of  the  proletariat,"  says  Lenin,  "is  a  persistent  struggle, 
sanguinary  and  bloodless,  violent  and  peaceful,  military  and  economic,  educa- 
tional and  administrative,  against  the  forces  and  traditions  of  the  old  society." 
And  Stalin  says :  "The  [Communist]  Party  is  not  only  the  highest  form  of  class 
association  of  the  proletarians,  it  is  at  the  same  time  an  instrument  in  the  hands 
of  the  proletariat  for  achieving  the  dictatorship  where  that  has  not  yet  been 
achieved  and  for  consolidating  and  expanding  tlie  dictatorship  where  it  has 
already  been  achieved"  (French  edition.  Edicions  Sociales,  Paris,  1945,  p.  83). 

Mr.  Dekom.  Have  the  Communists  used  force  and  violence  when 
other  means  were  not  successful  ? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  Definitely.  Even  at  this  moment,  when  the  Com- 
munists in  America  are  doing  their  best  to  prove  that  the  new  road  to 
socialism  is  a  peaceful  one,  Foster  openly  declares  that  in  the  case  that 
if  the  new  Trojan-horse  tactics  cannot  be  applied  successfully,  then 
they  must  resort  to  an  "offensive  policy." 

In  the  Daily  Worker,  too,  they  say,  "We  do  not  intend  necessarily  to 
use  violence,"  which  means  that  they  will  or  will  not  use  violence, 
according  to  their  opportunities  of  breaking  the  capitalistic  order. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Can  you  cite  some  cases  in  which  force  and  violence 
have  been  used  ? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  The  first  case  is  Soviet  Kussia,  then  Hun<rary 
(1919),  Poland  (1920),  Yugoslavia  (1920  and  1921),  where  the  Com- 
munists carried  out  several  attempts  against  the  highest  state  officials, 
prepared  with  the  greatest  care  plans  for  an  armed  uprising.  Today, 
China  is  a  typical  example  of  the  struggle  of  a  politico-military  or- 
ganization (as  stressed  in  the  famous  Si-alin  letter  to  Comrade  Iva- 
nov)  against  the  government. 

In  Burma,  and  many  other  countries  of  the  Far  East,  all  the  imrest 
and  trouble  is  caused  by  the  Communists,  who  are  trying  to  change 
the  social  and  political  order  by  the  use  of  violence. 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IX  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS      623 

Mr.  Dekom.  Would  you  describe  the  means  used  to  rise  to  power, 
let  us  say,  in  a  country  like  Yugoslavia? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  There  is  an  open  admission  by  William  Foster 
that  in  all  the  countries  behind  the  iron  curtain  the  tactics  of  the 
people's  fronts  were  so  successful  that  there  was  no  need  to  resort  to 
much  violence,  and  he  says  that  tends  to  prove  that  socialism  can  be 
achieved  without  violence. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Were  there  no  instances  of  force  and  violence  in  these 
iron  curtain  countries? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  There  are  many  instances — not  in  coming  to 
Ijower — but  once  they  seize  powder.  Then  they  use  ruthless  oppression 
on  anyone  who  does  not  agree  with  them.  They  use  many  non-Com- 
munists to  come  to  power  in  a  peaceful  way  and  then  they  are  liqui- 
dated one  by  one,  so  that  only  the  Communists  are  left. 

Mr.  Dekom.  So  the  result  is  that  they  use  force  and  violence  against 
the  people  of  the  country  in  order  to  prevent  them  from  protecting  or 
reestablishing  their  democratic  institutions? 

Dr.  DRASK0^^CH.  That  is  correct.  If  they  can  come  to  power  with- 
out violence,  they  use  violence  anyway  after  coming  into  power. 

Mr.  Dekom.  How  would  you  describe  the  tactics  used  in  Czecho- 
slovakia where  organized  armed  units  seized  power  ? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  The  case  of  Czechoslovakia  is  a  striking  example 
of  what  happens  when  the  non-Communist  elements,  harnessed  by  the 
Communists  to  serve  in  establishing  the  dictatorship  of  the  proleta- 
riat, try  to  prevent  the  unnatural  partnership  from  taking  its  inevita- 
ble course.  The  Czech  non-Communists  wanted  the  coalition  to  remain 
a  coalition  of  equals ;  the  Communists  wanted  to  use  it  as  a  means  by 
which  to  achieve  their  goal.  And  since  coalitions  of  non-Communists 
with  Communists  have  always  put  the  Communists  in  a  strong  posi- 
tion, because  there  can  be  no  middle  road  between  defending  one's 
country  and  ruining  it,  the  Communists  did  not  have  a  very  hard  job 
to  consolidate  their  dominant  position.  As  can  be  seen  from  the  quo- 
tations from  Stalin  and  Lenin  and  as  William  Foster  admits,  the  use 
of  violence  is  just  a  matter  of  expedience  for  Communists,  since  com- 
munism in  its  essence  implies  the  use  of  ruthless  violence  before  the 
Socialist  revolution,  as  well  as  after  it.  In  the  Czech  case,  the  Com- 
munists used  just  as  much  force  as  they  needed  to  achieve  their  goal : 
The  establishment  of  a  complete  Communist  dictatorship  in  that 
country. 

Mr.  ScHROEDER.  And  the  control  of  the  economic  system  ? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  Definitely,  of  the  w^hole  life — economic  system, 
and  the  political,  social,  and  cultural  Jife  of  the  country  in  which  they 
are  in  power. 

In  the  case  of  Czechoslovakia  there  is  proof  that  they  will  never 
hesitate  to  use  force  when  they  need  it.  When  they  thought  that  their 
grip  over  Czechoslovakia  w^as  not  tight  enough,  they  tightened  it  and 
there  was  no  bloodshed,  because  the  people  were  already  deprived  of 
their  rights  and  freedom.  But  definitely,  the  consolidation  of  the 
Communist  power  was  carried  through  by  force. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Then  you  mean  to  say  that  they  were  so  completely 
organized  that  by  the  seizure  of  a  few  strategic  positions  by  means  of 
armed  groups  or  armed  force,  they  were  actually  able  to  take  control 
of  the  entire  state  without  resistance  ? 


624      COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

Dr.  Draskovich.  Definitely.  I  think  that  is  a  good  example  of  the 
application  of  Lenin's  ideas,  \Yho,  as  is  well  known,  studied  Clause- 
witz  ^  very  thoroughly,  and  thought  the  struggle  for  the  seizure  of 
power  is  just  a  military  struggle  and  must  be  carried  out  by  following 
all  the  rules  of  warfare. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Was  not  the  same  thing  substantially  true  in  Yugo- 
slavia, where  organized  Communist  units  simply  took  over,  because 
they  themselves  were  armed  and  organized  and  the  opposition  was  not? 
So  that,  although  there  was  no  serious  violence  or  opposition  at  the 
time,  many  of  the  governmental  units  fell  by  actual  force  or  by  threat 
of  force  ? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  Yugoslavia  is  a  somewhat  special  case.  During 
the  war  two  guerrilla  movements  were  organized  :  The  national  move- 
ment of  Gen.  Draza  Mihailovicii  and  the  Communist  guerrilla  move- 
ment of  Tito.  The  first  had  the  support  of  the  great  majority  of  the 
people.  And,  had  the  people  in  Yugoslavia  been  in  a  position  to  decide 
for  themselves,  the  Communists  would  never  have  seized  power  in 
Yugoslavia.  But,  as  Foster  proudly  explains  in  his  Twilight  of  World 
Capitalism,  and  more  particularly  in  the  Defense  of  the  Indicted 
Leaders,  the  Communist  policy  of  anti-Fascist  cooperation  with  the 
democratic  forces,  both  in  matters  of  domestic  and  of  international 
politics,  triumphed  in  the  creation  of  "people's  democracies" — that  is 
Communist-dominated  regimes — in  a  number  of  European  countries. 
As  for  Yugoslavia,  the  official  Allied  policy  was  to  help  Tito,  not 
Mihailovich.  So  the  Eed  Army,  which  was  supposedly  coming  as  an 
Allied  force  to  liberate  Yugoslavia  from  the  Nazis,  was,  in  fact,  occupy- 
ing Yugoslavia  and  imposing  communism  upon  her.  The  Yugoslav 
Communists  followed  in  the  wake  of  the  Red  Army. 

Mr.  ScHROEDER.  There  w\as  a  demonstration  of  might  in  the  country 
when  the  Communists  took  over? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  More  than  that;  there  was  use  of  violence  and 
force  wdierever  they  went.  The  Communists  just  used  that  situation 
to  install  themselves  in  power. 

Mr.  Dekom.  So  that  actually,  in  all  these  cases,  they  did  use  force 
and  violence  to  come  to  power,  but  only  in  smaller  degrees,  to  a  large 
extent  because  of  the  success  of  the  Communist-sponsored  united 
front  movement  ? 

Dr.  Draskovich.  They  never  hesitated  to  use  force,  but  the  success 
of  the  anti-Fascist  people's  fronts  just  made  it  easier  for  them  to 
seize  power.  It  is  not  only  the  question  of  seizure  of  power.  It  is 
the  question  of  exerting  power.  As  I  said,  the  use  of  violence  is  a 
constant  principle  of  Communist  rule.  So  they  us'  it  to  seize  power 
and  they  use  it  to  govern  the  country. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Dr.  Draskovich,  if  there  is  any  additional  material 
which  you  care  to  submit,  with  the  permission  of  the  chairman,  we 
will  accept  it  from  you  before  these  hearings  are  published. 

Dr.  Draskovich.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Dekom.  Now,  Dr.  Draskovich,  I  will  ask  you  to  proceed  with 
the  presentation  of  your  statement. 

Dr.  Draskovich.  This  is  a  study  of  the  activities  of  the  self-styled 
"progressive"  organizations— that  is,  of  course.  Communist  organ- 


Geneial   Karl   von   Clausewitz,   noted  German  military  tactician    (1780-1831). 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       625 

izations— of  Serbian  and  Croatian  origin,  as  recorded  in  the  pages  of 
the  two  Communist  newspapers,  Slobodna  Rec  (Free  Expression) 
in  Serbian  and  Narodni  Glasnik  (People's  Choice)   in  Croatian. 

The  material  which  I  am  going  to  present  to  the  subcommittee  is 
classified  as  follows : 

I.  The  general  character  of  the  Slobodna  Rec  and  Narodni  Glasnik. 

II.  The  stand  of  the  Slobodna  Rec  and  Narodni  Glasnik  on  prob- 
lems of  American  foreign  and  domestic  policy. 

A.  Foreign  policy. 

B.  Democracy  in  the  United  States  and  the  domestic  policy  of 
the  United  States  Government. 

III.  The  stand  of  the  Slobodna  Rec  and  Narodni  Glasnik  on  Yugo- 
slavia (before  the  Cominform-Tito  clash). 

IV.  The  stand  of  the  Slobodna  Rec  and  Narodni  Glasnik  on  the 
Cominform-Tito  clash. 

V.  The  stand  of  the  Slobodna  Rec  and  Narodni  Glasnik  on  Yugo- 
slavia (after  the  Cominform-Tito  clash). 

VI.  The  stand  of  the  Slobodna  Rec  and  Narodni  Glasnik  on  the 
Soviet  Union. 

VII.  Identity  of  "progressive"  views  on  other  issues. 

VIII.  The  appeal  to  Slavic  solidarity,  the  American-Slav  Con- 
gress and  so  forth. 

IX.  Tlie  Yugoslav  "progress?! ve"  press  and  tl^e  activities  of  various 
rej^resentatives  of  the  F.  P.  R.  Yugoslavia  in  the  United  States. 

X.  Conclusion. 


The  analysis  of  the  newspapers  Slobodna  Rec  and  Narodni  Glasnik 
and  people  and  organizations  connected  and  affiliated  with  them,  leads 
to  the  definite  conclusion  that  we  are  dealing  with  Communist  news- 
papers and  Communist  activities.  If  we  use  the  term  "progressive" 
throughout  this  study,  it  is  obviously  not  because  these  two  newspapers 
and  activities  of  various  organizations  recorded  in  them  bear  the 
distinctive  marks  of  activities  inspired  by  faith  in  human  progress 
and  striving  for  the  improvement  of  the  condition  of  man,  but  for 
other  reasons.  First,  we  do  not  want  to  anticipate  the  conclusion 
reached  by  the  study.  Besides,  that  is  the  term  which  they  themselves 
use  in  most  cases  to  describe  their  own  activities.  Finally,  it  seems  to 
us  that  it  is  necessary  today  to  reveal  at  least  the  most  important  abuses 
of  democratic  terminology  by  the  Communists.  That  is  certainly  the 
case  with  the  term  "progressive,"  which  is  very  often  applied  to  cover 
activities  of  a  distinct  Communist  character.  That  is  also  the  reason 
why  the  term  has  been  used  in  quoties. 

The  number  of  "progressives"  among  Americans  of  Serbian  and 
Croatian  origin  has  not  been  statistically  established.  There  are,  nev- 
ertheless, facts  which  make  an  accurate  estimate  possible. 

At  the  seventh  convention  of  the  Croatian  Fraternal  Union,  the 
largest  organization  of  American  Croats,  held  in  Pittsburgh  in  Sep- 
tember 1947,  the  "progressives"  were  successful  in  electing  their  own 
candidates  to  the  executive  and  other  boards.  The  average  number  of 
votes  for  "progressive"  candidates  was  175,  or  59  percent,  and  the 
average  number  of  votes  for  "nonprogressive"  candidates  was  123,  or 
41  percent. 


626      COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

As  for  the  American  Serbs,  the  percentage  of  "progressives'"  among 
them  is  very  probably  the  lowest  of  all  Slavic  groups  in  the  United 
States.  If  we  apply  the  same  yardstick  as  for  the  American  Croats, 
the  result  is  that  the  percentage  of  ''nonprogressives"  is  over  96  per- 
cent and  of  "progressives*'  under  4  percent,  since  at  the  convention  of 
the  Serb  National  Federation,  the  largest  organization  of  American 
Serbs,  there  were  4  "progressive"  delegates  and  106  "nonprogressives." 
The  percentage  of  "progressives"  is  even  smaller  if  one  considers  that 
the  number  of  110  delegates  does  not  include  the  17  members  of  the 
executive  board,  all  of  whom  were  "nonprogressives." 

The  above  figures  are  subject  to  some  modifications  in  view  of  the 
fact  that  the  American  Serbs  and  Croats  have  other  organizations 
beside  the  largest  ones.  Still,  when  all  of  them  are  taken  into  con- 
sideration, as  well  as  those  who  do  not  belong  to  any  organization, 
the  above  percentages  should  not  suffer  any  substantial  change. 

Thus  "progressive"  American  Serbs  and  Croats  are  by  no  means  typ- 
ical American  Serbs  or  Croats,  but  typical  "progressives."  And  this 
study  is  no  comprehensive  study  of  American  Serbs  or  Croats  but  a 
study  of  one  particular  sector  of  the  Communist  movement  in  the 
United  States.  It  is  the  sector  of  "progressive"  Serbs  and  Croats  who, 
like  the  rest  of  them,  belonging  to  all  national  groups  in  America,  or 
regardless  of  national  groups,  are  using  the  cover  of  "progressiveness" 
in  order  to  work  more  effectively  for  the  realization  of  Communist 
aims,  which  is  the  forcible  overthrow  of  the  democratic  Government  in 
this  country. 

I.    THE  GENERAL  CHARACTER  OF  THE  SLOEODXA  REC  AND  NARODNI  GLASNIK 

The  newspapers  Slobodna  Rec  and  Narodni  Glasnik  hold  a  great 
place  and  play  an  essential  role  in  the  life  and  activities  of  progressive 
Americans  of  Serbian  and  Croatian  origin. 

They  are  not  only  the  main  source  of  information  on  daily  events 
and  all  current  problems  for  their  readers  but  rallying  points  for  all 
their  activities.  They  not  only  are  instrumental  in  shaping  their 
thinking,  but  their  whole  life  as  "progressive"  Serbians  or  Croatian?  is 
made  possible  through  the  Slobodna  Rec  and  Narodni  Glasnik.  In 
these  newspapers  every  single  activity  of  various  organizations — 
Serbian  Progressive  Movement ;  Congress  of  American-Croatian  Men 
and  Women;  Serbian- American  Federation  of  the  International 
Workers  Order;  Progressive  Youth  and  local  clubs;  the  American 
Association  for  Reconstruction  in  Yugoslavia,  and  so  forth — is  re- 
ported, instructions  given,  announcements  made,  appeals  addressed, 
and  campaigns  launched,  celebrations,  banquets,  and  conventions  an- 
nounced and  reported,  private  letters  published,  private  views  ex- 
pressed— always,  of  course,  strictly  within  the  limits  of  the  official 
line  indicated  by  the  paper's  policy — enemies  assailed  and  slandered, 
people  incited  and  directed  to  political,  social,  sports,  humane,  and 
other  action. 

In  other  words  these  two  newspapers  are  links  which  hold  "progres- 
sive" American  Serbs  and  Croatians  together,  and  to  the  extent  these 
groups  are  playing  a  certain  role  among  the  "progressives"  of  the 
United  States,  that  can  mainly,  if  not  exclusively,  be  ascribed  to  the 
educational-political  work  of  the  Slobodna  Rec  and  Nai'odni  Glasnik 

It  is  thus  hardly  possible  to  find  a  better  source  of  information 
about  American  "progressives"  of  Serbian  and  Croatian  origin  than 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS      627 

their  respective  newspapers.  The  identity  of  the  stand,  policy,  and 
propaganda  of  the  Slobodna  Rec  and  Narodni  Glasnik  make  advisable 
one  study  instead  of  two,  since  separate  studies  would  necessarily 
involve  much  repetition. 

The  task  of  establishing  the  place  of  the  Slobodna  Rec  and  Narodni 
Glasnik  and  the  role  which  they  have  played  and  still  are  playing 
among  "progressive"  Americans  of  Serbian  and  Croatian  origin  is 
facilitated  by  the  editors  of  these  newspapers  themselves,  who  are 
explicit  enough  on  the  matter.  There  is,  for  example,  the  statement 
concerning  the  Slobodna  Rec,  which  was  published  in  its  issue  of 
October  4,  1947,  i)ages  2  and  3,  emanating  from  Nikola 
Drenovac,  who  was  chairman  of  the  Serbian  Progressive  Movement 
and  chief  editor  of  the  Slobodna  Rec.  Drenovac  made  his  report  at 
the  conference  of  the  Serbian  Progressive  Movement  at  Akron,  Ohio, 
before  returning  to  Yugoslavia.  It  is  worth  while  quoting  the  greatest 
part  of  his  report,  which  represents  a  summary  of  the  work  of  the 
Slobodna  Rec : 

From  March  1942,  when  I  publicly  joined  the  ranks  of  the  Serbian  Progressive 
Movement,  until  the  present  date,  many  important  things  happened,  many  im- 
portant changes  took  place,  and  many  attempts  to  widen  our  ranks  were  under- 
taken. Although  all  this  was  connected  with  many  difficulties,  although  it 
required  much  toil  and  much  patience,  I  still  must  say  that  when  I  came  the 
path  was  already  laid — laid  by  my  predecessors,  people  experienced  and  hardened 
in  struggle. 

I  feel  that  I  would  be  failing  to  do  a  special  duty  if  I  did  not  stress  the  impor- 
tant role  which  people  like  Mirko  Markovich,  Srdja  Prica,  and  Stevan  Dedijer 
have  played.  They  are  people  of  whom  I  know  that  they  were  the  leaders  of 
the  Serbian  Progressive  Movement  among  the  American  Serbs  and  the  editors 
of  the  Slobodna  Rec  at  a  time  when  it  was  most  difficult  to  edit  and  publish 
a  progressive  Serbian  newspaper. 

After  paying  tribute  to  Zarko  Bunchich,  Nikola  Kovachevich-Stari, 
and  Joso  Rajnovich,  Drenovac  goes  on  to  say : 

The  Serbian  Progressive  Movement,  as  the  basis  and  foundation  of  all  other 
activities  and  undertakings  of  the  democratic  Serbs  of  America,  worked  from 
its  very  foundation,  first  on  the  education  of  the  broad  masses  of  American  Serbs 
and  then  as  a  part  of  the  democratic  forces  of  America,  carried  on  a  struggle 
on  a  wider  platform  against  reaction  and  fascism  in  general.     *     *     * 

This  means  that  the  movement  of  tlie  Sloboilna  Rec  has  a  role  of  the  greatest 
importance  and  greatest  merit  for  everything  that  has  been  achieved  until  today 
in  the  educational-political  field  among  American  Serbs. 

The  American  democratic  Serbs  would  not. dare  appear  before  the  face  of  other 
Slav  national  groups  if  they  had  not  behind  them  their  honorable  and  militant 
12-year  history.  How  would  we  pay  tribute  to  the  known  and  unknown  workers' 
fighters  among  the  American  Serbs  who  laid  the  foundations  of  the  Serbian  Pro- 
gressive Movement  and  the  Slobodna  Rec  if  we  would  say,  "We  started  12  days 
ago  and  not  12  years  ago"?  If  we  would-,  say  so  and  if  it  were  so,  we  would 
picture  ourselves  as  the  most  backward  national  group;  we  would  nullify  every- 
thing that  the  Serbian  Progressive  Movement  has  done  for  the  cause  of  Ameri- 
can democracy,  for  the  cause  of  south  Slav  brotherhood  and  unity,  and  for  the 
cause  of  spreading  the  truth  about  the  people's  liberation  struggle  in  Yugoslavia, 
and  tor  the  cause  of  progress  in  general. 

The  Slobodna  Rec  has  patiently,  persistently,  and  according  to  a  plan  pointed 
out  to  the  American  Serbs  what  is  good  and  what  is  bad ;  where  the  truth  lies, 
where  falsehood;  on  which  side  the  light  is;  on  which  darkness;  and  that  the 
educational  and  political  work  of  the  Slobodna  Rec  was  and  is  the  prior  condi- 
tion for  any  other  achievement  in  the  humane,  educational,  or  political  field 
among  the  American  Serbs. 

While  it  insisted  that  the  truth  about  Yugoslavia  should  penetrate  as  deeply 
as  possible  into  the  American  people,  the  Slobodna  Rec  played  one  of  the  most 
important  roles  in  the  creation  of  the  United  Committee  of  South  Slavic  Amer- 


628       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

icans.  It  also  did  not  lag  behind  in  the  work  of  consolidating  the  American 
Slav  Congress.  From  its  start,  the  Slobodna  Rec  was  and  remained  a  part  of 
the  progressive  forces  of  the  American  Slavs  in  general,  playing  in  its  own  na- 
tional sector  the  role  of  teacher,  educator,  and  uncompromising  fighter  against 
reaction  and  fascism. 

Drenovac  admitted  that  errors  had  been  made  and  that  "not  all  of  us 
are  good  at  practial  work  among  the  masses  of  the  people,"  so  he 
urged  the  audience  to  more  active  work  by  stressing,  in  the  same  way 
as  Communists  ceaselessly  do,  that — 

Although  the  united  allied  forces  have  smashed  fascism  militarily,  fa.'^cisra 
is,  nevertheless,  politically  alive  and  very,  very  active. 

One  of  the  main  tasks  of  the  Serbian  Progressive  Movement  is  the  organiza- 
tion and  constant  struggle  against     *     *     *     Serbian  fascism. 

While  we  are  fighting  against  fascism  in  our  own  Serbian  national  field  here 
in  America,  we  at  the  same  time  are  fighting  against  world  fascism,  which  is 
raising  its  head  considerably  owing  mainly  to  the  so-called  Truman  doctrine 
and  the  oflBcial  policy  of  Washington  here  and  abroad. 

The  trend  of  such  a  Washington  policy  has  given  courage  to  Fascist  elements 
all  over  the  world  and  has  given  them  hope  for  the  revival  of  all  that  has  been 
defeated  in  this  war  by  common  allied  forces.     *     *     * 

Tlie  Serbian  Progressive  Movement  in  America  has  thus  today  an  even  harder 
task  than  it  had  during  the  recent  war.  It  must  today  defend  the  cause  of 
democracy  which  has  been  indicted  in  this  country  and  to  fight  all  the  elements 
to  which  the  American  oflScial  policy  is  favorable  and  profitable  and  which  ele- 
ments are  helped  by  the  American  capitalists  and  great  monopolistic  capital. 
*     *     * 

The  Serbian  Progressive  Movement  and  the  Slobodna  Rec  are  going  ahead 
with  their  work  and  program  at  a  time  of  limitless  intimidation  with  the  '  Red 
bogey,"  at  a  time  of  liysterical  outbursts  against  genuine  democratic  forces 
and  at  a  time  of  pei'secution  of  all  elements  which  are  following  the  political 
line  of  the  great  President,  Franklin  Delano  Roosevelt.  The  Slobodna  Rec,  to- 
gether with  the  American  people,  is  fighting  against  all  those  who  want  to  pro- 
voke a  new  world  bloodshed.     *     *     * 

We  shall  be  defending  freedom  if  we  help  with  all  our  forces  the  struggle  of 
American  people  against  the  various  Hoovers,  Rankins,  Tafts,  and  other  repre- 
sentatives of  American  reaction. 

We  shall  be  defending  freedom  if  we  stand  against  all  attempts  of  rebuilding 
the  German  war  industry  and  strengthening  of  all  those  currents  which  are 
sowing  hatred  among  nations. 

We  shall  be  defending  freedom  if  all  of  us  resolutely  and  courageously  oppose 
any  forcible  intervention  and  unauthorized  interference  in  the  matters  and  prob- 
lems of  other  states. 

After  pleading  for  aid  to  war  orphans  in  Yugoslavia,  Drenovac, 
following  faithfully  the  line  of  Communist  tactics,  says  that — 

On  such  a  program  ought  to  unite  all  Amei-ican  Serbs.  On  such  a  program 
ought  to  unite  even  people  of  divergent  political  ideas. 

After  announcing  his  resignation  as  chairman  of  the  Serbian  Pro- 
gressive Movement  and  as  chief  editor  of  the  Serbian  democratic  news- 
paper, the  Slobodna  Eec,  Drenovac  declared  that  all  that  he  did  in 
these  capacities  he  did  "sincerely,  enthusiastically,  and  with  the  best 
intentions,  having  at  heart  always  the  unity  and  solidarity  of  all  anti- 
Fascist  forces." 

And  Drenovac,  who  in  this  whole  indicative  speech  never  thought 
of  mentioning  the  good  of  America  and  the  unity  of  all  Americans, 
did  not  fail  to  conclude  his  speech  by  declaring  that  the  "salvation  of 
all  of  us,  of  all  the  Slavs,  was  in  unity.'* 

And,  as  if  Drenovac  was  not  explicit  enough,  his  successor,  the  new 
editor  of  Slobodna  Rec,  Stanko  Vuich,  paid  him  special  tribute  for 
doing  his  utmost  "for  the  awakening  of  consciousness  and  education 
among  American  Serbs" — Slobodna  Rec,  October  8,  1947,  page  3. 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       629 

As  regards  the  Narodni  Glasnik,  one  of  the  most  outspoken  state- 
ments of  its  policies  was  made  by  its  editor,  "Sister"  Mary  Sumrak, 
in  her  report  at  the  national  conference  of  the  Narodni  Glasnik  in 
Cleveland,  Ohio,  which  was  published  in  the  issue  of  December  1, 1948, 
under  the  title  "Plan  for  the  3-Month  Campaign  of  the  Narod- 
ni Ghisnik."  After  stating  that  the  main  source  of  trouble  in  all  the 
world  is  the  United  States,  that  this  country  is  on  the  way  to  becoming 
a  Fascist  country,  and  that  American  people  do  not  want  war  but 
peace,  Mary  Sumrak  speaks  at  length  of  the  past,  present,  and  future 
role  of  the  Narodni  Glasnik  in  the  people's  struggle  for  the  new  type 
of  democracy : 

One  could  hardly  think  of  any  activity,  any  movement  for  progress,  democ- 
racy, or  any  action  for  the  welfare  of  the  people,  to  which  our  newspaper  did  not 
contribute  its  own  part  by  educating  and  organizing  our  people.     *     *     * 

Through  a  daily  newspaper  we  were  able  to  influence  much  stronger  the 
development  of  our  social  life;  we  were  able  to  fight  more  easily  our  enemies 
and  the  agents  of  reaction  among  our  people ;  we  were  able  to  contribute  more 
to  the  war  efforts  to  defeat  the  Fascist  Axis,  to  help  the  struggle  for  liberation 
of  our  people  in  the  old  country,  and  later  to  help  the  people  themselves  and 
the  young  Federative  People's  Republic  of  Yugoslavia  for  the  reconstruction  of 
the  country  and  the  creation  of  a  better  life  for  its  people. 

Through  a  daily  newspaper  it  was  much  easier  to  work  for  the  launching  of 
our  mass  movements — Council  of  American  Croatians,  Federation  of  Croatian- 
American  Women,  the  Slav  Congress,  various  committees  for  relief  and  recon- 
struction in  Yugoslavia,  for  the  strengthening  of  progressive  forces  in  the 
Croatian  Fraternal  Union,  for  its  progress  and  the  progressive  line,  and  the 
final  removal  of  the  people's  enemies  who  were  hampering  its  progress  and  trying 
to  bring  it  into  the  antipeople's  front — into  the  front  of  fascism  and  reaction. 

The  merits  of  the  Narodni  Glasnik  in  that  field  were  and  are  acknowledged  on 
the  part  of  our  allies  and  collaborators,  as  well  as  representatives  of  other 
groups.  This  is  especially  felt  and  seen  in  the  American  Slav  Congress,  where 
the  Croatians  have  always  been  and  are  today  the  strongest  group  and  the 
greatest  support  and  help  to  the  work  of  the  congress. 

The  Croatian  Benevolent  Fraternity,  which  is,  by  its  membership,  the  second 
largest  Croatian  organization  in  this  country,  and  by  its  work  the  most  pro- 
gressive of  our  organizations,  has  also  to  thank  the  Narodni  Glasnik  for  its 
development  and  growth  and  for  the  influence  it  is  exerting  among  our  people. 

As  a  paper  which  they  read,  the  Narodni  Glasnik  helps  rally  almost  all  our 
progressive  people  and  women  in  the  ranks  of  the  Croatian  Benevolent  Fraternity. 
These  are  men  and  women  which  our  movement  and  our  action  helped  educate 
in  a  worker's  and  a  progressive  spirit.     *     *     * 

In  the  present  situation,  the  Narodni  Glasnik  has  an  even  greater  duty  and  even 
greater  tasks.  The  black  forces  of  reaction  are  trying  to  drag  the  world  into 
another  war.  The  war  propaganda  is  going  full  blast.  The  trade-unions  are  in 
danger;  the  freedom  and  fundamental  rights  of  American  people  are  in  danger; 
in  danger  is  the  peace  of  the  world.     *     *     * 

The  Narcdni  Glasnik  is  today  more  necessary  than  ever  before  *  *  *  be- 
cause the  black  forces  of  reaction  have  again  started  to  rise.  *  «  *  We 
shall  need  it  in  the  future  to  rally  our  people  around  the  great  movement  under 
the  leadership  of  the  Progressive  Party  for  the  realization  of  yet  unattained 
ends.     *     *     * 

*  *  *  We  must  do  everything  to  help  the  Narodni  Glasnik  remain  a  daily 
newspaper,  to  be  in  the  future  our  teacher,  organizer,  and  leader. 

The  above  two  statements,  although  outspoken  and  detailed  enough, 
are  even  more  significant  if  sonie  other  documents  pertaining  to 
"progressive"  education  and  consciousness,  as  well  as  the  role  of  the 
^'progressive"  Slavic  press,  are  taken  in  consideration.  These  docu- 
ments are  not  arbitrarily  chosen.  Mirko  Markovich,  former  editor 
of  the  Slobodna  Rec  (from  1946  to  1948,  then  professor  of  economics 
at  the  University  of  Belgrade,  and,  since  the  Cominform-Tito  conflict, 
in  jail  as  an  adherent  of  the  Moscow  line) ,  says  in  a  pamphlet  published 

QSa.^O— 50— pt.  2 12 


630      COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

in  Beli^rade  in  1946  (The  Striio;fr]e  in  America  for  a  new  Yug^oslavia) 
that  the  American  Yugoslavs  are  "the  hackbone  of  the  American  Slav 
Congress."    According  to  Markovich: 

The  Yugoslav  workers  movement  in  America  grew  and  developed  as  an  organic 
part  of  the  general  workers'  movement  of  the  United  States   (p.  24). 

After  the  October  revolution  fin  Russia,  1917]  among  the  Yugoslavs  in  America 
there  shaped  itself  the  organized  worker's  revolutionary  movement  around  the 
newspaper  Radnik  [former  name  of  the  Narodni  Glasnik],  which  was  appearing 
in  Croatian  language  in  Chicago  (p.  24). 

Markovich  gives  them  credit  for  their  achievements,  but  criticizes 
their — 

lack  of  understanding  of  the  national  feelings  of  those  masses  which  are  the 
result  of  the  lack  of  understanding  of  Leninist-Stalinist  views  on  the  national 
problems  (p.  26). 

The  reversal  of  this  situation  was  started  in  1935  and  was  led  by  the  Narodni 
Glasnik  and  Slobodna  Rec.  *  *  *  The  first  decisive  move  was  the  anti-Fascist 
Congress  of  American  Serbs  held  in  1936.    *    *    * 

On  the  ground  of  such  national  congresses  of  the  Yugoslavs  was  created  the 
United  Committee  of  South  Slavic  Americans,  as  the  central  leadership  of  a 
broader  anti-Fascist  movement. 

Markovich  goes  on  to  describe  the  heavy  struggle  of  the  progressive 
Slavs  against  the  "reaction"  among  Americans  of  Slavic  origin,  which 
reached  its  climax  toward  the  end  of  1941  and  the  beginning  of  1942 : 

Tlie  anti  Fascist  movement  in  the  Slavic  groups,  which  were  largely  rallied 
around  their  progressive  newspapers  were  persistent  and  unflinching  in  that 
struggle.  The  Yugoslav  immigrants,  i.  e.,  the  anti-Fascist  movement  among 
them,  were  the  most  active  in  that  struggle,  although  they  number  just  a  little' 
over  1,000,000,  which  is  only  one-third  or  one-fourth  of  some  larger  Slav  groups. 
That  dynamism  in  the  Yugoslav  group  indicated  that  whether  the  All-Slav  Con- 
gress would  take  place,  and  whether  it  would  be  successful  depended  entirely 
on  the  Yugoslavs  (p.  47). 

The  congress,  where,  for  the  first  time  in  history,  American  Slavs 
gathered  at  a  common  meeting,  was,  according  to  Markovich,  a  great 
success.  President  Eoosevelt  announced  a  few  days  before  the  con- 
gress (held  on  April  28, 1942,  in  Detroit)  that  he  would  send  his  greet- 
ings and  a  special  personal  representative : 

The  success  of  the  congress  did  not  consist  only  in  the  fact  that  for  the  first 
time  in  their  history  many  representatives  of  American  Slavs  came  together. 
Its  success  consisted  of  the  fact  that  strong  foundations  were  laid  for  a  broad, 
anti-Fascist  movement  among  American  Slavs,  and  that  this  movement  mobilized 
millions  and  millions  of  people  in  America,  particularly  workers,  for  a  greater 
contribution  to  the  victory  of  the  United  Nations  over  the  Axis  (p.  49). 

A  few  days  later,  many  national  groups  held  their  own  conventions, 
among  them  the  "progressive"  Serbs  with  their  "Seventh  Vidovdan 
Congress."    This  congress  was  gi-eeted  by — 


A.  Cranston  on  behalf  of  the  United  States  Government,  a  group  of  Yu 
Cabinet  members,  led  by  S.  Kosanovic,  Leo  Krzycki,  president  of  the  American 
Slav  Congress     *     *     *     the  All-Slav  Committee  from  Moscow    *    *    *     (p.  54). 

With  regard  to  the  above  statements,  it  seems  quite  appropriate  to 
quote  the  authoritative  opinion  of  Bozidar  Maslaric,  chairman  of  the 
All-Slav  Committee,  on  the  role  assigned  to  the  Slavic  press  after 
World  War  II,  i.  e.,  after  all  Slavic  countries  became  Communist- 
dominated.  In  an  interview  with  a  correspondent  of  the  official  Tan- 
jug  Agencv  in  Belgrade  on  July  17,  1947,  published  in  the  Narodni 
List  ("The  People's  Journal"),  Zagreb,  Yugoslavia,  July  18,  1947, 
page  2,  Maslaric,  among  other  things,  said  : 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS      631 

One  of  the  most  important  tasks  of  the  All-Slav  Committee,  together  with  the 
Slavic  national  committees,  will  also  be  to  popularize  the  successes  of  the  Slavic 
peoples  in  the  field  of  the  construction  of  the  new  people's  democracy,  which  is 
of  tremendous  importance  for  the  cause  of  the  consolidation  of  general  peace  and 
development,  and  furtherance  of  democracy  in  the  whole  world.  In  that  respect, 
a  special  role  belongs  to  the  democratic  press,  which  is  called  upon  to  spread  the 
truth  abont  the  efforts  of  the  Slavic  peoples  and  about  the  postwar  political, 
economic,  and  cultural  development  of  the  Slavic  republics,  as  well  as  to  unmask 
all  those  who  are  sowing  distrust  in  the  entire  world  against  the  peoples  of  the 
Slavic  countries,  who,  together  with  the  Soviet  Union,  are  in  the  front  ranks  of 
the  fighters  for  peace  and  friendship  of  the  whole  world.  The  All-Slav  Commit- 
tee *  *  *  will  *  *  *  help  people  who  work  for  the  press  to  present  the 
modern  problems  and  the  ideological  essence  of  the  new  Slavic  movement. 

As  for  the  correct  interpretation  of  the  term  "education,"  Mirko 
Markovich  may  again  be  of  great  help.  In  his  pamphlet,  The  Strug- 
gle in  America  for  a  New  Yugoslavia,  he  states  that — 

The  Yugoslav  workers'  movement  played  a  very  important  role  in  the  founda- 
tion and  initial  development  of  the  Communist  Party  of  the  United  States.  So, 
for  instance,  in  the  first  years  after  its  foundation,  the  Yugoslav  workers  com- 
posed more  than  one-third  of  the  membership  of  the  Communist  Party  of  the 
United  States  of  America.  *  *  *  This  fact  shows  that  our  immigrants,  that 
is,  the  class-conscious  part  of  them,  not  only  did  not  lag  behind  other  groups 
of  the  American  working  class  in  the  most  decisive  moments,  but  they  often 
were  more  advanced  (p.  26). 

And  since  the  Slobodna  Rec  and  Narodni  Glasnik  not  only  are 
"worker's"  newspapers,  but  identify  themselves  with  "progressive" 
movements  of  American  Serbs  and  Croats,  it  seems  fit  to  consult  the 
Daily  Worker,  quoting  Lenin,  Stalin,  and  Marx, 

In  an  article  entitled  "The  Weapon  Lenin  Gave  in  Struggle  for 
Socialism,"  by  William  Weinstone  (Daily  Worker,  April  8,  1949, 
p.  9),  strong  issue  is  taken  with  all  tendencies  of  "labor  reformism" 
and  "economism,"  whose  main  characteristic  is — 

"An  exclusive  or  major  preoccupation  with  the  economic  struggle,  chiefly  with 
the  trade-union  struggle  for  wages  and  hours  and  denial  of  the  political  fight 
for  democratic  liberties  and  socialism.  As  a  consequence,  economism  denies 
the  need  for  a  vanguard  party  for  the  working  class  and  belittles  the  role  of 
consciousness  and  theory.     *     *     * 

"In  rejecting  economism,    *     *     * 

Weinstone  continues — 

Lenin  did  not  mean  that  the  struggle  for  immediate  day-to-day  demands  must 
be  neglected  or  underestimated  *  *  *  since  otherwise  the  workers  would  be 
turned  into  broken  wretches  (Marx). 

"However  *  *  *  to  confine  the  struggle  merely  to  economic  reforms 
would  mean  to  perpetuate  wage  slavery.  Therefore  the  fight  for  reforms," 
stated  Lenin,  "must  be  subordinated  to  the  militant  struggle  for  democracy  and 
socialism  as  the  part  is  subordinated  to  the  whole. 

"Only  if  the  workers  *  *  *  are  imbued  with  class  consciousness  and  the 
ideas  of  socialism,  only  if  the  number  and  influence  of  the  Communists  grow, 
can  the  organizations  of  the  workers  be  strong  and  militant  in  their  daily  affairs 
and  develop  into  powerful  levers  for  ultimate  emancipation." 

Weinstone,  quoting  Lenin,  sharply  assails  the  adherents  of  econ- 
omism and  their  "reliance  on  spontaneity"  for  realizing  the  "ultimate 
emancipation."    Instead,  he  insists  on  the  necessity — 

to  shape  the  thinking  of  the  workers    *    *    * 

If  the  Marxists  do  not  enlighten  the  workers  on  the  events  of  the  day.  if  they 
do  not  bring  class  conscious  views  and  socialist  ideas  to  the  workers,  the  latter 
will  remain  under  bourgeois-minded  leadership,  because,  says  Lenin,  the  trade- 
union  struggle  of  and  by  itself  cannot  develop  socialist  consciousness. 


632      COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

Socialist  consciousness,  he  teaches,  must  he  brought  to  the  workers  by  an 
organization  of  class-conscious  people  *  *  *  the  Communists.  This  is  so  be- 
cause socialism  is  a  science,  which  arose  out  of  the  spontaneous  growth  of  the 
labor  movement,  and  only  this  science  can  make  clear  to  the  workers  the  nature 
of  capitalism,  of  the  different  classes  and  political  parties,  the  real  policies  hidden 
behind  demagogic  phrases,  why  workers  are  poor,  what  causes  crisis  and  war. 
material  oppression,  etc.  The  mission  of  the  Communist  Party,  as  Stalin  puts 
it,  is  to  wed  socialism  to  the  labor  movement.  *  *  *  on  the  basis  of  the  daily 
struggle  (and  not  separate  from  it)  the  Communists  must  propagandize  for 
socialism,  politically  educate  the  workers,  broaden  their  activity  and  outlook,  and 
raise  their  level  so  that  they  respond  to  all  cases  of  tyranny,  oppression,  violence, 
and  abuse,  no  matter  what  class  is  affected.  Only  in  this  way  can  the  working 
class  win  and  lead  its  allies,  which  in  America  consist  of  the  small  farmers,  city 
poor,  and  the  Negro  people.    *    *    * 

Trade-union  organizers  should  therefore  strive  not  to  be  pure  and  simple 
trade-union  secretaries,  but  real  leaders,  tributes  of  the  people.  To  play  this 
great  role,  they  must  know  Marxian  theory,  for  "without  revolutionary  theory," 
proclaims  Lenin,  "there  can  be  no  revolutionary  practice." 

The  above  views  were  expressed  by  Lenin  in  his  work,  What  Must  Be 
Done?  published  in  1903,  the  year  of  the  foundation  of  the  Bolshevik 
Party.    Its  importance  is  stressed  by  Weinstone,  in  his  statement : 

No  one  can  work  effectively  as  a  Communist  or  militant  unionist  in  the  labor 
movement  who  has  not  read  and  studied  Lenin's  master  work,  What's  To  Be 
Done? 

And  contrary  to  the  statements  of  the  defendants  in  the  trial  of  the 
Communist  leaders,  claiming  that  the  Government  has,  in  fact,  in- 
dicted a  101-year-old  book — the  Communist  Manifesto,  1848,  of  Marx 
and  Engels — and  that  principles  valid  during  the  Bolshevik  Revolu- 
tion in  Russia  (1917)  are  not  valid  today,  Weinstone  declares: 

Though  published  46  years  ago,  its  basic  teachings  are  as  fresh  and  timely  as 
if  written  today. 

In  this  connection,  it  is  worth  while  quoting  Mary  Sumrak,  editor 
of  the  Narodni  Glasnik,  and  vice  chairman  of  the  Council  of  American- 
Croatian  Women,  wlio  in  an  article  entitled  "Let  Us  Put  Into  Effect  the 
Resolutions  Adopted  at  the  Second  Congress  of  American  Croatians," 
speaks  both  of  economic  and  political  problems,  but  with  an  obvious 
stress  on  the  "unity  and  determination  of  Americans  of  Croatian 
descent  against  reaction,  and  for  the  people's  democracy  and  peace," 
i.  e.,  on  politics.    After  declaring  that — 

The  Council  of  American  Croatians  and  the  Central  Organization  of  American 
Croatian  Women  will  stay  in  the  ranks  led  by  H.  Wallace  and  wnll  urge  the  strug- 
gle to  unmask  the  provocators  of  a  third  world  war — 

Mary  Sumrak  explains  the  necessity  for  American-Croatian  women 
to  educate  themselves  politically : 

The  second  congress  brought  before  us  very  important  tasks  *  *  *.  This  is 
what  is  going  on  and  what  is  our  first  task:  The  struggle  against  high  prices, 
against  rent  increase,  for  peace,  etc.,  tliese  are  problems  with  which  we  have  to 
deal  and  which  deeply  affect  our  life  because  they  concern  foodstuffs  and  the 
security  of  the  working  peoples. 

Let  us  consider  the  Taft-Hartley  Act,  which  is  an  attack  on  the  most  elementary 
rights  of  the  workers  and  their  unions.  That  act  is  a  law  now.  It  it  remains 
a  law,  it  will  endanger  our  rights.  It  will  impede  the  actions  of  organized  masses 
and  destroy  the  much-fought-for  rights  of  unions.  If  that  happens,  it  will  affect 
women  as  much  as  men,  because  the  woman  is  the  housewife  and  every  action 
for  lowering  the  wage  of  her  husband  or  her  own  is  a  blow  to  her  family  and  the 
future  of  her  children. 

These  are  a  few  examples  which  I  brought  up  to  prove  to  the  women  that  they 
must  take  interest  in  the  domestic  policy  of  our  public  life     *     *     *.     A  short 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS      633 

■svhile  ago,  when  workers  were  invited  to  strike,  in  some  localities,  reaction' 
printed  leaflets  in  which  it  appealed  to  women  to  try  to  prevail  upon  their  hus- 
bands to  desert  their  unions,  because,  as  they  said,  "Your  husband  is  losing  his 
wages,  and  he  could  work."  But  we  must  know  that  it  is  just  in  organization  that 
the  strength  of  tlie  working  masses  lies.  There  you  can  see  how  reaction  en- 
deavors to  mislead  the  woman  by  its  reactionary  propaganda.  This  is  the  second 
reason  why  women  ought  to  be  interested  in  politics.     *     *     * 

Our  clubs  ought  to  discuss  the  above-mentioned  tasks  and  take  them  seriously. 
If  we  are  interested  in  what  is  going  on  in  this  country  and  in  the  world,  it  will 
be  easier  for  us  to  build  up  our  organization. 

Finally,  Mary  Siimrak  cannot  resist  pointing  to  the  example  of 
women  in  Yugoslavia,  a  country  which — at  least,  according  to  the 
Communist  views  prevailing  before  the  Cominform-Tito  clash — had 
achieved  "idtimate  emancipation" : 

The  ami  Fascist  movement  of  w  :men  in  Yugoslavia  is  a  large  and  strong 
movement  of  organized  women  of  Yugoslavia.  We  have,  during  and  after  the 
war,  endeavored  to  follow  the  example  set  by  the  women  of  Yugoslavia  in  many 
respects,  but  we  neglected  the  example  in  which  the  greatest  strength  of  our 
sisters  lies,  and  that  is  the  strength  of  the  women's  organization.  In  that 
respect  we  must  follow  their  example. 

That  such  views  have  been  impressed  upon  the  rank  and  file  can  be 
seen  from  a  statement  of  K.  Mikalacki  made  at  a  joint  conference  of 
the  Slobodna  Rec  and  the  Serbian  Progressive  Movement  in  Chicago 
on  December  7,  1947 : 

The  workers'  press  is  the  mightest  and  best  weapon  in  the  struggle  for  every- 
day life  and  for  the  final  victory  over  reaction,  and  that  it  is  so  is  bast  exempli- 
fied in  France  and  Italy,  where  the  workers  are  waging  a  struggle  of  life  and 
death  against  reaction  and  the  remnants  of  fascism.  If  those  people  did  not 
have  a  strong  and  widespread  workers'  press,  their  struggle  could  not  possibly 
aim  at  so  great  and  ambitious  an  objective. 

How  the  Slobodna  Rec  and  Narodni  Glasnik  are  performing  their 
function  of  "teachers"  and  "educators"'  of  American  Serbs  and  Croats 
can  best  be  demonstrated  by  presenting  their  stand  on  various  prob- 
lems related  to  the  United  States : 

II-    THE  STAND  OF  THE  SLOBODNA  REC  AND  NARODNI  GLASNIK  ON  PROBLEMS 
OF  AMERICAN  FOREIGN  AND  DOMESTIC  POLICY 

A.  Foreign  policy  of  the  United  States 

United  States  diplomacy  is  unfair. — The  Slobodna  Rec  of  March  11, 
1947,  page  4,  published  a  long  letter  of  protest  to  Secretary  of  State 
George  C.  Marshall,  by  Zlatko  Balokovic,  chairman  of  the  resident 
board  of  the  National  Committee  of  the  American  Slav  Congress,  who 
had  just  returned  from  a  3-month  trip  to  Yugoslavia,  where  he  at- 
tended the  All-Slav  Congress.  Slobodna  Rec  dedicated  a  whole  page 
to  his  letter  under  the  headline  "American  Embassy  in  Yugoslavia 
pursuing  unfriendly  activities"  and  the  subhead  "Improper  use  of 
diplomatic  immunity." 

Of  course,  neither  Balokovic  nor  Slobodna  Rec  ever  noticed  any 
unfriendly  activity  of  foreign  diplomatic  or  other  missions  from  coun- 

'  In  Communist  language,  the  term  "reaction"  or  "the  reartion"  is  a  collective  noun 
used  to  describe  anything  that  is  anti-Communist,  but  particularly  capitalism  or  systems 
of  government,  society,  economics,  ideology,  et  cetera  which  existed  prior  to  the  estab- 
lishment of  Communist  regimes.  "Reaction"  might  be  translated  to  mean  generally  "the 
forces  of  reaction,"  the  movement  of  the  reactionaries,"  or  "the  reactionaries."  The  term 
is  used  as  if  "the  reaction"  were  a  living  entity,  in  such  phrases  as,  for  example  :  "The 
reaction  printed  propaganda  leaflets,"  "the  reaction  oppressed  the  masses,"  "the  reaction 
is  threatening  our  people  with  destruction,"  the  reaction  must  be  defeated  by  "world 
revolution." 


634       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

tries  of  "socialism"  or  "people's  democracies"  to  the  United  States  or 
any  improper  use  of  their  immunity. 

The  Truman  doctrine. — In  the  Slobodna  Kec  of  June  17, 1947,  page  3, 
a  "Poem  of  the  Workers"  is  published,  wherein  the  author,  Jovan  Ra- 
dulovich,  Detroit,  Mich.,  attacks  President  Truman's  doctrine  as  un- 
American  :  "All  that  is  the  deal  of  a  clique  of  wealthy  people  *  *  * 
against  communism  and  against  the  Russians."  But  the  workers  "are 
graduated  politically  and  will  not  tolerate  dictatorship.  Whatever 
happens,  they  will  not  be  blind  slaves." 

In  a  report  at  the  conference  of  the  Serbian  Progressive  Movement 
at  Akron,  Ohio,  Nikola  Drenovac,  former  chief  editor  of  the  Slobodna 
Rec  and  chairman  of  the  Serbian  Progressive  Movement,  said,  among 
other  things : 

While  we  are  fighting  against  fascism  on  our  own  Serbian  national  field,  here 
in  America  we  are,  at  the  same  time,  fighting  against  world  fascism,  which  is 
raising  its  head  considerably,  owing  mainly  to  the  so-called  Truman  doctrine. 

The  trend  of  such  a  Washington  policy  has  given  courage  to  Fascist  elements 
all  over  the  world,  and  has  given  them  hope  for  the  revival  of  all  that  has  been 
defeated  in  this  war  by  common  allied  forces     *     *     *. 

Such  a  group  of  criminals  and  people's  traitors  from  Yugoslavia  has  found 
protection  here  in  America  and,  moreover,  these  war  criminals  have  helped  here 
to  persecute  Communists  and  have  been  fervent  executors  and  followers  of  the 
Truman  doctrine. 

We  shall  be  defending  freedom  if  we  help  with  all  our  forces  the  struggle  ol 
the  American  people  against  the  various  Hoovers,  Rankins,  Tafts,  and  other 
representatives  of  American  reaction. 

In  the  Narodni  Glasnik  of  September  17, 1947,  page  4,  Eusibio  Ruio 
expresses  the  Communist  view  on  American  foreign  policy  in  his 
article  entitled,  "The  Lack  of  Knowledge  of  True  Reality.'' 

President  Truman's  doctrine  can  rightly  be  called  expansion,  because  the 
Truman  doctrine  sent  American  military  experts  to  Greece  and  Turkey,  and  that 
is  at  the  border  of  Yugoslavia  and  Greece.  Must  Yugoslavia  and  Russia  view 
that  American  expansion  with  indifference?    No  ! 

The  Truman  doctrine  will  lead  to  a  third  world  war,  if  it  is  consequently  carried 
out  in  Europe. 

Americans  would  contribute  much  more  to  world  peace  if  they  would  stop  inter- 
fering in  the  internal  affairs  of  the  Greek  people.  Better  relations  on  the  Balkans 
would  ensue.  While,  as  it  is  today,  Albania,  Yugoslavia,  and  Bulgaria  are  in- 
secure, they  do  not  know  when  the  Greek  reactionary  elements  will  penetrate  into 
the  above  states  and  provoke  a  third  world  war. 

Greece  will  be  the  stumbling  block  and  can  be  the  beginning  of  the  third  world 
war.    Who  will  be  responsible  for  the  third  world  war  ? 

Fascism  and  warmongering  in  America. — Following  strictly  the 
Communist  line,  that  the  center  of  evil  and  trouble  in  the  world  is 
America,  Nikola  Baltich,  of  New  York  City,  in  his  article,  Forward 
With  the  Work  (Slobodna  Rec,  December  13, 1947) ,  says : 

*  *  *  All  reactionary  cliques  of  this  country  and  the  rest  of  the  world  are 
firmly  determined  to  annihilate  progress  and  install  reaction,  to  deprive  the  people 
of  their  civil  rights,  and,  instead  of  democratic  rights  and  liberties,  to  organize 
the  persecution  of  all  progressive  persons  and  organizations,  as  well  as  of  national 
minorities. 

The  Thomas-Rankin  committee  has  already  started  such  terrorism  in  the  film 
industry  and  elsewhere.  This  is  only  the  beginning  and  if  it  is  not  stopped  in 
time,  it  will  spread  all  over  the  country.  The  per.secution  of  the  forei.4n-born,  the 
persecution  of  colored  people,  the  instigation  to  race  hatred  are  proofs  that  in 
our  country,  which  throughout  its  history  has  given  freedom  and  protection  to 
everybody.  Fascist  methods  of  persecution  and  oppression  are  being  introduced. 

It  is  needless  to  stress  that  the  Slobodna  Rec  seizes  every  opportunity 
to  give  publicity  to  any  statement  which  indicts  America  before  the 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS      635 

world.  So  the  Serbian  People's  Calendar  Vidovdan  for  1948  adver- 
tised in  the  Slobodna  Rec  of  December  17,  1947,  page  8,  contains  the 
article  by  Henry  A.  Wallace :  "Truman's  program  will  turn  the  world 
against  America." 

The  United  States  and  peace. — In  the  Slobodna  Rec  of  August  9, 
1947,  page  2,  an  article  is  published  by  J.  Orahovich,  under  the  title, 
"The  Policy  of  Our  Government  Does  Not  Contribute  to  the  Coopera- 
tion Between  the  Great  Powers  Nor  to  World  Peace." 

The  United  States  against  peace. — The  Narodni  Glasnik  of  Decem- 
ber 1, 1948,  publishes  under  the  title,  "Plan  for  the  3-Month  Campaign 
of  the  Narodni  Glasnik,"  a  report  by  editor  "Sister  Mary  Sumrak"  at 
the  national  conference  of  the  Narodni  Glasnik  in  Cleveland,  Ohio. 
Before  outlining  the  tasks  of  this  paper,  Mary  Sumrak  makes  herself 
clear  on  the  situation  in  America: 

The  principal  forces  against  the  e.stablisliment  of  peace  in  the  world  are  just 
in  this  country.  These  forces  are  threatening  a  new  war.  They  are  responsible 
for  the  big  armaments  in  our  country.  They  are  creating  hysteria  and  war- 
mongering, and  preventing  a  peaceful  settlement  of  disputes  between  nations — 
in  the  first  place,  in  agreement  with  the  Soviet  Union  and  the  new  democracies  in 
Europe. 

But  the  American  people  do  not  want  war — they  want  peace.  They  have  ex- 
pressed that  in  the  last  election,  by  defeating  the  most  reactionary  elements  which 
wei-e  waging  a  canii»aign  for  war,  for  the  abolishment  of  all  democratic  rights  of 
the  American  people,  and  the  establishment  of  a  Fascist  form  of  government  in 
our  country.     *     *     * 

The  black  forces  of  reaction  are  trying  to  drag  the  world  into  another  war. 
The  war  propaganda  is  going  full  blast.  The  trade-unions  are  in  danger,  the 
freedom  and  fundamental  rights  of  the  American  people  are  in  danger — in  danger 
is  the  peace  of  the  world.  The  people  of  America  and  of  all  countries  are  faced 
with  fateful  events. 

In  spite  of  the  people's  will  for  peace,  the  war  propaganda  and  bipartisan  policy 
of  all  parties  of  big  capital,  are  being  continued  and  are  threatening  all  people. 
The  persecution  of  progressive  and  national  minorities  has  not  been  ended.  It 
is  being  continued.  Many  of  our  organizations  are  still  unjustly  on  the  sub- 
versive list.  Constitutional  and  democratic  rights  are  being  denied  to  them. 
Their  leaders  are  being  threatened  with  new  persecution  and  deportation. 

America  must  help  Comtnunist  countries. — In  a  letter  addressed  to 
President  Truman  by  Anton  Gerlach  and  Leo  Bacich  on  behalf  of 
the  Seventh  National  Convention  of  the  Croatian  Benevolent  Fra- 
ternity meeting  in  Cleveland,  June  14  and  15  (and  published  in  the 
Narodni  Glasnik  of  July  8,  1947),  it  was  demanded  that  capitalistic 
America  immediately  help  Communist  Yugoslavia: 

We,  therefore,  urge  that  Yugoslavia  be  added  to  the  list  of  nations  to  receive  aid 
from  the  .$.3.50,000.000  appropriation  for  relief.  We  suggest  that  Yugoslavia  be 
allotted  at  least  .$15,000,000  to  tide  her  over  until  she  can  stand  on  her  own  feet 
and  feed  her  people  from  her  harvest  this  fall. 

The  Marshall  plan. — ^As  on  every  other  issue,  the  Narodni  Glasnik 
assumes,  in  the  controversy  about  the  Marshall  plan,  the  stand  of  the 
Communist  Party.  This  is  drastically  exemplified  in  the  article,  Fly- 
ing Saucers,  the  Marshall  Plan,  Dictators,  and  Miscellaneous,  by  F. 
Tadey : 

On  the  Marshall  plan  for  the  recovery  of  European  economy,  tons  of  material 
have  been  written,  countless  statements  issued,  and  many  debates  and  speeches 
given,  but  it  seems  that  nobody  has  a  clear  idea  what  that  plan  contains.  The 
news  from  London  says  that  Bevin,  urging  the  European  countries  to  accept  the 
Marshall  plan,  declared  that  "it  would  be  wrong  to  ask  Marshall  wherein  actually 
his  plan  consists.     *     *     *     Indeed,  why  disturb  the  man?     Accept  it,  period." 


636       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

However,  it  looks  as  if  something  of  this  liind  is  going  on:  The  European 
countries  vote  to  aid  themselves  mutually  and  cooperate  with  Britain,  and,  with 
American  help,  build  up  a  new  economy.  A  controlling  or  ruling  board  would 
be  elected  or  appointed,  which  would  consist  mainly  of  representatives  of  Britain 
and  France.  That  board  would  study  the  situation  and  would  order  what  and 
how  it  should  be  done.  For  instance,  that  board  would  say  to  Czechoslovakia : 
"Don't  you  now  develop  industry  *  *  *  You  had  better  cultivate  potatoes, 
and  we  will  furnish  you  with  the  necessary  industrial  products."  To  Poland 
it  would  say :  "Don't  care  about  the  potatoes,  but  dig  coal.  We  shall  take  care 
of  the  rest."  To  Norway  they  would  possibly  say :  "Give  up  manufacturing  steel. 
Leave  that  to  us,  and  you  better  cacch  fish,  cut  wood,  and  dig  minerals.  The 
rest  is  our  concern."  To  Italy  they  would  maybe  say  :  "You  give  up  potatoes 
and  industry,  fish  and  wood.  We  shall  take  care  of  all  that,  and  you  just  keep 
the  leftists  out  of  the  government"  (Narodni  Glasnik,  July  11,  1947,  p.  3).' 

The  'State  Department — All  these  condemnatory  opinions  on  United 
States  foreign  policy  are  even  more  nnderstandable  if  one  takes  into 
account  what  kind  of  people,  according  to  the  Slobodna  Rec,  are  in  the 
State  Department. 

In  tlie  Slobodna  Rec  of  May  27, 1947,  p.  3,  a  report  by  Marko  J.  Mur- 
isich  of  San  Francisco  is  published  on  the  case  of  an  elderly  man  who 
applied  to  the  State  Department  for  a  passport  to  visit  his  ailing 
son  in  Yugoslavia,  but  was  refused.  In  the  report,  which  bears  the 
title  "Do  They  Have  Any  Parents'  Love  At  All  ?",  it  is  said : 

Can  such  a  thing  happen  in  the  country  of  Washington,  in  the  country  of  Jeffer- 
son, in  the  country  of  Lincoln? 

It  can  happen.     *     *     * 

The  old  man  asked  me:  "Do  people  in  the  State  Department  have  children?" 

"They  certainly  have,"  said  I. 

How  would  they  feel  if  some  ill-famed  government  of  some  foreign  country 
would  deny  them  the  right  to  go  abroad  to  see  their  own  children?     *     *     * 

The  history  of  this  war  has  shown  that  the  Fascist  beasts  have  no  more  feel- 
ing toward  a  child  than  they  have  toward  the  most  dangerous  wild  beasts.  I 
do  not  know  then  how  people  in  the  State  Department  can  be  without  parental 
love,  or  how  it  is  possible  that  they  do  not  think,  at  least  in  cases  like  this 
one,  of  parental  love. 

It  seems  to  me  that  reaction  in  America  does  not  feel  much  different  from  the 
Fascists. 

This  opinion  still  does  not  prevent  progressives  from  urging  the 
State  Department  to  stop  insulting  Yugoslavia. 

The  Narodni  Glasnik  of  July  8,  1947,  carries  a  letter  to  Secretary  of 
State  George  Marshall  signed  by  Anton  Gerlach  and  Leo  Bacich,  in 
which  they  say : 

Therefore,  we  urge  you  to  use  your  influence  in  the  State  Department  to  adopt 
a  policy  of  friendship  toward  Yugoslavia  and  make  it  possible  for  a  friendly 
exchange  of  visitors  to  and  from  Yugoslavia.     *     *     * 

We  earnestly  hope  that  these  insults  to  the  Yugoslav  people  will  cease  and  make 
possible  a  better  relationship  between  the  people  of  the  United  States  and  Yugo- 
slavia. 

It  is  noteworthy  how  the  Narodni  Glasnik  and  people  connected 
with  it,  who  are  never  concerned  about  America,  are  worried  about 
the  interests  and  prestige  of  other  countries — namely,  those  of  social- 
ism or  of  people's  democracy,  i.  e.,  Soviet  satellites. 

The  Atlantic  Pact. — In  the  Narodni  Glasnik  of  April  6,  1949,  an 
editorial  is  dedicated  to  the  Atlantic  Pact,  under  the  title :  "A  Serious 
Warning  to  the  World" : 

The  gentlemen  want  war,  in  which  the  people  have  to  pay  with  their  blood, 
toil,  and  money.    The  gentlemen  will  hoard  profits,  as  in  all  other  wars. 

The  people  cannot  leave  to  the  corrupt  gentlemen  to  decide  the  question  of  war 
or  peace,  but  they  must  decide  themselves.    They  must  decide  it  through  a  resolute 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS      637 

Struggle  against  warmongers.    In  that  struggle  millions  of  people  are  rising  all 
over  the  world. 

Slavery  for  colonial  peoples.— ^\\^  Narodni  Glasnik  of  July  7,  1949, 
carries  an  editorial  under  the  title:  "Truman's  'Bold  Plan'— New 
Slavery  for  Colonial  Peoples,"  and  says : 

The  so-called  bold  plan  which  President  Truman  submitted  to  the  Congress  is, 
in  fact,  nothing  but  a  new  way  of  enslaving  the  African  and  other  colonial 
peoples.     *     *     * 

It  is  hardly  disputable  that  the  above  views  are  entirely  compliant 
with  the  official  Connnunist  Party  stand  on  the  United  States  foreign 
policy.  Holding  thoroughly  Communist  view^s  on  United  States  for- 
eign-policy problems,  the  Slobodna  Eec  and  Narodni  Glasnik  cannot 
be  expected  to  hold  opinions  of  a  different  brand  on  matters  of  democ- 
racy in  America  and  the  domestic  policy  of  the  United  States 
Government. 

B.  Democracy  in  the  United  States  and  the  domestic  folicy  of  the 
United  States  Government 

Dollar  jmiriots.—lw  the  Slobodna  Rec  of  May  29,  1947,  a 
poem,  under  the  title  "Enough  of  Suffering  and  Sorrow,"  is  published 
by  Milo  Marotich,  Dearborn,  Mich.,  which  assails  "dollar  patriots"  who 
are  preparing  bills  in  the  Congress  to  deprive  the  workers  of  all  their 
rights  acquired  during  Roosevelt  America. 

Break-doion  of  capitalism.— 1\\  the  Slobodna  Rec  of  July  31,  1947, 
a  poem,  under  the  title  "The  Knight  of  the  Dollar  and  the  Elevator 
Boy,"  signed  by  "Mitar,"  is  reprinted  from  Jez  (the  humoristic  news- 
paper published  in  Belgrade,  Yugoslavia) .  The  poem  is  an  allegorical 
preview  of  the  break-down  of  capitalism  in  the  United  States  through 
general  strike. 

Un-American  activities. — In  the  Slobodna  Rec  of  August  23,  1947, 
Stanko  Vuich  publishes  an  article  against  the  House  Committee  oh 
Un-American  Activities  under  the  title  "Fifth  Columnists  Cannot 
Decide  Who  Is  Loyal  to  the  United  States  and  Who  Is  Not." 

A7ne7Hcan  investments  in  fascism. — In  an  article  published  in  the 
Slobodna  Rec  of  November  19,  1947,  page  3,  under  the  title 
"On  Armistice  Day,  November  11,"  Dushan  M.  Pejovich,  Detroit,  in- 
dulges in  considerations  and  reflections  about  the  connection  between 
poor  people  and  peace  on  the  one  hand,  and  millionaires  and  war  on 
the  other : 

While  the  poor  and  war-ruined  people  had  optimistic  views  about  all  that 
[after  World  War  I],  others,  who  were  mightier  and  better  fed,  craving  for 
revenge  and  war  wealth,  and  supported  morally  and  materially  by  all  those  who 
saw  the  salvation  of  humanity  and  their  fat  income  from  invested  capital  in 
dictators  and  fascism,  prepared  a  second  human  bloodshed.     *     *     * 

Do  those  in  the  millionaires'  offices  under  whose  windows  the  parade  [after 
World  War  II]  is  marching  and  tliose  who  have  not  yet  forgotten  their  invest- 
ments in  prewar  fascism— do  they  look  upon  parades  as  we  poor,  ?mall  people 
do,  or  are  they  laughing  at  our  stupidity? 

The  lovers  of  peace  and  those  who  suffered  from  the  previous  wars,  today  dread 
the  commercial  politics  and  commercial  maneuvering  wliich  are  being  pursued 
against  the  people,  who  want  friendship  and  unity  among  nations. 

Fascism  in  America.— hi  its  issue  of  November  22, 1947,  the  Slobodna 
Rec  publishes  an  article  against  the  Pittsburgh  Press  and  its  main 
source  of  information,  the  American  Srbobran — organ  of  the  Serb  Na- 
tional Federation,  Pittsburgli,  Pa.,  "which  has    *    *    *    joined  Ameri- 


638      COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

can  national  reaction  in  strengthening  the  Fascist  activities  in  this 
country.  *  *  *  They  seek  to  destroy  the  most  democratic  avenues 
of  expression  of  the  common  people," 

Reactionary  America. — In  his  article,  the  London  Fog  (Slobodna 
Rec,  Nov.  29, 1947) ,  Dushan  Pejovich,  in  his  democratic  zeal,  assails  the 
reactionary  press  in  America  for  giving  space  in  its  columns  to  the 
wedding  of  Princess  Elizabeth  in  London : 

This  attitude  of  the  reactionary  press  in  America,  which  from  the  first  moment 
of  decision  shook  off  the  King's  domination,  plays  not  only  into  the  hands  of  the 
English  King,  but  of  all  kings,  former  and  present,  and  still  wants  to  prove  that 
such  a  system  of  government  is  democratic. 

One  of  the  most  revealing  articles  was  published  in  the  Naroclni 
Glasnik  of  May  9, 1947,  page  3,  by  Mary  Sumrak,  first  vice  chairman  of 
American  Croatian  Women. 

United  States  loarmongers. — An  article  is  published  under  the  page- 
wide  heading  Croatian  women  at  work  for  a  better  and  happier  future : 

On  Mother's  Day  this  year,  not  all  graves  of  all  soldiers  who  fell  have  yet  been 
found.  The  tears  of  bereaved  mothers  have  not  yet  dried,  and  already  new  black 
clouds  are  casting  shadows  over  the  earth ;  already  those  who  from  the  blood  of 
our  sons  and  daughters  are  drawing  personal  profits  are  warmongering  and  pro- 
voking a  third  world  war.  They  do  not  care  about  mothers'  feelings,  they  do  not 
care  about  anything  but  their  greed.  A  handful  of  billionaires,  who  are  ruth- 
lessly plundering  American  mothers  and  taking  away  from  them  the  bread  from 
their  tables,  being  afraid  of  the  people,  afraid  that  they  will  lose  the  unlimited 
right  to  profits  and  plunder,  have  plotted  against  the  democratic  peoples,  who 
have  risen  from  the  ruins  of  Fascist  military  power,  who  have  acquired  freedom 
and  who  in  their  ranks  are  building  a  new  world  of  equality  and  brotherhood. 
This  small  handful  of  ruthless  and  greedy  people  are  threatening  with  a  new  war, 
are  threatening  with  atomic  bombs,  and  are  bent  upon  taking  away  from  millions 
of  mothers  what  is  most  precious  to  them — their  children. 

We  mothers  ought  to  and  have  to  stand  firmly  by  Wallace  and  others  who  are 
following  the  policy  of  the  late  Roosevelt  *  *  *.  We  must  not  allow  our  sons 
and  daughters  to  be  again  driven  to  the  battlefields  to  defend  the  interests  of 
greedy  imperialists    *    *    * 

A  single  glance  at  what  is  happening  in  the  Congress  of  our  country  is  enough 
to  convince  us  of  the  danger  which  threatens  those  ideas  for  which  the  World 
War  was  waged  and  for  which  our  sons  and  daughters  died.  All  these  plans  for 
depriving  the  little  common  men  of  their  rights  and  liberties  must  incite  us  to 
pull  together  from  passivity  and  to  take  an  active  part  in  the  realization  of  the 
program  of  the  late  President  Roosevelt,  which  alone  leads  to  the  realization  of 
the  ideals  for  which  our  children  fell.    *    *    * 

Only  through  a  strong  mass  movement  will  we  be  able  to  fight  reaction  which  is 
provoking  war.  American  women  are  organized  in  the  Congress  of  American 
Women,  which  is  a  part  of  the  International  Women's  Congress.^    We  are  closely 

connected  with  these  organizations  and  through  them  the  women  of  the  world. 
Thus  linked  with  a  strong  mass  movement  and  if  we  are  well  organized  ourselves, 
we  will  be  able  to  wage  successfully  the  fight  for  a  better  and  happier  future. 

The  hreak-down  of  capitalism. — In  Slobodna  Eec  of  May  27, 1947,  a 
poem  is  published  by  Sofia  Mark,  of  Detroit,  Micli.,  entitled  "To  My 
Son  Charlie": 

To  raise  your  fist  against  slavery  and  fascism 

And  all  other  cynicism — 

There  will  be  waves  of  struggle  for  you  yet, 

Because  the  world  has  freedom  to  get. 

To  worry  for  food  and  other  things 

In  the  land  of  plenty  and  everything, 

Your  name  will  be  in  line  with  othei's,  who  gave 

Their  lives  to  break  the  chains  and  orders. 


^  Congress  of  the  Womens  International  Democratic  Federation.  The  Congress  of  Amer- 
ican Women  is  listed  as  a  Communist  front  organization  by  the  Attorney  General,  see 
appendix  II,  p.  A7. 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS      639 

United  States  Government  and  United  States  feoiple. — In  the  issue 
of  Slobodna  Rec  of  September  20,  1947,  Nikola  Baltich  publishes  an 
article  against  the  decision  of  the  Department  of  State  not  to  issue 
passports  for  visitors  to  Yugoslavia,  under  the  title  "The  Voice  of  the 
People  Ought  To  Be  Heard." 

It  is  noteworthy  that  here  again,  the  writers  of  the  Slobodna  Rec 
make  a  distinction  between  the  Government  and  the  people  of  the 
United  States,  whereas  they  always  identify  people  and  government 
%vhen  the  Soviet  Union  is  concerned. 

Wall  Street^  Hitler,  Mussolini. — In  a  letter  allegedly  received  from 
Yugoslavia  by  Obrenija  Biberdzic,  of  Chicago,  111.,  and  published  in 
the  Slobodna  Rec  of  November  26, 1947,  page  3,  it  is  said : 

On  the  whole,  overytliing  is  all  right.  lUit  it  seems  to  me  that  those  trusts  of 
yours  hate  us.  They  would  like  us  to  be  obedient  slaves  of  Wall  Street,  but  we 
want  to  lead  our  own  lives.  If  anyone  goes  off  his  head  and  touches  us,  we 
will  send  him  along  the  same  way  as  Hitler  and  Mussolini.  That  is  the  message 
of  eastern  Europe  to  all  those  who  want  to  subdue  and  oppress  other  peoples. 
With  us  are  justice  and  the  working  people  of  the  whole  world. 

Reaction  against  the  people. — The  Narodni  Glasnik  of  May  9, 1947, 
page  3,  published  a  report  on  the  Women's  International  Democratic 
Federation  and  the  Congress  of  American  Women  by  Anna  Seliger^ 
writing  on  behalf  of  the  Committee  of  the  Council  of  American- 
Croatian  Women  in  New  York.  The  author  speaks  at  length  of  the 
situation  in  America  in  order  to  make  clear  the  tasks  of  the  Women's 
International  Democratic  Federation,  whose  first  meeting  took  place 
in  Prague  from  February  20  to  March  1, 1947 : 

The  November  election  and  other  events  in  America  showed  of  how  great 
importance  it  is  to  develop  as  much  as  possible  the  Congress  of  American  Women. 
The  attack  of  reaction  against  the  workers'  unions  and  the  liberties  of  the  Ameri- 
can people,  the  plundering  of  the  people  on  the  part  of  the  profit-hungry  capi- 
talists and  bankers,  has  brought  about  a  very  critical  period  in  American  his- 
tory. In  this  period  and  in  the  future,  the  Congress  of  American  Women  must 
play  a  very  important  and  extensive  role;  the  struggle  for  the  'reservation  and 
raising  of  the  standard  of  living,  the  struggle  for  the  preservation  of  the  people's 
liberties  and  the  American  Constitution,  the  struggle  for  the  preservation  of  world 
peace  and  well-being,  the  struggle  against  discrimination  and  equal  rights  for  all 
classes  of  people,  regardless  of  racial,  religious,  political,  or  any  other  differences. 

The  Congress  of  American  Women  (which  numbers  200,000  members)  through 
its  commissions  is  holding  meetings  and  presenting  petitions  in  the  defense  of 
these  rights  and  liberties,  guaranteed  by  the  American  Constitution,  is  taking 
part  with  other  organizations  in  the  campaign  for  the  control  of  prices  against 
inflation,  is  waging  a  struggle  against  the  antiworkers'  legislation,  and  is  par- 
ticipating in  all  fields  of  activity,  for  a  betterment  of  the  American  people. 

The  Congress  of  American  Women  has  mobilized  all  its  local  committees  and 
members  in  the  general  campaign  for  the  preservation  of  a  lasting  peace  through 
the  United  Nations  Organization,  disarmament  and  destruction  of  the  atomic 
bomb  and  weapons,  and  for  world  cooperation. 

The  Congress  of  American  Women,  as  a  part  of  the  Women's  International 
Democratic  Federation,  is  using  all  means  to  achieve  the  above  aims. 

Therefore,  I  want  to  conclude  with  the  wish  that  all  our  women's  organiza- 
tions become  members  of  the  Congress  of  American  Women,  because  only  if 
organized  in  a  strong  organization  will  we  be  able  to  fulfill  successfully  the  tasks 
which  these  troubled  times  are  imposing  upon  us. 

Gestapo  in  America,  freedom,  in  Yugoslavia — In  the  Narodni  Glas- 
nik of  September  8,  1947,  page  2,  Peter  Simrak  sounds  the  alarm 
against  the  "Gestapo  Callahan  Act" : 

The  Callahan  Act '  entitles  the  State  attorney  to  arrest  whom  he  wishes  when- 


^  "An  act  to  regulate  and  control  the  operation  of  foreign  agencies  acting  within  the 
State  of  Micliigan  ;  and  to  prescribe  penalties  for  violations  of  the  provisions  of  this  act" 
(Michigan  Public  Acts  of  1947,  No.  270;  Mich.  Stat.  Ann.  (Callaghan),  sec.  18.58). 


640       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

ever  lie  wishes,  to  keep  his  victims  arrested  as  long  as  he  likes,  without  accusa- 
tion or  jury.  Any  individual,  club,  or  organization,  which  has  any  direct  or 
indirect  connection  with  a  foreign  state  or  institution  may  be  called  an  agent. 

Such  laws  used  to  exist  in  some  other  countries  in  the  recent  past.  There 
were  laws  for  thought  control.  There  existed  especially  trained  police  who  had 
the  task  of  finding  out  what  people  think.     *     *     * 

Today  such  Fascist  laws  are  being  transplanted  in  the  State  of  Michigan,  and 
in  due  time,  would  spread  all  over  the  country.  It  will  be  possible  to  arrest  in  a 
Gestapo  manner,  without  warrants,  without  formal  accusation,  without  witnesses 
or  court  processes.  This  at  least,  is  the  idea,  but  the  people  have  not  yet  had 
their  say.     *     *     * 

At  the  same  time,  a  special  bail  fund  of  $250,000  is  being  created,  so  that  it 
will  be  possible  to  free  from  jail  people  who  come  in  conflict  with  the  Michigan 
police.  The  people  of  Michigan  are  confronted  with  a  great  danger,  but  that 
danger  threatens  in  the  same  way  all  others,  wherever  they  may  be.  That 
is  why  their  struggle  is  our  struggle. 

It  is  a  strange  coincidence  that  the  same  issue  of  the  Narodni  Ghisnik, 
in  which  the  word  "Gestapo"  is  connected  with  tlie  United  States, 
carries  a  letter  sent  to  the  editor  of  Narodni  Glasnik  by  Riiza  Pinto, 
Yugoslav  Progressive  Club  of  Los  Angeles,  Calif.,  in  which  it  is  said 
of  Yugoslavia :  "We  enjoy  today  pure  democratic  freedom  under  the 
leadership  of  our  Marshal  Tito."  This,  however,  was  before  the 
Cominform-Tito  clash. 

'Warmongers  in  America. — In  the  Slobodna  Rec  of  August  30,  19-iT, 
Josip  Rajnovich,  faithfully  following  the  Communist  views  of  the 
unity  of  all  reaction,  assails  "the  bankrupt  statesmen,  diplomats,  and 
generals  of  old  Yugoslavia"  as  well  as  "warmongers  Churchill,  Hearst, 
and  Hoover." 

TJn-American  actimties. — One  might  compare  with  the  article  We 
Must  Not  Forget  by  Ivan  Jankovic  (Narodni  Glasnik,  August  22, 
1947,  p.  3),  the  statement  issued  by  the  Croatian  Fraternal  Union 
( CFU)  and  published  in  the  Narodni  Glasnilc  of  August  21, 1947.  The 
officials  of  this  organization  "deny  false  accusation  of  the  Un-Ameri- 
can Activities  Committee"  and  as — 

loyal  American  citizens  bitterly  condemn  any  suspicions  or  accusations  *  *  * 
against  the  CFU  of  America  and  its  members. 

We  urgently  petition  the  Committee  on  n-American  Activities  to  investigate 
instead,  those  who  so  brazenly  and  maliciously  point  the  finger  of  accusation 
against  the  CFU  of  America,  and  establish  their  nefarious  reasons  for  such  acts. 

IrpeR'ponsihle  elements  and  loorld  war  III. — In  the  same  issue  of  the 
Narodni  Glasnik,  Mary  Sumrak,  vice  chairman  of  the  Council  of 
American-Croatian  WomeM,  is  addressing  an  invitation  to  the  Ameri- 
can-Croatian women  to  "put  into  effect  resolutions  adopted  at  the 
Second  Congress  of  American-Croatians."  Among  other  things, 
Mary  Sumrak  says : 

During  the  war,  the  American-Croatian  men  and  women,  who  were  engaged 
in  the  struggle  against  the  deadly  enemy,  who  set  himself  the  aim  and  task  of 
conquering  the  world,  stood  by  their  President  Roosevelt  and  the  United  Nations 
who  fought  for  the  defeat  of  fascism. 

After  the  war,  when  in  this  country  and  in  the  world,  brotherhood  and  unity 
ought  to  prevail,  irresponsible  elements  rose  to  the  surface  who  started  launch- 
ing slogans  for  a  third  world  war.  Such  elements  encountered  the  resistance 
of  people  like  Henry  WiiUace,  Senator  Pepper,  and  oth'^'s.  wlio  are  fightir-;:  for 
the  ideals  of  the  true  democracy  for  the  people  s  righls  and  the  unity  of  the 
peace-loving  mankind. 

Fascism,. — The  Communist  view  that  not  all  fascism  has  been  wiped 
out  by  the  defeat  of  Nazi  Germany  and  Japan,  but  that  it  lives  on  in 
capitalism,  bent  upon  provoking  a  third  world  w^ar,  is  expressed  in 
a  letter  allegedly  received  from  Yugoslavia  by  George  Maravic  of 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS      641 

Gary,  Ind.,  and  published  in  tlie  Slobodna  Rec  of  November  8,  1947, 
page  3,  under  the  title  "We  Must  Not  Allow  Fascism  To  Eaise  Its 
Head  To  Provoke  World-Wide  Bloodshed." 

Anglo-American  monopolists. — In  an  article  entitled  "German 
Property  Abroad,"  published  in  the  Slobodna  Rec  of  July  31,  1947, 
page  2,  Milan  Slani  contends  that  the  total  of  German  property  which 
goes  in  the  form  of  reparations  into  the  hands  of  the  United  States 
and  Great  Britain  is  10.5  billion  dollars,  which  is  more  than  the  total 
amount  of  Soviet  reparations.  From  such  considerations  the  author 
concludes : 

It  is  in  the  light  of  these  facts  that  the  efforts  of  the  Anglo-American  authori- 
ties and  their  monopolistic  circles  to  conceal  the  amount  and  the  real  origin  of 
German  property  abroad  must  be  viewed. 

American  democracy. — One  of  the  most  indicative  articles  as  to  the 
stand  of  Nardoni  Glasnik  and  people  connected  with  it  on  American 
democracy  was  published  in  the  issue  of  August  22,  1947,  page  3.  In 
this  article,  entitled  "We  Must  Not  Forget,"  Ivan  Jankovich  says : 

In  the  course  of  these  postwar  years,  a  veil  is  being  pulled  over  the  eyes — 
a  veil  well-nigh  mysterious,  invisible,  but  which  you  still  can  feel.  Over  the 
daily  press  controlled  by  various  automobile  and  steel  magnates  and  other 
cartels  some  new  lines  are  being  put  before  the  people.  It  is  directed  to  a  new 
hazardous  step    *    *    *    to  clear  away  the  remnants  of  today's  democracy.    *    *    * 

To  achieve  this  we  are  advised  to  reject  the  unions  in  our  daily  life,  because 
they  are  headed  by  racketeers  which  are  leading  the  members  of  the  unions  to 
catastrophe.  And  in  order  to  achieve  that  success,  to  make  our  work  easier, 
they  have  already  taken  the  necessary  steps ;  they  have  adopted  an  antiworkers' 
law,  the  Taft-Hartley  bill.  On  the  political  field,  they  are  recommending  a  new 
monster.  We  ought  to  reorganize  Japan,  so  that  democracy  may  be  safeguarded 
also  from  that  side. 

The  storm  of  these  pests  of  our  days  is  turning  to  a  cyclone  which,  on  its 
destructive  way,  is  pulling  out  and  breaking,  destroying,  and  annihilating  the 
little  moral  conscience  we  have  left.  Doubt  and  disintegration  are  arising. 
People  are  asking.  How  and  why  rearm  Japan  and  against  whom? 

Strange  is  this  life,  they  answer  us.  We  live  in  the  twentieth  century,  in 
the  century  of  wonders  of  technique,  in  the  period  of  the  atomic  bomb,  in  a  life 
of  sudden  changes  in  which  period  a  friend  of  yesterday  is  tomorrow  the  worst 
enemy.     Yes ;  such  is  life. 

In  this  turmoil  of  immoral  ethics,  our  immigrants  are  straining  their  eyes 
and  ears  in  the  exi^ectation  of  some  great  events.  Public  opinion  is  excited  and 
something  must  happen.  The  curtain.  The  iron  curtain.  We  must  peep  behind 
it  to  see  what  is  hidden  there.  Because  we,  oh,  yes,  we  are  democrats,  the  only 
"right"  and  "proved"  system,  the  best  system — free  enterprise.  We  are  the  only 
ones  on  this  earth  of  tears  and  suffering  who  possess  something  which  the  rest 
of  the  world  does  not  have  ;  yes,  we  possess  democracy. 

The  ruthless  people  in  this  country  are  endeavoring  to  put  in  our  hands  in  an 
invisible  way  a  knife  with  two  blades,  which  they  would,  by  means  of  some  new 
scientific  "energy"  operate  in  the  direction  of  massacring. 

Oh,  tl  ese  Balkan  people !  Oh,  that  cursed  Russia  !  If  only  she  wasn't  there, 
there  would  be  no  Tito,  and  there  would  be  even  no  Dimitrov,^  no  Groza,"  and 
no  Albanian  Enver  Hoxha.  How  happy  this  world  would  be.  We  would 
freely  spread  all  over  Europe  our  tested  system  of  the  pretty  harlot,  which  we 
have  nari(;d  democracy. 

Fascism  and  com^munism. — In  the  Narodni  Glasnik  of  May  5,  1947, 
page  2,  l^'rank  Borich,  executive  secretary  of  the  People's  Council  of 
America  ti-Croatians,  publishes  an  article  on  the  importance  of  the 
Great  Second  Congress  of  American  Croatians  and  Croatian  Women : 

[The  conference]  was  a  magnificent  manifestation  of  the  unity  and  determina- 
tion of  A-nericans  of  Croatian  descent  against  reaction,  for  the  people's  demo- 
cracy and  peace.     *     *     * 


'  Geor?i  Dimitrov,  Communist  dictator  of  Bulgaria. 
'  Petru  Groza,  puppet  Prime  Minister  of  Rumania. 


642       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

Nearly  600  delegates  cheered  consciously  and  enthusiastically  in  the  name 
of  all  the  members  to  stress  the  need  of  unity  of  the  Big  Three  in  the  United 
Nations  Organization  for  the  uprooting  of  all  remnants  of  fascism.     *     *     * 

This  was  especially  demonstrated  by  the  thunderous  applause  when  the 
name  of  Henry  A.  Wallace  was  mentioned,  who,  through  his  energetic  struggle 
for  the  peace  program  of  Franklin  D.  lioosevelt,  expresses  the  fervent  strivings 
and  the  wishes  of  the  great  American  people  to  help  the  war-devastated  coun- 
tries with  plows  and  not  with  guns.     *     *     * 

They  were  not  the  least  intimidated  or  impressed  by  the  futile  threatening 
with  the  "bogey"  of  communism,  since  they  know  that  behind  it  is  concealed  the 
plot  of  the  vested  interests  and  reaction  against  all  achievements  of  the  American 
people  and  the  freedom  of  other  countries  which  they  achieved  after  much 
struggle. 

The  American  Slav  Congress  and  communism. — Although  unim- 
pressed by  the  threats  with  the  Communist  "bogey"  the  same  author, 
Frank  Borich,  is  anxious  to  "destroy  that  disgusting  slander."  In  the 
Narodni  Glasnik  of  August  12,  1947,  page  2,  he  is  addressing  "three 
very  important  messages  to  all  branches  of  the  People's  Council," 
especially  urging  them  to  support  The  Slavic  American,  published  by 
the  American  Slav  Congress : 

This  periodical  is  of  enormous  importance,  not  only  for  us  Slavs,  but  for 
all  Americans.  It  is  important  especially  today  when  reaction  is  endeavoring 
to  brand  all  of  us,  who  gave  all  that  we  had  for  the  victory  in  the  war,  as  "fifth 
columnists."  We  must  destroy  that  disgusting  slander  and  prove  to  the  people 
of  America  that  we  Slavs  are  among  the  best  and  most  loyal  citizens  of  America, 
who  always  fought  for  its  democratic  traditions  and  democ.atic  ideals.  The 
Slavic  American  will  play  here  a  great  role.  That  is  why  we  must  divulge  it, 
not  only  among  Americans  of  Slavic  origin  but  among  others  as  well. 

True  Americanism. — The  Connnunist  view  that  only  "progressive' 
Americanism  is  true  Americanism  is  expressed  in  the  article,  Clear  the 
Smog,  by  John  Vidmar,  Jr.,  president  of  the  Yugoslav-American 
Youth  Club  Unity,  Pittsburgh,  Pa.  (published  in  thQ  Narodni  Glasnik 
of  October  2,  1947,  p.  8)  : 

From  the  very  moment  of  our  birth,  we  have  been  "Red-baited,"  which  causes 
confusion  among  some  of  our  present  members.  Clear  your  minds,  brothers  and 
sisters.    *    *    * 

Our  position  of  fighting  for  the  foreign  policy  of  Franklin  D.  Roosevelt,  of 
friendship  wuth  the  U.  S.  S.  R.,  Yugoslavia,  and  all  of  our  wartime  allies,  for  an 
everlasting  peace ;  our  policy  to  light  discrimination,  white  chauvinism,  and  all 
other  tendencies  that  lead  to  fascism,  gives  us  the  privilege  of  being  fighters  for 
true  Americanism,  of  building  an  America  on  true  democratic  lines. 

Break-down  of  capitalism. — In  the  Slobodna  Rec  of  September  18, 
1947,  support  is  urged  "to  our  democratic  newspaper,  which  is  lashing 
the  Fascists,  whose  chains  are  breaking,  so  that  we  must  do  everything 
to  break  the  last  link." 

In  the  Slobodna  Rec  of  Attgust  12,  1947,  page  3,  Krcun  Sekulich 
seized  the  opportunity  of  writing  an  obituary  in  the  form  of  a  poem 
to  suggest  the  inevitability  of  the  break-down  of  capitalism : 

And  you  died  calmly,  full  of  youthful  dreams    *    *    * 
Of  the  old  world  crumbling  and  falling  apart. 

'■''Every  one  of  us  a  Communisty — And  if  the  old  world  is  falling 
apart,  then,  according  to  the  Narodni  Glasnik,  nothing  remains  but 
to  join  the  Communists.  In  its  issue  of  August  21,  1947,  the  Narodni 
Glasnik  publishes  a  letter  received  by  Marko  Papa  of  Pittsburgh,  Pa., 
from  his  daughter  in  Paris  under  the  title  "Many  Strikes  Are  Break- 
ing Out  in  Paris."    In  that  letter  the  author,  according  to  the  Narodni 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS      643 

Glasnik,  "pictures  the  situation  in  Paris  and  expresses  his  wishes  and 
the  wishes  of  French  workers" : 

*  *  *  What  we  Iiave  lived  through  here  ought  to  make  every  one  of  us  a 
Comniuuist,  that  is,  a  true  Communist  and  not,  as  some  are,  only  with  words 
and  not  with  sentiments. 

Here  every  now  and  then  strikes  are  breaking  out,  one  alter  another.  These 
days  such  a  demonstration  took  place  that  the  police  was  powerless.  I  am  glad 
that  the  j)eople  here  will  some  day  embrace  the  idea  of  communism  *  *  * 
because  there  will  be  more  freedom  and  less  suspicion  among  peoples. 

Moral  and  political  terrorism  in  the  United  States. — In  such  a  coun- 
try as  the  United  States,  it  appears  from  the  above  statements  that  the 
Slobodna  Kec  has  for  13  years  been  doing  "noble  work,"  according 
to  MiLan  Polovina  of  San  Pedro,  Calif.  (Thirteen  Years  of  Noble 
Work,  Slobodna  Kec,  Dec.  17, 1U4T)  : 

Thanks  to  the  capitulation  of  the  people  who  succeeded  the  great  Roosevelt  at 
the  helm  of  this  great  country  of  ours,  to  the  monopoUstic  and  reactionaiy 
elements  of  the  country,  an  unprect  dented  persecution  of  progressive  and  demo- 
cratic forces,  is  being  carried  out,  and  moral  and  political  terrorism  is  being 
made  possible.  The  consequences  of  such  a  domestic  policy  of  our  Government 
and  the  determination  of  the  reaction  to  stifle  the  people's  liberties  and  American 
democracy  must  not  be  underestimated. 

They  not  only  endanger  the  existence  of  the  patriotic  followers  of  progressive 
thought  and  our  democratic  institutions,  but  such  a  policy  is  endangering  the 
existence  of  a  free  America — the  America  of  Washington,  Lincoln,  and  Roosevelt. 
Such  a  policy,  if  continued,  will  inevitably  deliver  America  into  the  hands  of 
fascism.     *     *     * 

Our  workers'  unions  are  being  snatched  fi'om  the  hands  of  progressive  workers' 
leaders  and  by  means  of  laws  such  as  the  Taft-Hartley  bill  are  becoming  the 
prey  of  monopolistic  lackeys.  The  Taft-Hartley  bill  is  only  the  beginning  of 
aggression,  of  the  organization  of  American  industrialists  against  the  workers"^ 
and  progressive  institutions.  This  aggression  by  the  representatives  of  Ameri- 
can monopolists  in  the  Republican  Congress  jeopardizes  all  achievements  which 
the  American  working  people  have  made  in  the  course  of  their  hard  struggle  for 
the  last  25  years. 

The  campaign  of  the  reactionary  press  and  radio  against  the  Soviet  Union  ; 
our  help  to  the  Monarcho-Fascists  in  Greece,  Turkey,  and  Italy  and  China, 
against  the  interests  of  those  countries — all  this  leads  to  one  goal :  The  third 
world  carnage  and  fascism. 

Whether  these  autipeople's  forces,  here  and  in  the  world,  will  succeed  in  real- 
izing their  diabolic  plans,  depends  very  much  on  the  energetic  resistance  whieli 
the  democratic  and  progressive  forces  here  and  in  the  world  will  be  able  to  oppose 
in  the  struggle  for  the  preservation  of  world  peace  and  the  democratic  achieve- 
ments of  peace-loving  mankind.  This  autipeople's  offensive  will  not,  and  can- 
not, succeed  if  that  i-esistance  is  strong  enough ;  if  that  resistance  results  from  a 
united  front  of  all  progressive  and  democratic  forces,  workers'  and  peasants" 
unions  and  organizations,  and  the  democratically  minded  intelligentia. 

Bearing  in  mind  that  our  Slobodna  Rec  is  also  closely  connected  with  the 
struggle  against  the  enemies  of  the  working  people,  against  warmongers  and 
fascism,  bearing  in  mind  that  it  is  closely  connected  with  the  struggle  for  peace 
and  international  friendship,  our  tasks  are  clear  and  well  defined. 

Truman  and  Wall  Street  want  war. — Never  missing  an  opportunity 
to  oppose  the  United  States  Government  to  the  people,  the  Narodni 
Glasnik  of  January  12, 1949,  in  its  editorial,  analyzes  Truman's  budget 
plan  and  declares : 

We  have  said  that  Truman's  whole  program  is  based  on  Wall  Street's  war 
plans.     *     *     * 

The  people  must  understand  this  and  demand  President  Truman  and  the  Con- 
gress to  put  an  end  to  the  cold  war  and  the  spending  of  money  for  war  aims. 
Instead  of  war  material,  houses,  schools,  and  hospitals  ought  to  be  built.  The 
people  must  have  greater  social  security  and  a  better  life.  The  people  want  peace, 
not  war. 


644       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

America  rewarding  war  criminals. — The  strike  wave  in  France  in 
January  1949  incites  the  Narodni  Glasnik  to  the  following  considera- 
tions : 

According  to  news  from  France,  workers  in  various  state-owned  plants  and 
factories  have  gone,  or  are  about  to  go,  on  strilie     *     *     * 

They  are  striking  in  protest  against  the  planned  return  of  nationalized  in- 
dustry to  their  prewar  owners.     *     *     * 

This  seems  to  be  part  of  the  ingratiating  and  submission  to  the  American  bank- 
ers and  monopolists  who,  with  the  help  of  our  Government  are  waging  a  campaign 
for  free  enterprise  all  over  the  world.     *     *     * 

That  is  not  surprising.  Our  powerholders  have  been  the  first  to  forgive  the  sins 
of  the  Nazis.  The  French  reactionaries  had  only  to  watch  what  General  Clay  ^  is 
doing  in  Germany,  to  come  to  the  conclusion  that,  if  the  Americans  can  set  Hitler's 
henchmen  free,  it  is  a  sign  for  them  to  set  free  their  own  domestic  traitors  and 
moreover  to  reward  them. 

(Narodni  Glasnik,  January  14,  1949;  editorial:  The  Rewarding  of  War 
Criminals). 

Truman  does  not  want  peace. — In  the  editorial  of  the  Narodni 
Glasnik  from  January  24,  1949,  President  Truman's  inauguration 
speech  is  commented  upon,  and  the  conclusion  is  expressed  in  the 
title  "Truman  Does  Not  Want  Peace." 

Going  the  imperialistic  loay.— In  the  Narodni  Glasnik  from  Janu- 
ary 25, 1949,  an  editorial  on  the  withdrawal  of  the  CIO  from  the  World 
Federation  of  Trade  Unions  (WFTU)  is  published  under  the  title 
"Going  the  Imperialistic  Way,"  in  which  it  is  said : 

From  all  that,  it  can  clearly  be  seen  that  Carey  ^  and  the  rest  of  the  clique  are 
holding  the  interests  of  the  INIarshall  plan  and  their  masters  from  Wall  Street 
above  the  interests  of  the  W'orkers. 

III.  THE  STAND  OF  THE  SLOBODNA  REG  AND  NARODNI  GLASNIK  ON  YUGO- 
SLAVIA   BEFORE   THE    COMINFORM-TITO    CLASH 

The  above  statements  seem  to  prove  convincingly  that  the  attitude 
of  the  Slobodna  Rec  and  Narodni  Glasnik  toward  the  existing  demo- 
cratic order  of  their  own  country,  the  United  States,  is  one  of  strong 
disapproval.  However,  tlie  tone  swings  from  sharpest  criticism  to 
boundless  praise  when  the  new  Communist  regime  in  Yugoslavia 
(until  the  Cominform-Tito  conflict,  June  28, 1948)  is  concerned.  The 
Slobodna  Rec  and  Narodni  Glasnik  do  not  hesitate  to  draw  compari- 
sons between  the  United  States  and  Yugoslavia  whereby  the  United 
States  is  always — without  a  single  exception — the  loser. 

Example  to  the  Wor'ld. — In  the  greeting  to  the  working  youth  on  the 
Samac-Sarajevo  Railroad  from  the  delegates  of  the  county  conference 
of  American  Democratic  Serbs  gathered  around  the  progressive  news- 
paper Slobodna  Rec,  it  is  said  that: 

The  building  of  the  Samac-Sarajevo  ^  Railroad  line  is  unique  in  history.  It 
can  serve  as  holiest  example  of  the  devotion  of  the  young  generation  of  Tito's' 
Yugo.slavia  to  economic  and  cultural  progress,  an  example  not  only  to  the  people 
of  the  FPR  Yugoslavia,  but  to  all  democratic  nations  of  the  world  (Slobodna  Reci 
of  May  27,  1947). 


'  Gen.  Lucius  B.  Clay  (then)  military  governor  of  Germany.  I 

-  James  B.  Carey,  secretary-treasurer  of  the  CIO  and  leader  at  that  time  of  the  antl-l 
Communist  faction  of  the  United  Electrical,  Radio,  and  Machine  Workers  of  America 
T'lO).  Mr.  Carey  is  presently  administrative  chairman  of  the  International  Union  of 
Electrical,  Radio,  and  Machine  Workers  (CIO),  the  union  established  by  the  CIO  in  oppo- 
sition to  the  UERMWA,  the  latter  having  been  ousted  from  the  CIO  in  November  1949 1 
because  of  its  Communist  leadership. 

'  The  Samac-Sarajevo  railway  was  one  of  tlie  so-called  youth  projects.  It  was  a 
special  ground  for  indoctrination  of  foreign  youth  who,  while  not  working  on  the  railway, 
were  indoctrinated  with  Communist  philosophy. 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS      645 

In  the  Slobodna  Rec  of  June  26,  1947,  appears  a  letter  allegedly  re- 
ceived from  Yugoslavia  by  Michael  and  Eugenia  Pramenko,  Ana- 
conda, Mont.,  in  which  the  Chetniks  are  blamed  for  most  of  the  misery- 
endured  by  the  civilian  population,  and  the  new  Communist  regime  is 
highly  praised. 

Everybody  is  free. — In  the  Slobodna  Rec  of  August  5, 1947,  a  report 
is  published  on  the  "Magnilicent  Welcome"  to  Bozo  Galeb  and  Martin 
Zoric  in  Cupertino,  Calif.,  returning  from  a  visit  to  Yugoslavia,  where 
Galeb  is  quoted  as  saying : 

The  people  cleaned  up  the  country  forever.  It  has  forged  together  not  only  the 
brotherhood  and  unity  of  the  peoples  of  Yugoslavia,  but  also  the  brotherhood  and 
unity  with  all  other  Slav  nations  which  fought  for  the  same  cause  *  *  *_  ^\\q 
people  are  very  gay  and  entirely  free  *  *  *.  All  land  is  divided  among  the 
peasants.    Everybody  has  the  same  rights  and  the  same  duties. 

Everybody  can  come  to  meetings  and  say  what  he  desires  and  feels.  Every 
peasant  and  worker,  every  citizen,  can  openly  and  publicly  criticize  all  that  he 
does  not  like  and  that  he  deems  wrong.  What  the  people  ask  for  they  get.  The 
people  complement  the  authorities.  They  dismiss  from  power  anybody  who  does 
not  act  correctly  and  well. 

Progressing  in  every  way. — In  the  Slobodna  Rec  of  September  11, 
1947,  page  2,  a  letter  allegedly  received  from  Yugoslavia  is  published 
under  the  heading  "Yugoslavia  Is  Progressing  in  Every  Way." 

Governr)ient  hy  the  people. — In  the  Slobodna  Rec  of  August  5, 1947, 
a  letter  is  published,  allegedly  received  from  Yugoslavia  by  M.  Marich, 
in  ^^  hich  it  is  said  that : 

The  imperialists  dislike  the  pre.sent  state  of  affairs  in  Yugoslavia,  because  it  is 
the  people  who  rule  there  now. 

Country  of  the  working  people. — In  another  letter  allegedly  re- 
ceived from  Yugoslavia,  by  Milovan  Vojnovich,  Packwood,  Wash., 
and  published  in  the  Slobodna  Rec  of  August  9,  1947,  it  is  said : 

The  face  of  our  country  is  being  changed,  and  it  is  the  country  of  the  working 
people. 

Everything  belongs  to  the  people. — In  another  letter  allegedly 
received  from  Yugoslavia  by  Milan  Marich,  Chicago,  111.,  and  pub- 
lished in  the  Slobodna  Rec  of  August  21, 1947,  it  is  said : 

With  us  there  is  voluntary  work,  because  the  people  know  that  everything 
belongs  to  them. 

World  admires  Yugoslavia. — A  letter  allegedly  received  from  Yugo- 
slavia by  M.  Budimirovich,  Lincoln  Park,  Mich.,  published  in  the  Slo- 
bodna Rec  on  September  13,  1947,  was  printed  under  a  two-column- 
wide  title:  "The  Over-all  Development  and  Progress  of  Yugoslavia 
Receives  the  Admiration  of  the  Whol«  World." 

The  economic  policy  of  Yugoslavia  even  has  poets  among  people 
connected  with  Slobodna  Rec,  such  as  Dushan  Popovich,  Chicago,  111., 
whose  poem  The  Five- Year  Plan  is  published  in  the  Slobodna  Rec  of 
September  13, 1947. 

Situation  critical  *  *  *  but  not  in  Yugoslavia. — In  the  Slobodna 
Rec  of  October  11,  1947,  a  long  article  is  published  on  Yugoslavia, 
signed  by  Milan  Polovina,  who  returned  to  America  after  spending  3 
months  in  that  country.  As  usual,  the  opportunity  is  taken  to  draw 
a  parallel  between  a  Socialist  country  and  the  capitalist  United  States 
of  America,  which  always  ends  in  condemnation  of  the  United  States. 
Polovina  says : 

When  after  much  trouble  I  finally  obtained  a  passport  for  Yugoslavia,  our 
authorities  warned  me  that  I  was  traveling  on  my  own  responsibility  since 
98330 — 50 — pt.  2 13 


646      COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

in  Yugoslavia  the  situation  was  so  critical  that  the  American  authorities  would 
not  guarantee  my  security. 

I  wonder  from  what  sources  our  authorities  are  getting  their  information,  but 
I  found  that  such  information  was  wrong,  since  the  situation  in  Yugoslavia  not 
only  is  not  critical  but  is  much  more  stable  and  normal  than  for  instance  in 
Italy,  which  is  under  the  protection  of  America. 

After  singing  the  praises  of  the  Yugoslav  industry,  education,  trans- 
port organization,  agriculture,  and  general  reconstruction,  Polovina 
goes  on  saying : 

Unemployment,  that  sword  of  Damocles  which  is  constantly  hanging  over 
the  heads  of  the  working  people  and  darkening  the  joy  of  life  in  capitalist 
countries,  does  not  exist  in  new  Yugoslavia. 

Polovina  admits  that  there  is  great  scarcity  of  certain  goods,  owing 
to  the  drouglit,  but  there,  too,  America  has  its  share  of  responsibility : 

The  people's  authorities  have,  for  instance,  endeavored  to  buy  wheat  and  pota- 
toes from  us  in  America,  but  they  were  refused,  although  at  that  time  we  had 
so  many  potatoes  that  we  destroyed  hundreds  of  carloads.  The  reasons  for  which 
wheat  and  potatoes  were  refused  to  Yugoslavia  are  obvious  to  everyone,  and  there 
is  no  need  to  give  them  here. 

As  for  political  rights  and  liberties  in  Yugoslavia,  Polovina  admits 
that^ 

many  priests  are  in  jail,  as  well  as  peasants,  government  employees,  lawyers, 
etc. — 

but  strongly  refutes  all  "stories"  about  the  persecution  of  the  Church  in 
Yugoslavia,  since  all  these  people  were  jailed 

because  they  worked  against  the  new  people's  authorities.  Those  people  are  angry 
and  protesting,  but  Kardelj  ^  very  rightly  said  of  them:  "The  dogs  bark,  but  the 
caravan  goes  on." 

As  regards  the  new  regime  in  Yugoslavia,  the  author  of  the  article 
says  that  during  his  3  months'  stay  he 

was  able  to  ascertain  that  the  present  people's  authorities  are  based  on  granite 
foundations  and  that  no  reaction  can  shake  it,  be  it  domestic,  foreign,  or  combined. 

Writing  before  the  Cominform-Tito  clash,  Polovina  says  emphati- 
cally : 

The  people's  leadership  and  the  people's  authorities  in  Yugoslavia,  with  the 
great  statesman  and  glorious  soldier  Mar.shal  Tito  at  their  head,  cannot  and  will 
not  desist  from  the  road  which  they  are  following  until  they  realize  a  new  and 
more  joyful  life  for  all  peoples  in  Yugoslavia. 

Yes, 

concludes  Polovina, 

the  situation  is  critical  indeed,  but  not  in  the  Federative  People's  Republic  of  Yugo- 
slavia. 

Yugofdavia  must  not  he  criticized. — According  to  the  Slobodna  Rec 
of  October  22,  1947,  page  3,  Anton  Gerlach,  executive  secretary  of  the 
American  Association  for  Reconstruction  in  Yugoslavia,  on  the  occa- 
sion of  a  solemn  dinner  in  honor  of  70  Yugoslav  "returners"  ^  to 
Yugoslavia,  went  as  far  as  to  warn  them  against  any  criticism  of 
Yugoslavia : 

Brothers,  when  you  get  to  Yugoslavia,  beware  of  those  who  are  critical  of  the 
state  of  affairs  in  Yugoslavia.  *  *  *  They  are  the  remnants  of  old  exploiters 
and  oppressors  of  Yugoslav  peasants  and  workers.  *  *  *  They  will  complain 
that  there  is  no  freedom  in  Yugoslavia.  They  will  ask  you  how  they  could  get  to 
America  and  otiier  things. 

^  Edvard  Kardelj,  vice  premier  of  Yugoslavia. 

^  The  term  "returners"  is  used  to  describe  immigrants  in  this  country  who  have  returned 
to  Yugoslavia  and  other  Communist-controlled  countries  under  a  Communist-sponsored 
repatriation  program. 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS      647 

And  now  Gerlach  warns  about  the  state  of  affairs  in  America : 

Tell  tliem  that  the  American  people  do  not  have  the  same  opinion  about  Yugo- 
slavia and  other  democratic  countries  as  Truman,  Marshall,  Hoover,  and  Taft, 
and  others.  Tell  them  that  we  have  strong  and  powerful  unions  and  millions  of 
organized  workers. 

For  the  /?eo/?7e.— Yugoslavia  is  repeatedly  cited  as  a  country  with  a 
people's  regime.  So,  m  an  article  entitled  "The  London  1^'og,"  by 
Dushan  M.  Peyovich  (wherein  the  author  assails  the  short-sighted- 
ness of  the  London  people  and  the  "reactionary  press  in  America"), 
it  is  said  that : 

In  some  countries,  the  last  war  of  liberation  brought  about  great  changes 
in  the  political  structure  and  in  the  social  life,  so  that  today,  especially  in 
Yugoslavia,  the  whole  state  apparatus  is  following  the  people's  will. 

Through  this  London  Fog  one  can  still  see  that  a  majority  of  the  people  of 
that  island  have  not  yet  started  seeing  with  their  own  eyes  and  that  they  are 
still  lagging  behind  many  peoples,  for  whom  the  last  war  opened  the  eyes  and 
showed  what  the  popular  masses  are  striving  for  (Slobodna  Rec,  Nov.  29,  1947, 
p.  3). 

No  exploitation. — In  a  letter  allegedly  received  from  Yugoslavia  by 
Milovan  Akika,  Midland,  Pa.,  and  jpublished  in  the  Slobodna  Rec  of 
December  10, 1947,  page  3,  Yugoslavia  is  again  set  up  as  an  example  of 
a  country  which  has  freed  itself  from  the  evils  of  capitalism: 

Yugoslavia  is  being  slandered  because  it  is  no  longer  possible  in  that  country 
for  one  person  to  enrich  himself  at  the  expense  of  another  person  and  live  on 
tlie  labor  of  others. 

Reaction  is  powerless. — In  a  letter  allegedly  received  from  Yugo- 
slavia by  Jovo  Skulich,  Chicago,  111.,  and  published  in  the  Slobodna 
Rec  of  December  24,  1917,  page  3,  Yugoslavia  is  pictured  as  a  country 
which  has  done  away  with  reaction  once  and  for  all  time : 

As  to  what  you  write  about  enemies  over  there,  I  can  tell  you  that  we  have  them 
here,  too;  I  mean  reaction.  But  our  country  has  laid  such  firm  foundations 
for  a  new  future  and  new  life,  that  nobody,  not  even  the  strongest  enemy,  can 
destroy  it.     *     *    * 

Democracy  in  Yugoslavia  compared  to  America. — ^In  the  Slobodna 
Rec  of  May  29,  1948,  a  very  long  article  is  published  under  the  title 
"On  Democracy  in  Yugoslavia"  (p.  2)  and  "What  Does  Democracy 
Mean  in  Yugoslavia"  (p.  3).  This  article  is  the  final  part  of  an 
article  published  in  the  periodical  T  &  T,  edited  by  Louis  Adamic. 

Slobodna  Rec  introduces  the  author,  Donald  L.  Hesson,  as  a  well- 
known  lawyer  from  Chicago. 

His  report  is  "a  strong  rebuke  to  the  insidious  slanders  and  fabrications  of 
the  warmongers,  American  reactionaries,  and  the  Chetnik-Ustashi  ^  coalition. 
Because  of  the  attempt  of  some  circles  to  prevent  the  people  from  getting  an 
objective  picture  and  correct  report  of  the  real  state  of  affairs  in  Yugoslavia, 
we  are  publishing  here  the  end  of  Mr.  Hesson's  article." 

In  his  article  Hesson  says,  among  other  things : 

In  America  we  argue  that  socialism  with  its  attendant  restrictions  and  regula- 
tions is  not  democratic  ;  from  the  point  of  view  of  the  average  Yugoslav,  however, 
it  is  democratic ;  it  has  brought  him  a  greater  measure  of  economic  freedom  and 
security  in  terms  of  higher  wages,  more  consumer  goods,  and  increased  educa- 
tional, medical,  and  cultural  facilities.     *     *     * 


1  Chetniks  was  the  popular  term  used  to  describe  the  Royal  Yugoslav  Army  in  the  Home- 
land during  the  Nazi  occupation  which  was  under  the  leadership  of  the  martyred  Gen. 
Draza  Mihailovich.    The  Dstashi  was  the  Fascist  Party  of  Croatia. 


648      COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

Comparing  freedom  in  Yugoslavia  with  freedom  in  the  United 
States,  Hesson  says : 

Freedom,  according  to  the  Yugoslav  notion,  is  not  static  but  a  dynamic  force 
springing  from  tlie  relationsliip  between  the  individual  and  society.  Since  man 
is  born  into  a  social  group,  they  believe  his  freedom  comes  from  participating  ia 
and  becoming  part  of  that  group.  Hence  emphasis  is  laid  upon  those  activities 
which  will  draw  the  individual  into  the  group  and  cause  him  to  identify  his  in- 
terests with  the  interests  of  the  group  as  a  whole.  I  noted  that  instead  of  using 
the  words  "I"  and  "mine,"  most  Yugoslavs  said  "we"  and  "ours."  From  this 
basic  notion,  it  is  evident  why  the  Yugoslavs  in  reorganizing  their  economy  have 
to  a  great  extent  eliminated  economic  competition  for  individual  gain,  and  why 
cooperation  is  emphasized  instead. 

On  the  other  hand,  the  underlying  idea  in  America  is  that  man  is  born  free, 
hence  it  follows  that  any  restriction  imposed  upon  his  "natural  freedom"  by  the 
social  group  in  wliich  he  lives  is  a  limitation  or  curtailment  of  freedom.  Accord- 
ingly, the  individual  thinks  of  freedom  in  terms  of  rights  which  must  be  wrenched 
from  society  and  tends  to  look  upon  the  group  interest  as  being  hostile  to  his  own. 
This  tends  to  create  a  conflict  between  the  individual  and  the  group  and  leads  to 
the  individual  seeking  after  security  and  power  on  an  individual  basis  without 
regard  to  the  welfare  of  the  group  as  a  whole. 

Individual  initiative  is  encouraged  in  Yugoslavia,  but — unlike  in  America,  where 
it  is  directed  toward  the  accumulation  of  property  even  at  the  expense  of  others — • 
there  it  is  directed  toward  tlie  advancement  of  the  group  as  a  whole.  Recognition 
oomes  not  from  the  size  of  a  man's  bank  balance  as  is  generally  the  case  here,  but 
from  the  service  he  renders  to  the  community.  To  the  Yugoslavs,  rugged  indi- 
vidualism and  enterprise  operated  solely  for  personal  gain  constitute  a  force 
which  tends  to  destroy  social  values  because  it  places  property  values  above  human 
values.  Whatever  the  essence  of  true  human  freedom  may  be,  surely  it  must 
include  economic  security  and  realization  of  comradeship. 

Hesson  admits  some  degree  of  persecution  being  applied  in  Yugo- 
slavia, but  is  very  quick  to  find  excuses  for  the  Yugoslav  Communist 
regime : 

That  it  has  dealt  harshly  by  our  standards  with  a  few  people,  no  one  can  deny; 
but  when  viewed  in  the  light  of  history  and  the  efforts  of  other  peoples  in  the  past 
to  liberate  themselves  from  the  forces  of  oppression  and  exploitation,  it  is  remark- 
able that  the  cost  has  not  been  greater. 

Workers  are  their  otvn  masters. — Not  a  single  opportunity  is  missed 
to  show  Americans  how  fine  other  countries  are,  because  they  are 
countries  of  socialism.  So  in  the  Narodni  Glasnik  of  July  8,  1947, 
(p.  2) ,  Anton  Minerich,  in  one  of  his  articles  from  his  journey  through 
Yugoslavia,  writes : 

These  miners  worked  before  for  foreign  owners  and  now  they  are  masters  of 
their  own  mines,  as  they  are  masters  of  their  own  land. 

People  are  the  government. — In  the  same  copy  of  Narodni  Glasnik, 
which  never  tires  of  emphasizing  the  conflict  of  the  interests  of  the 
American  Government  and  the  American  people,  carries  (p.  5)  a  two- 
column  headline  over  a  letter  allegedly  received  from  Yugoslavia  by 
Steve  Miletich  (Braco),  South  Chicago,  111. : 

With  us  it  is  easy  to  agree  with  the  government  since  the  whole  people  are  the 
government. 

In  another  letter  published  in  the  same  issue  of  the  same  news- 

eiper — which  is,  in  the  same  way  as  the  Slobodna  Rec  and  the 
aily  Worker,  constantly  assailing  the  reactionary  press  of  America — 
a  young  man  is  quoted  as  writing  to  his  aunt  in  the  United  States. 

Dear  Aunt:  Read  the  newspaper  that  writes  what  is  true,  and  its  name  is 
Narodni  Glasnik. 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS      649 

A  little  further,  another  letter  allegedly  from  Yugoslavia  is  pub- 
lished, evidently  to  make  people  in  capitalist  America  think  about  the 
wonders  of  socialism  in  practice : 

Here  all  work  is  done,  because  everybody  knows  that  he  works  for  himself  and 
because  we  have  full  equality  of  rights  and  freedom. 

And  still  further  in  the  same  issue  of  the  same  newspaper,  a  fourth 
letter  allegedly  from  Yugoslavia  is  published  in  which  it  is  proclaimed 
that— 

The  5-year  plan  will  bring  well-being  to  our  peoples, 

Poioerful  activity. — In  the  Narodni  Glasnik  of  July  30,  1947,  three 
letters  allegedly  received  from  Yugoslavia  by  Terezia  Marich,  Canton, 
Ohio,  are  published  under  the  following  titles : 

"From  the  Letters  of  Our  People  in  the  Old  Country,  a  Powerful  Activity 
and  IClan  Can  Be  Seen  Through  Which  a  Free  Country  Is  Being  Built." 

"Factories  Are  Working  Full  Blast  and  Peasants  Are  Cultivating  More  and 
More  Land  To  Feed  Themselves  and  the  Workers  in  the  Factories." 

Old  and  neio  Yugoslavia. — In  the  Narodni  Glasnik  of  August  7, 
1947,  page  2,  a  report  on  "A  Visit  to  the  Yugoslav  Ship  Radnik''\  by 
Petar  Simrak,  is  published,  in  which  the  author  describes  his  visit 
with  the  ship's  cook,  who  obviously  tried  to  picture  as  strikingly  as 
possible  the  difference  between  the  old  and  new  regimes  in  Yugoslavia : 

The  difference  between  the  life  of  sailors  during  the  old  regime  in  Yugoslavia 
and  today  is  enormous.  In  old  Yugoslavia  I  had  to  cook  separately  for  the  ship's 
captain,  separately  for  the  other  ofHcers,  separately  for  the  crew,  and  separately 
for  myself ;  whereas  today,  by  golly,  we  all  eat  out  of  the  same  pot,  and  we  are 
all  satisfied. 

While  the  cook  was  telling  this  story  an  officer  came  in  and  asked  the  cook 
for  a  few  plates.  "There  they  are;  take  them  and  carry  them,"  replied  the 
cook. 

Following  is  an  excerpt  from  a  letter  allegedly  received  from  Yugo^ 
slavia  by  Peter  Buneta,  St.  Louis,  Mo.,  published  in  the  Narodni 
Glasnik  of  August  11, 1947,  page  4 : 

The  people  are  building  their  country  enthusiastically.  Many  people  before 
the  war  tliought  of  Yugoslavia  as  a  countiy  where  uncivilized  people  live,  people 
unable  to  live  by  themselves,  who  should  be  ruled  by  foreigners,  etc.  But  the 
people  pulled  themselves  together  at  a  certain  moment;  they  did  not  want  to  be 
exploited  any  longer,  but  wanted  to  be  free  and  their  land  and  their  country  to 
belong  to  them. 

We  are  not  the  least  disturbed  by  Truman's  policy,  by  Churchill's  wish  to 
divide  Europe,  by  speeches  of  DeGaulle,*  by  the  wishes  of  De  Gasperi.^  We 
know  them  well ;  they  cannot  deceive  us,  because  we  have  suffered  enough 
and  shaken  off  our  yoke,  so  that  nobody  can  again  bring  us  to  the  state  of  affairs 
which  existed  earlier. 

Sorry  they  left  Yugoslavia. — In  the  Narodni  Glasnik  of  August  15, 
1947,  page  3,  an  article  was  published,  signed  by  Katarina  Luchich, 
under  the  heading  "The  Refugees  Are  Cursing  the  Gentlemen  W\\o 
Deceived  Them,"  which  contains  excerpts  from  letters  allegedly 
written  by  persons  who  fled  from  Yugoslavia  and  now  regret  that 
they  did  so. 

Our  teaclieT  and  savior.,  Tito. — In  the  same  issue  of  the  Narodni 
Glasnik  (p.  4),  a  letter  allegedly  received  from  Yugoslavia  by  S. 
Busich,  South  Chicago,  111.,  is  published,  in  which  it  is  said : 

Our  Marshal  Tito  is  good  for  the  people.  He  is  our  teacher  and  our  savior  and 
creator  of  F.  P.  R.  Yugoslavia.    This  Government  of  ours  is  and  will  be  doing 

*  Gen.  Charles  de  Gaulle,  leader  of  the  French  wartime  resistance  movement. 

*  Alcide  de  Gasperi,  Prime  Minister  of  Italy. 


650      COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

wonrlers  for  us  working  people.     [This  was,  however,  before  the  Cominform-Tito 
clash.] 

Notohere  in  the  world. — In  an  article  wherein  she  describes  lier  trip 
on  the  Yugoslav  ship  Radnik  from  New  York  to  Canada,  Mary  Perkins 
(Babin)  says: 

I  think  that  nowhere  in  the  world  is  there  such  comradely  behavior  and  work- 
ing 61an  as  on  this  Yugoslav  ship  (Narodni  Glasnik,  September  3,  1947,  p.  3). 

No  clothing,  hut  democratic  freedom. — In  the  Narodni  Glasnik  of 
September  8,  1947  (p.  4),  a  letter  is  published  allegedly  received  from 
Slovenia  (Yugoslavia)  by  Lynn  Whitney,  "famous  radio  actress"  in 
Hollywood,  from  her  nephew.  After  asking  for  old  clothing  ("if  you 
have  some  old  clothing  for  me  and  my  wife,  we  shall  gladly  accept  it") , 
he  goes  on  to  say : 

We  enjoy  today  pure  democratic  freedom,  under  the  leadership  of  our  Marshal 
Tito.     *     *     * 

Today  people  of  leisure  and  exploiters  do  not  belong'  to  our  just  and  working 
state.  We  have  the  watchword  'all  for  one  and  one  for  all" — believe  me  *  *  * 
that  the  big  capitalists  hate  us  and  invent  anything  to  harm  us. 

The  bourgeoisie  does  not  like  our  regime,  because  it  sees  that  everyone  is 
receiving  what  he  earns,  that  nobody  has  any  other  master  but  the  state,  which  is 
the  people  themselves.  The  bourgeoisie  is  slandering  us,  because  it  sees  that  we 
are  united.  It  would  like  the  gentlemen  again  to  be  at  the  lielm.  We  will  not  let 
them.  As  long  as  we  have  our  leader,  Marshal  Tito,  the  capitalistic  hopes  to  rule 
people  will  not  come  true.     *     *     * 

Please  give  this  letter  to  some  periodical  to  publish  it,  so  that  the  workers  of 
America  might  see  that  what  their  press  writes  about  us  is  not  true. 

Charges  false. — In  the  Narodni  Glasnik  of  September  15, 1947  (p.  3) , 
the  Yugoslav  regime  is  defended  against  the  charge  of  godlessness: 

Dear  Aunt:  Do  not  believe  that  we  do  not  go  to  church  and  that  we  do  not 
believe  in  God.    [Excerpt  from  a  letter  allegedly  received  from  Yugoslavia.] 

Freedom  in  Yugoslavia  and  America. — In  a  letter  allegedly  received 
from  Yugoslavia  by  Kata  Basich,  Cleveland,  Ohio,  and  published 
in  the  Narodni  Glasnik  of  September  15,  1947,  page  4,  a  parallel  is 
drawn  between  progress  and  freedom  in  Yugoslavia  and  in  the  United 
States : 

In  the  5-year  plan  everything  is  foreseen  that  has  to  be  done  every  day,  week, 
month,  year,  etc.     *     *     * 

Once  the  5-year  plan  is  piit  into  effect,  I  believe  that  even  the  Americans  will 
envy  us.  Not  for  our  wealth,  because  we  are  still  much  poorer,  but  for  the  pace 
of  our  progress  and  self-help. 

If  only  the  warmongers  would  leave  us  in  peace  we  would  progress  very 
quickly.     *     *     * 

Foreign  newspapermen  who  are  on  the  side  of  the  capitalists  shout  that  there 
is  no  freedom  with  us.  Yes:  with  us  there  is  no  freedom  for  those  who  would 
like  to  sell  us.  to  use  us  for  some  loan,  and  that  we  afterward  work  for  foreigners 
as  in  chains,  just  for  a  piece  of  bread.  Freedom  with  us  is  better  than  in  America, 
where  you  may  perhaps  write  everything,  but  you  must  not  think  of  a  better 
life.     *     *     * 

Following  is  an  excerpt  from  a  letter  allegedly  received  from  Yugo- 
slavia by  Marko  Krnjich  of  Gary,  Ind.,  and  published  in  the  Narodni 
Glasnik  of  September  17, 1947,  page  4 : 

The  people  themselves  work,  the  people  decide,  the  people  themselves  enjoy 
their  property  in  complete  freedom. 

A  new  world. — Yugoslavia  is  sometimes  pictured  in  the  Narodni 
Glasnik  as  a  "new  world,"  different  from  what  the  world  has  been  for 
"thousand  of  years"  (excerpts  from  the  travel  with  the  second  group 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS      651 

of  "returners"  to  Yugoslavia  published  in  the  Narodni  Glasnik,  Octo- 
ber 1,1947). 

Comrade  Jardas  said,  among  other  things,  that  we  who  return  home  are  not 
returning  to  the  old  country  which  we  left  dozens  of  years  ago,  but  to  a  new 
world  which  is  ruled  today  by  those  who  were  oppressed,  exploited,  and  humili- 
ated for  thousands  of  years.     *     *     * 

We  travelers  saw  and  felt  that  new  world,  about  which  comrade  Jardas 
spoke,  immediately.  On  the  ship  there  is  a  new  spirit,  a  new  atmosphere, 
entirely  different  from  the  one  in  which  we  lived  in  Canada  and  America.  The 
commandant  and  the  crew  of  the  ship  are  people  from  our  workers'  ranks,  who 
think  the  same  way  as  we  workers  do — very  friendly,  hospitable,  modest,  and 
eympathetic.     They  do  not  consider  themselves  to  be  above  us.  but  one  of  us. 

Strikes  in  America^  reconstruction  in  Yugoslavia. — In  the  Narodni 
Glasnik  of  October  10,  1947,  page  4,  again  a  parallel  is  drawn  between 
Communist  Yugoslavia  and  the  capitalistic  United  States  (excerpts 
from  a  letter  allegedly  received  from  Yugoslavia  by  Djuro  Brkljacic, 
McKees  Rocks,  Pa.)  : 

The  life  in  our  country,  which  has  been  much  ravaged  and  plundered  by 
various  enemies  of  our  peoples,  is  not  bad,  as  .you  are  informed  b.v  the  McCormick 
and  Hearst  press. 

I  read  often  in  the  newspapers  about  strikes  with  you  and  also  hear  it  over 
the  radio.  With  us  there  are  no  strikes ;  the  people,  the  youth  especially,  are 
participating  in  masses  in  the  work  of  reconstruction  of  our  devastated  home- 
land, and  you  have  heard  about  our  youth  railway  lines,  Brcko-Banovici  and 
Samac-Sarajevo,  at  which,  besides  our  youth,  the  youth  from  all  the  world 
worked. 

Neio  tyj)e  democracy.,  without  American  exploiters. — Even 
more  outspoken  is  the  criticism  of  the  United  States,  as  well  as 
of  Canada,  contained  in  another  letter,  allegedly  received  from  Yugo- 
slavia by  Frank  Celicek,  McKees  Rocks,  Pa.,  from  his  daughter,  Bar- 
bara Krcelic,  who  returned  to  Yugoslavia  with  the  Yugoslav  ship 
Radnik  (Narodni  Glasnik,  October  16, 1947,  p.  3)  : 

I  really  would  never  like  to  go  back  to  Canada  or  America.  Here  the  stand- 
ard of  living  is,  of  course,  lower  than  in  America,  but  we  are  building  something 
huge,  great — a  beautiful  and  happy  future.  We  are  building  a  workers'  state ; 
when  we  shall  have  built  our  industry,  then  the  worker  here  will  really  be  a 
happy  man.  We  live  all  the  same  way.  There  is  no  privileged  class  which 
would  live  at  the  expense  of  others. 

Our  country  has  changed  completely,  or  rather  the  relations  between  people 
and  work  has  changed  radically.     *     *     * 

Throughout  the  struggle  for  the  liberation  of  our  peoples,  we  at  the  same  time 
were  creating  a  new  social  order  in  our  country;  we  were  creating  a  state  of 
the  working  people  in  which  all  the  power  derives  from  the  people  and  belongs 
to  the  people.  That  is  one  of  the  greatest  victories  of  our  struggle — the  creation 
of  our  true  people's  government,  government  of  the  working  people  of  towns  and 
villages.     *     *     * 

All  land  is  distributed  to  the  peasants.  There  are  no  more  feudal  estates 
in  our  country.  All  industry  is  nationalized ;  it  belongs  to  the  working  people. 
The  banks,  the  means  of  transportation,  mineral  riches,  and  in  general  all 
natural  riches  belong  to  society.  Forever  is  liquidated  the  capitalist  class, 
oppressor  of  the  working  masses,  and  the  working  masses  have  become  the 
ruling  factor  of  the  country.     *     *     ♦ 

We  have  created  a  new  type  of  state  and  democracy  in  which  all  power,  as 
foreseen  in  the  Constitution,  derives  from  the  people  and  belongs  to  the  people. 
Can  there  be  more  democratism  than  in  our  people's  government,  or  can  you  say 
that  you  in  America  have  such  a  democracy?  It  is  true  that  your  Constitution 
gives  formulas  and  rights  to  the  citizens  of  the  United  States,  but  these  rights 
remain  only  on  paper,  they  cannot  be  won,  because  the  influence  of  the  monopo- 
lies and  capital  does  not  permit  the  working  masses  to  take  part  in  the  Govern- 
ment.    *     *     * 


652       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

During  the  war  I  performed  the  duty  of  a  political  commissar  in  our  partisan 
army,  and  now  I  am  captain  of  our  heroic  army — an  army  such  as  no  country 
has,  which  is  ready  to  fight  for  the  salvation  of  all  freedom-loving  man- 
kind.    *     *     * 

I  believe  that  you  are  getting  various  news  about  our  country,  that  our  enemies 
(the  American  reactionaries)  want  to  picture  our  country  in  a  different  way 
from  what  it  really  is.  We  know  that  very  well,  but  that  will  not  disturb  us  the 
least  in  our  struggle  for  a  better  life  for  the  working  masses  and  in  our  efforts 
to  create  well-being  for  people  who  create  and  work,  and,  on  the  other  hand,  to 
make  impossible  the  return  to  power  of  the  capitalist  clique,  which  was  sitting 
on  the  back  of  our  people  and  carrying  away  the  fruits  of  their  work.  That  is 
what  the  American  capitalists  do  not  like,  because  we  do  not  allow  them  to  make 
out  of  our  country  a  semicoionial  and  deiicndent  country  which  they  could  ex- 
ploit to  their  will.  They  had  such  opportunities  during  the  old  regime  in  Yugo- 
slavia, *  *  *  but  now  that  the  new  Yugoslavia  does  not  tolerate  that,  then 
it  is  not  good,  there  is  no  democracy  in  it,  etc.  (Excerpts  from  a  letter  allegedly 
received  from  Yugoslavia  by  Joe  Fabian,  Narodni  Glasnik,  October  16,  1947,  p.  5.) 

No  oppression  or  exploitation. — In  an  article  written  by  M.  J. 
Brzovic,  Chicago,  to  commemorate  the  second  anniversary  of  the 
proclamation  of  the  F.  P.  R.  Yugoslavia,  November  29,  1945,  and 
published  in  the  Narodni  Glasnik  of  October  16, 1947,  page  6,  it  is  said : 

This  is  the  day  when  the  fate  of  all  those  who  for  years  and  centuries  op- 
pressed and  exploited  our  people  was  sealed.  This  is  the  day  which  gave  to 
the  people  of  Yugoslavia  the  opportunity  to  make  through  the  5-year  plan  a 
backward  agricultural  country  into  a  modern  industrial  country  which  will 
satisfy  all  people's  needs. 

New  democracy. — The  Narodni  Glasnik  of  June  11,  1948,  also  re- 
printed, under  the  title  "What  Democracy  Means  in  Yugoslavia,"  an 
important  excerpt  from  the  article  of  Donald  L.  Hesson,  a  Chicago 
attorney,  published  in  Louis  Aclamic's  periodical  T  &  T.  The  author 
describes  "the  new  democracy"  in  Yugoslavia  as  "the  desire  of  the  peo- 
ple to  build  a  new  society  and  their  spirit  of  cooperation." 

The  Slobodna  Rec  and  Narodni  Glasnik  Ad  not  show  the  slight- 
est inclination  to  understand  democracy  in  America  such  as  it  is, 
but  readily  opened  their  columns  to  Hesson,  who  declares : 

I  begin  to  understand  democracy  from  the  Yugoslav  point  of  view. 

IV.    STAND  or   THE   SLOBODNA   REC   AND   NAKODNI   GLASNIK   ON   THE 
COMINFORM-TITO  CLASH 

It  might  be  assumed  that  this  enthusiasm  and  the  complete  devotion 
to  Yugoslavia  derive  from  the  sentimental  attachment  of  "progres- 
sive" American  Serbs  and  Croats  to  the  country  of  their  birth.  But 
that  is  not  the  case.  The  "progressive"  Serbs  gathered  around  the  Slo- 
bodna Rec  represent  the  lowest  percentage  of  "progressives"  in  any 
Slavic  national  groups  in  America — around  5  percent.  And  that  mi- 
nority is  not  made  up  of  people  who  love  the  old  country,  cherish  the 
memories  of  their  national  past,  respect  the  traditions  and  cultural 
heritage  of  their  ancestors;  neither  are  they  people  who  supposedly 
relinquished  all  the  links  with  the  old  country  in  order  to  embrace 
America  wholeheartedly  and  become  good  Americans. 

"Progressive"  American  Serbs  are  people  whose  attitude  toward 
Yugoslavia  always  depended  only  upon  the  regime  in  it  or,  to  put  it 
more  precisely,  on  the  attitude  of  the  regime  in  Yugoslavia  toward  the 
Soviet  Union.  So,  owing  to  such  changes,  there  can  be  observed  three 
distinct  phases  of  the  "progressive"  Serbs'  attitude  toward 
Yugoslavia : 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS      653 

(a)  Before  World  War  II. — It  is  a  well-known  fact  that  Yugo- 
slavia was  one  of  the  most  thoroughly  anti-Communist  countries  and 
one  of  the  few  countries  which — until  1940,  when,  under  the  threat 
of  Nazi  Germany^  relations  were  established — did  not  even  maintain 
diplomatic  relations  with  the  Soviet  Union.  The  newspaper  Slobodna 
Rec,  which  is  identical  with  the  "Serbian  Progressive  Movement," 
adopted  from  its  very  beginning,  in  1934,  an  attitude  of  utmost  enmity 
against  the  existing  order  in  Yugoslavia. 

In  Yugoslavia,  before  World  War  II,  as  in  any  country  where  there 
is  some  freedom  of  thought  and  expression,  many  patriots  and  demo- 
crats were  critical  of  the  government's  policies.  But  the  arguments 
of  those  people  were  always  distinctly  different  from  the  Communists' 
criticisms.  While  the  first  criticized  in  order  to  eradicate  some  evils 
and  thus  strengthen  the  country  which  had  to  face  the  formidable 
threat  of  Nazi  Germany,  the  Communists  did  their  best  to  formulate 
their  criticism  and  launch  slogans  so  as  to  demoralize,  to  spread 
defeatism,  weaken  the  inner  power  of  resistance  of  the  country,  and 
create  confusion  and  chaos — the  ideal  ground  for  communism.  The 
democratic  opposition  was  criticizing  the  government's  policy  for 
not  being  democratic  enough  or  for  failing  to  equip  militarily  the 
nation  to  resist  any  attack  on  its  independence.  The  Communists' 
criticism  was  following  the  usual  destructive  pattern  which,  with  a 
few  adaptations,  is  applied  to  any  country  of  the  globe  which  is  not 
Communist  and  does  not  strictly  obey  Moscow's  orders.  The  Commun- 
ists contended  that  the  peasants  were  economically  ruined  and  cul- 
turally backward  owing  to  the  lack  of  interest  on  the  part  of  the  regime 
and  the  greed  of  the  capitalists ;  that  the  wages  were  too  low  and  the 
w^orkers  did  not  enjoy  any  social  care  or  security;  that  the  capitalists, 
domestic  and  foreign,  drew  huge  profits,  in  contrast  to  the  misery  of 
the  broad  masses  of  the  pe/Dple ;  that  the  "tyranny  of  King  Alexander" 
and  the  "great  Serbian  hegemony"  had  deprived  the  people  of  its  civil 
rights;  that  a  powerful  ''military  clique"  was  exercising  an  over- 
whelming influence  on  the  state  affairs,  and  so  forth. 

After  Hitler's  rise  to  power,  the  Communists  applied  in  all  countries 
of  the  world  their  Trojan-horse  tactics  of  anti-Fascist  people's  fronts, 
which  were  adopted  at  the  Seventh  Congress  of  the  Communist  Inter- 
national— Comintern — in  July  1935.  As  everywhere  else  in  the  world, 
these  tactics  put  the  Communists  in  the  position  of  influencing  more 
strongly  the  democratic  forces  in  their  political  thinking  and  action. 
Nevertheless,  in  Yugoslavia  no  people's  front  was  formed,  and  the  line 
of  democratic  opposition  remained  different  from  the  communistic. 

The  Slobodna  Rec  from  the  very  beginning  assumed  the  Communist 
stand,  and  until  Tito's  rise  to  power  it  remained  basically  inimical  to 
the  Yugoslav  Government. 

(b)  From  Titoh  rise  to  power  until  the  Cominforrti-Tito  clash. — 
But  when  the  old  capitalistic  order  was  eliminated  in  Yugoslavia  and 
Tito  firmly  installed  in  power,  the  Slobodna  Rec,  as  can  be  seen  from 
the  quoted  examples,  executed  a  complete  about-face;  and  its  attitude 
toward  the  regime  in  Yugoslavia  became  one  of  complete  approval, 
lavish  praise,  and  entire  solidarity.  All  of  a  sudden  everything  became 
all  right  in  Yugoslavia.  Owing  to  the  communistic  interpretation, 
the  people  had  taken  its  destiny  in  its  own  hands;  all  political,  social, 
economic,  and  cultural  problems  were  to  be  solved  in  the  best  way. 
The  foreign  policy  particularly  was  satisfactory  since,  instead  of 


654       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

running  against  the  people's  will,  that  is,  with  the  western  democra- 
cies— it  was  based  on  the  closest  collaboration  with  the  Soviet 
Government.. 

Overnight,  the  "progressive"  American  Serbs  around  the  Slobodna 
Rec,  American  Slav  Congress,  and  similar  organizations  had  become 
Yugoslav  patriots,  such  patriots  that  they  forgot  they  were  Americans. 

The  same  can  be  said  of  progressive  American  Croats,  in  spite  of 
some  differences  which  exist  between  the  two  groups.  Namely,  the  per- 
centage of  "progressives"  among  American  Croats  is  much  higher  than 
among  American  Serbs.  Then  the  Narodni  Glasnik  is  a  much  older 
progressive  newspaper  than  the  Slobodna  Rec  and  thus  with  a  much 
older  militant  background  than  the  Slobodna  Rec.  But  their  criteria, 
their  yardsticks,  are  the  same.  As  a  result,  progressive  American 
Serbs  feel  uncomfortable  because  of  their  rather  poor  "progressive" 
record  and  class-consciousness;  "progressive"  American  Croats 
proudly  proclaim  that  in  the  American  Slav  Congress  the  Croats  have 
"always  been  and  are  today  the  strongest  group  and  the  greatest  sup- 
port *  *  *  to  the  work  of  the  Congress."  (See  Narodni  Glasnik 
of  December  1,  1948,  Report  of  Mary  Sumrak.) 

Mirko  Markovich  wrote,  after  his  return  to  Yugoslavia  (The 
Struggle  in  America  for  a  New  Yugoslavia,  Belgrade,  1940,  p.  24)  : 

The  organized  workers'  revolutionary  movement  *  *  *  -was  composed 
mainly  of  Croatian  workers.    The  Serbs  numbered  only  a  few  hundred. 

Anyway,  the  period  when  the  Soviet  Government  approved  of  the 
regime  in  Yugoslavia  was  also  the  period  of  boundless  Yugoslav 
nationalism  on  the  part  of  progressive  American  Serbs  and  Croats.  A 
few  examples  make  this  point  clear : 

1.  Perhaps  the  most  striking  example  of  the  ideas  of  the  people 
gathered  in  the  American  Slav  Congress  and  other  "progressive"  or- 
ganizations of  Americans  of  Slavic  descent  is  to  be  found  in  the  an- 
nouncement of  a  great  picnic  of  the  American  Slav  Congress,  Midwest 
division,  held  on  July  7,  1946.  After  saying  that  Slav  dishes  will  be 
served  by  girls  in  Slav  costumes,  it  announces : 

One  part  of  the  proceeds  is  destined  for  the  American-Slav  Congress ;  and  the 
other,  to  the  orphans  of  Stalingrad. 

Stalingrad  and  the  sacrifices  of  its  citizens  for  the  whole  world  must  be  to 
every  Slav  what  Thermopylae  and  Marathon  are  to  the  Greeks  and  Valley  Forge 
and  Bunker  Hill  are  to  the  Americans. 

Such  an  interpretation  casts  also  a  revealing  light  on  the  announce- 
ment that  George  Pirinsky,  executive  secretary  of  the  American  Slav 
Congress,  will  speak  of  the  future  work  of  the  congress  and  how 
important  a  role  it  has  played  in  the  past.  ( Slobodna  Rec,  January  29, 
1946,  p.  4.) 

2.  On  Independence  Day,  1946,  the  Croatian  organizations 
united  in  the  Croatian  National  Council  held  a  celebration.  However, 
they  did  not  celebrate  the  greatest  American  national  holiday,  but  they 
proclaimed  it  "Croatian  day"  and  distributed  medals  of  the  Yugoslav 
Red  Cross  to  deserving  persons,  who  distinguished  themselves  with 
their  industrious  work  in  collecting  aid  for  the  peoples  of  Yugoslavia. 

A  queer  way  for  Americans  to  celebrate  the  greatest  American  na- 
tional holiday. 

3.  In  the  announcement  of  the  Serbian  Congress  in  Pittsburgh 
on  August  31  and  September  1,  1946,  an  appeal  is  launched  to  give  as 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS      655 

much  help  as  possible  for  the  Serbian  people  in  the  old  country  and 
cheers  are  addressed  to  the  brotherhood  and  unity  of  the  southern 
Slavs,  as  well  as  to  the  forthcoming  congress,  but  the  United  States  as 
such  is  not  mentioned. 

4.  In  the  announcement  of  the  Third  American  Slav  Congress, 
September  20,  21,  and  22,  1946,  it  is  said  that  "for  the  first  time  will 
come  delegates  from  all  brotherly  nations"  and  that  brotherhood  is  con- 
fined to  Yugoslavia,  U.  S.  S.  R.,  Czechoslovakia,  and  Poland,  which 
all  happen  to  be  Communist-dominated.  It  is  explained  that  such  a 
congress  "will  be  an  important  factor  in  America  and  in  the  world  for 
the  safeguarding  of  world  peace  and  the  best  link  between  America  and 
the  Slav  countries"  (Slobodna  Rec,  September  7,  p.  1) . 

5.  The  American-Serb  Democratic  Club,  Cleveland,  Ohio,  celebrat- 
ing the  twelfth  anniversary  of  the  Slobodna  Rec  on  December  1,  1946, 
invites  "all  brother  Serbs,  Croats,  Slovenes,  and  Macedonians,  as  well 
as  all  friends  of  progress"  (Slobodna  Rec,  November  27,  1946). 

There  is  no  mention  of  their  American  fellow  citizens.  Presumably 
because  they  consider,  according  to  their  ideas  and  conceptions  of 
progress,  America  as  a  backward  country  and  Americans  as  enemies  of 
progress. 

6.  In  an  appeal  to  collect  donations  for  people  in  Yugoslavia, 
especially  in  Lika — northwestern  part  of  Yugoslavia — the  organizer 
explains : 

Brother  Yugoslavs,  do  not  think  that  I  am  singling  out  Lika  from  the  other 
parts  of  Yugoslavia.  The  whole  of  Yugoslavia  is  dear  to  me  and  close  to  my 
heart,  as  well  as  the  whole  world,  but  I  like  Lika  best. 

It  is  noteworthy  that  a  man  with  such  a  big  heart  did  not  find,  be- 
tween Yugoslavia  and  the  whole  world,  a  place  for  America,  the 
country  where  he  lives,  whose  citizenship  he  most  probably  has  ac- 
quired, and  where  he  intends  to  collect  gifts  for  Yugoslavia  (Slobodna 
Rec,  December  4, 1946,  p.  3 ) . 

7.  In  an  invitation  to  a  concert  whose  proceeds  are  to  help  war  or- 
phans in  Yugoslavia,  "all  Slavs"  and  all  "friends  of  the  Yugoslav 
people"  are  invited.  Americans  are  not  mentioned.  If  the  term 
"friends  of  the  Yugoslav  people"  is  sufficient  for  this,  then  what  is  the 
reason  for  singling  out  "all  Slavs"  and  even  putting  them  first 
(Slobodna  Rec,  December  31, 1946,  p.  4) . 

8.  Slobodna  Rec  of  December  31,  1946,  published  the  announce- 
ment of  a  certain  V.  Albianich,  who  makes  known  that  he  has  bought  22 
Yugoslav-American  Communist  almanacs  and  will  send  them  "to  all 
the  six  republics  of  our  glorious  Federative  People's  Republic  of  Yugo- 
slavia." 

In  Yugoslav  "progressive"  newspapers,  it  is  not  often  that  one  can 
find  the  possessive  pronoun  "our"  referred  to  America.  As  for  the 
adjective  "glorious,"  one  can  never  see  it  in  the  Slobodna  Rec  or  Nar- 
odni  (rlasnik  connected  with  any  other  country  but  the  Soviet  Union 
and  the  Communist  world. 

9.  In  an  account  of  the  Second  Congress  of  American  Croats  in 
Cleveland,  April  13,  1947  (Slobodna  Rec,  April  24,  1947,  p.  2),  it  is 
said: 

The  Croatian  Congress  manifested  its  feelings  of  brotherhood  and  unity  among 
American  Serbs,  Croats,  Slovenes,  Montenegrines,  and  IMacedonians,  and  also 
with  other  American  Slavs  gathered  in  the  American  Slav  Congress. 


656       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

On  this  occasion  not  even  all  Slavs  are  mentioned,  not  to  speak  of 
Americans,  regardless  of  national  or  racial  origin. 

(c)  The  Cominform-Tito  dash. — But  then  came  the  Cominform- 
Tito  clash,  which  inaugurated  a  third  phase  in  the  attitude  of  the 
Slobodna  Rec  and  the  Narodni  Glasnik  toward  Yugoslavia,  in  which 
the  unconditional  adherence  of  "progressive"  American  Serbs  and 
Croats  to  the  Moscow  line  can  be  best  observed  by  comparing  the  news 
and  articles  on  that  issue  published  in  these  two  newspapers  with  those 
published  in  the  Daily  Worker. 

The  news  about  the  clash  was  published  in  the  Daily  Worker  of 
June  29,  1948,  under  the  title  "Cominform  Raps  Tito;  Says  Yugoslav 
Communist  Party  Heads  Committed  Anti-Soviet  Acts,  Stifled  De- 
mocracy." In  an  editorial — page  2 — the  Daily  Worker  commented 
on  the  Cominform's  declarations,  immediately  taking  position  in  the 
issue : 

The  eommnnique  issued  by  the  Communist  Tiiformntinn  Bureau  *  *  *  is 
a  document  which  rests  foursquare  on  the  precepts  of  democracy  and  the  unity 
of  nations  for  peace. 

The  Slobodna  Rec  published  the  news  in  its  issue  of  June  20,  under 
the  title  "The  Cominform  Sharply  Criticizes  the  Communist  Leader- 
ship of  the  F.  P.  R.  of  Yugoslavia,"  carrying  the  same  communication 
as  the  Daily  Worker. 

The  Narodni  Glasnik  published  the  news  in  its  issue  of  June  30  in 
a  page-wide  headline :  The  Cominform  criticizes  Tito ;  the  Cominform 
criticizes  the  leadership  of  the  CPY  ^ ;  sharp  criticism  leveled  at  Mar- 
shal Tito,  Kardelj,  Djilas,  and  Rankovic,-  carrying  a  long  report  on 
pages  1  and  3,  w^hich  is  practically  a  literal  reproduction  of  the  report 
published  in  the  Daily  Worker  of  June  29. 

Under  this  main  article,  a  commentary  is  published  under  the  title 
"The  Cominform  Criticizes  Yugoslavs  in  Yugoslavia,"  which  bears 
strong  resemblance  to  the  Daily  Worker  editorial  of  June  29,  page  2. 

In  its  issue  of  June  30,  the  Daily  Worker  published  the  full  text  of 
the  Cominform  declaration,  as  well  as  the  statement  of  William  Foster 
and  Eugene  Dennis,  chairman  and  executive  secretary  of  the  Commu- 
nist Party  in  the  United  States,  respectively,  greeting  the  Cominform 
declaration : 

In  our  country,  as  everywliere  in  the  world,  the  forces  struggling  for  peace  rec- 
ognize that  its  cornerstone  is  friendship  and  cooperation  with  the  Soviet  Union, 
whose  influence  is  felt  increasingly  among  freedom-loving  people  in  every  land. 

Besides  the  news  that  "Yugoslav  CP  refuses  to  accept  criticism"  and 
"Czech  CP  says  Cominform  action  aids  world  socialism,"  the  Daily 
Worker  carries  two  columns  in  which  the  orthodox  Communist  view, 
binding  for  Communists  all  over  the  world,  is  voiced ;  namely,  that  the 
Cominform,  as  always,  was  right.  From  the  first  moment,  the  Daily 
Worker  endeavored  to  define  carefully  and  precisely  what  the  clash  was 
about,  what  were  Tito's  mistakes  and  deviations,  and  what  was  the 
correct  view  to  be  adopted  by  every  true  Marxist.  It  is  thus  interesting 
to  quote  its  editorials  as  well  as  its  columnists. 

In  his  article,  the  Lessons  of  Yugoslavia,  Joseph  Starobin  says : 

Our  problem  remains  to  study  the  facts  of  our  own  country's  life,  to  deal  with 
our  own  national  peculiarities  boldly  and  imaginatively,  but  in  terms  of  a  basic 


^  Communist  Party  of  Yugoslavia. 

2  Edvard  Kardelj,  Vice  Premier  of  Yugoslavia  ;  Milovan  Djilas,  minister  without  port- 
folio, and  Alexander  Rankovic,  minister  of  interior  (which  includes  the  secret  police). 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS      657 

theory  valid  for  capitalism  as  a  whole  and  for  our  entire  era.     That  is  the  Yugo- 
slav lesson. 

The  other  commentator,  Milton  Howard,  entitles  his  article  "Self- 
Criticism — A  Creation  of  Marxist  Democracy"  and  says,  "The  Comin- 
form  communique  seeks  more  democracy  and,  through  that  democracy, 
a  genuinely  Communist  struggle  for  peace." 

In  the  clays  following,  the  Daily  Worker  went  on  clarifying  the 
Communist  stand  in  the  matter.  Josef  Starobin,  in  his  column  Mar- 
shal Tito's  Self-Indictment,  July  1,  1948,  stated  that— 

The  issue  is  not,  as  the  capitalist  commentators  say,  betvpeen  the  authority 
of  the  Soviet  Communists  and  the  desire  of  the  Yugoslavs  for  independence. 
Tito's  attitude  toward  discussion  shows  that  the  issue  was  one  of  democratic  dis- 
cipline, which  is  elementary  for  Communists  and  all  progressive  organizational 
life. 

*  *  *  and  now  comes  the  call  from  Belgrade  that  the  Yugoslav  Communists 
rally  around  their  leaders  which  also  contains  a  veiled  threat  of  force  and  the 
provocative  appeal  for  a  Balkan  federation.  Everybody  knows  that  the  Soviet 
Union  rejected  such  a  federation  as  unwise.  Tito's  call  now  belies  his  preten- 
sion of  friendship  for  the  Soviet  Union.  All  this  indicates  something  exceed- 
ingly corrupt  in  Belgrade.  The  document  amounts  to  a  shifty  and  unconvincing 
defense  to  the  effect  of  self-indictment. 

The  Communist  view  that  there  is  but  one  loyalty  for  any  "progres- 
sive" in  any  part  of  the  world,  the  loyalty  to  the  Soviet  Union,  and 
consequently  only  one  betrayal,  hostility  to  the  Soviet  Union,  is  very 
clearly  expressecl  in  the  editorial  "A  Tito-Washington  Deal?": 

The  State  Department  sees  a  chance  to  buy  Yugoslavia's  independence.  That 
is  a  straw  in  the  wind  which  shows  how  right  the  Cominform  criticism  is.  Tito's 
hospitality  to  the  Soviet  Union,  despite  hypocritical  phrases,  is  working  out 
inevitably  as  betrayal  of  Yugoslavia. 

The  Slobodna  Rec  of  July  3,  1948,  carries  a  large  headline  "The 
leadership  of  CPY^  rejects  the  sharp  criticism  of  the  Cominform." 
The  news  published  thereunder  is  partly  a  literal  translation  of  the 
Daily  Worker  of  June  30,  page  3,  under  the  title  "Yugoslav  CP  Re- 
fuses To  Accept  Criticism,"  and  the  rest  is  a  resiune  of  the  Daily 
Worker's  article. 

The  article  The  Czech  CP  says  Cominform  Declaration  Aids  Social- 
ism is  somewhat  shorter,  but  obviously  a  translation  of  the  same  news 
published  in  the  Daily  Worker,  June  30,  page  3. 

The  article  The  Bulgarians  Back  the  Cominfonn's  Declaration  is  a 
translation  of  the  same  item  published  in  the  Daily  Worker  on  July  1, 
1948,  page  3. 

The  article  Trieste  Communists  Back  the  Cominform  Movement 
is  a  literal  translation  of  the  same  news  published  in  the  Daily  Worker 
of  July  2,  1948,  page  11. 

The  article  Albania  Blasts  Tito's  Policy  is  composed  of  literal  ex- 
cerpts from  the  same  news  published  in  the  Daily  Worker  of  July  2, 
1948,  page  3. 

The  Slobodna  Rec  did  not  fail  to  inform  its  readers  that  "The  Amer- 
ican CP  greeted  the  Cominform  committee"  and  to  publish  excerpts 
from  the  Foster-Dennis  statement  in  the  Daily  Worker  of  June  30, 
page  3. 

The  same  issue  of  Slobodna  Rec  carries  also  the  news  "Jacques 
Duclos  says  that  Tito  is  becoming  a  tool  of  imperialism,"  which  is  a 

^  Yugoslav  Communist  I'arty 


658      COMRIUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

quotation   from   Diiclos'   article   in   the   French   Communist   organ 
L'  Humanite  wherein  he  concludes : 

It  is  evident  indeed  that  if  you  provoke  the  Soviet  Union,  you  become  a  tool 
in  the  hands  of  imperialist  leaders. 

The  Slobodna  Rec  reproduces  this  item  verbatim  from  the  Daily 
Worker  of  July  2,  page  11. 

Still  the  same  issue  of  the  Slobodna  Rec  (July  3,  1948)  carries  an 
editorial  about  the  Cominf orm  communique  reading : 

In  order  that  our  readers  be  best  acquainted  with  the  misunderstanding  which 
brolve  out  between  the  CPY  and  the  Communist  Party  in  Europe,  we  are  pub- 
lishing in  this  issue,  the  complete  text  of  the  Communist  Information  Bureau's 
communique,  in  which  the  attitude  and  policy  of  the  CPY  are  most  severely 
criticized.     *     *     * 

Because  of  this  public  criticism  of  the  wrong  policy  of  Yugoslav  Communist 
leaders,  the  reaction  is  overwhelmed  with  joy.     *     *     * 

The  circles  of  reaction  want  to  utilize  this  conflict  between  the  Yugoslav  and 
other  European  Communists  for  their  hellish  war  plans. 

At  this  point,  it  is  interesting  to  draw  a  parallel  between  the  edi- 
torials of  the  Slobodna  Rec,  on  the  one  side,  and  the  Daily  Worker 
and  the  Foster-Dennis  statement,  on  the  other  side: 

SLOBODNA   EEC  DAILY   WORKER 

The  peoples  of  Yugoslavia  have  over-  The  crisis  is  so  far  gone  that  only 
come  many  difliculties  and  hardships  the  Yugoslav  people  themselves  can 
and  there  is  no  reason  to  doubt  that  the  overcome  it  (Josef  Starobin  :  Mar- 
people  of  Yugoslavia  will,  on  this  oc-  shall  Tito's  Self-Indictment,  Daily 
casion  as  well,  find  the  solution  which  Worker,  July  1,  p.  8). 
will  be  profita'ble  to  Yugoslavia  and  the  In  our  country,  as  everywhere  in  the 
world  peace.    *    *    *  world,  the  forces  struggling  for  peace 

We  American  Serbs,  as  well  as  other    recognize  that  its  cornerstone  is  friend- 
Americans,    condemn    all    attempts    to    ship  and  cooperation  with  the  Soviet 
start  a  new  war.    We  are  against  war    Union,  whose  influence  is  felt  increas- 
and  we  desire  friendly  relations  and  a    ingly  among  freedom-loving  peoples  in 
better    understanding    with    all    peace-    every    land    (Foster-Dennis   statement, 
loving  peoples.    The  key  to  the  realiza-    Daily  Worker,  June  30,  p.  3). 
tion  of  a  stable  world  peace  lies  in  an 
understanding  between  our  country  and 
Russia. 

That  is  why  the  warmongers  are 
making  all  sorts  of  intrigues  to  make 
impossible  an  understanding  between 
America  and  the  Soviet  Union. 

The  Worker  of  Julj^  4, 1948  (southern  edition) ,  publishes  additional 
news  about  the  "Cominform-Tito  Clash"  and  again  puts  the  stress  on 
the  clarification  of  the  clash  according  to  the  Moscow  angle.  In  an 
article  "What  It's  About"  (p.  4)  it  is  said : 

The  Tito  leadership  of  anti-Soviet  position  is  being  used  as  a  cover-up  for  the 
betrayal  of  socialism  in  Yugoslavia.     *     *     * 

Tbe  State  Department  and  the  Marshall  planners  *  ♦  *  are  fishing  in  the 
Balkans  for  deals  to  betray  socialism,     *     *     * 

It  is  a  tribute  to  the  alertness  of  the  Communist  Parties  of  the  Soviet  Union, 
France,  Italy,  etc.,  that  they  saw  this  degeneration  of  the  Tito  leadership  in 
time,  and  boldly  informed  the  world's  working  class  of  the  facts. 

In  the  same  issue  of  the  Worker,  Milton  Howard  further  interprets 
the  "Cominform-Tito  Clash"  in  the  sense  of  "Communist  democracy  in 
action  via  self-criticism"  after  expounding  that  the  leaders  of  the 
CPY  went  "off  the  beam,"  because  they  failed  to  build  the  CPY  as  a 
new  type  party.     Howard  concludes : 

What  makes  the  Communist  Parties  a  "new  type  is  that  they  are  not  merely 
parliamentary  parties,  whose  main  function  is  to  elect  representatives  to  capi- 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS      659 

talist-dominated  parliaments  or  congresses,  but  also  to  act  at  all  times  as  the 
guide,  the  vanguard,  of  the  entire  working  class  and  other  progressive  groups  of 
the  country. 

The  Daily  Worker  of  July  7,  1948,  pcage  3,  published  an  article  en- 
titled: "Slavs  Here  Hit  ERP  Fishing  in  Yugoslavia,"  wherein  the 
radio  speech  of  George  S.  Wuchinich,  executive  secretary  of  the  Ameri- 
can Slav  Congress  of  western  Pennsylvania  is  recorded.     Wuchinich : 

warned  *  *  *  yesterday  that  the  commercial  press  is  happy  over  the  Yugo- 
slav situation  because  "it  fits  into  their  plan  for  war."     *     *     * 

"Whatever  makes  the  American  warmongers  joyous  does  not  reflect  what  is 
good  for  the  average  American.  We  want  peace — the  turn  of  events  in  Yugo- 
slavia is  grave." 

The  Daily  Worker  goes  on  quoting  in  bold-faced  print  Wuchinich's 
warning : 

"The  Marshall  planners,"  he  continued,  "with  their  press  and  radio  bait  are 
fishing  in  troubled  waters  to  catch  the  big  fish — a  nation,  and  bring  her  back 
to  the  fold  of  free  entei'pi'ise  as  a  colony.  If  necessary,  war  may  be  used — the 
smell  of  blood  is  in  the  air." 

Voicing  the  same  view  as  the  Daily  Worker,  Wuchinich  puts  stress, 
not  on  the  Yugoslav  Tito  regime,  but  on  the  Yugoslav  people  to  settle 
the  difficulties : 

"The  solution  to  the  problems  of  socialism"  Wuchinich  declared,  "must  be 
worked  out  by  the  Yugoslav  people.  Any  nation  that  is  moving  in  this  direction," 
he  warned  "is  not  a  friend  of  those  here  at  home  who  want  an  American  world  of 
colonies.  These  are  the  monopolists  who  dislike  any  free  and  independent  coun- 
try working  out  its  salvation  without  the  help  of  bankers,  generals,  and  admirals 
in  New  York  and  Washington.  The  people  of  Yugoslavia,  their  resources  and 
their  land,  are  a  great  prize  that  whets  the  appetite  of  Wall  Street." 

The  Narodni  Glasnik  of  July  7,  1948,  page  2,  gave  publicity  to  the 
same  radio  broadcast  by  Wuchinich  under  the  title,  "American 
Monopolists  AVish  by  Means  of  the  Yugoslav  Clash  To  Trouble  Waters 
for  Imperialist  Fishing."  Beneath  was  printed  a  subtitle,  "George 
Wuchinich  severely  assails  the  press  and  radio  in  connection  with  the 
clash  in  Yugoslavia." 

The  same  issue  of  the  Daily  Worker  (July  7,  1948,  p.  1),  carries 
the  headline,  "Tito's  Men  Expel  Writer  for  Reporting  Criticism," 
about  the  expulsion  of  Telepress  correspondent,  June  Cannon. 

This  news  was  reproduced  verbatim  in  the  Narodni  Glasnik,  July  8, 
1948,  page  1,  under  the  title,  "The  Yugoslav  Ministry  of  Interior  Ex- 
pels Telepress  Agency  Correspondent  from  Belgrade." 

In  the  same  issue,  the  Narodni  Glasnik  publishes  (on  p.  1)  the  news 
that,  "The  Communist  Party  of  the  USSR  Rejected  Invitation  to 
Fifth  Congress  of  Yugoslav  Communist  Party,"  which  is,  in  some- 
what shortened  form,  the  translation  of  the  article,  "Soviet  Communist 
Party  Rejects  Bid  To  Yugoslav  Meet,"  published  in  the  Daily  Worker, 
July  7,  page  2. 

Still  in  the  same  issue  of  the  Daily  Worker  (July  7,  1948,  p.  9), 
Milton  Howard  continues  his  analysis  of  the  Cominform-Tito  clash  in 
an  article  entitled,  "The  Problems  of  Nationalism,  Internationalism, 
and  Patriotism."  Since  this  article  contains  very  instructive  revela- 
tions as  to  the  real  character  of  Communist  "loyalty,"  it  is  necessary 
to  quote  it  at  some  length. 

[In  Yugoslavia]  a  group  of  people  have  seized  control  of  that  country  in  the 
name  of  communism  but  in  actuality  in  defiance  of  the  democratic  principles  of 
communism     *     *     * 


660      COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

For  us,  the  independence  of  nations  is  crucial  in  the  world  today,  since  it  is  the 
independence  of  nations  which  is  most  menaced  by  the  terms  of  the  Marshall 
plan     *     *     *_ 

A  "Marshall  plan"  country  takes  orders  from  the  United  States — or  else. 

Howard  presents  the  Communist  concept  of  a  nation  sucli  as  defined 
in  the  Communist  manifesto  in  1848.  He  says  that  there  are  two 
esesntial  proj^ositions,  namely : 

1.  The  working  class  has  no  country.  You  can't  take  from  it  what  it  has  not 
got. 

2.  The  working  class  must  "constitute  itself  as  the  nation." 

*  *  *  The  minority  capitalist  class  puts  its  class  interests  above  that  of 
the  nation.  The  working  class  has  become,  in  all  capitalist  countries,  the  van- 
guard in  the  defense  of  the  nation's  independence. 

The  workers  of  all  capitalist  countries  have  the  same  problems  basically,  the 
same  relations  to  the  owners  of  industry,  and  the  same  need  to  aboli-sh  private 
property  and  establish  socialism.  Tliey  have  no  antagonistic  interests.  [Italics 
supplied.] 

This  is  the  basis  of  their  internationalism,  and  the  basis  of  the  Marxist  slogan, 
"Workers  of  all  nations  unite." 

But  this  internationalism  does  not  abolish  patriotism,  love  of  country.  On  the 
contrary,  it  is  the  only  basis  for  true  patriotism  as  distinguished  from  the  false 
patriotism  of  nationalism. 

Nationalism  places  the  interests  of  the  nation  above  the  interests  of  the  work- 
ing class  and  its  allies — that  is  the  majority  of  the  people.  What  is  this  nation 
when  it  conflicts  with  the  interests  of  the  working  class  and  its  allies?  It  is 
nothing  but  the  property  rights  of  capitalism  and  the  material  interest  of  the 
capitalist  class  and  its  allies.     It  is  hostile  to  the  real  nation,  the  people     *     *     • 

This  nationalism  of  the  Tito  regime  is  endangering  the  real  national  independ- 
ence of  Yugoslavia  by  opening  the  peril  of  outside  of  Marshall  plan  intervention, 
and  by  creating  the  peril  of  sliding  back  to  capitalism  through  a  failure  to  build 
a  democratic  Communist  Party  vanguard  leading  the  nation  toward  socialism 
through  people's  democracy. 

In  criticizing  the  Yugoslav  leadership  for  its  failure  to  build  such  a  body  and 
such  a  policy  of  fraternal  cooperation  with  other  people's  democracies  and  the 
Soviet  Union,  the  Cominform  parties  were  striking  a  blow  for  national  independ- 
ence, national  sovereignty  and  for  socialism  at  one  and  the  same  time.  Only 
those  who  think  that  a  nation  cannot  be  independent  except  as  a  capitalist  nation 
dependent  on  the  Marshall  plan,  have  failed  to  grasp  this. 

After  the  confusion  of  the  first  few  days  after  the  Cominform-Tito 
clash,  the  "progressive"  American  Serbs  and  Croats  promptly  lined 
themselves  up.  Accordingly  the  Narodni  Glasnik  of  July  8,  1948, 
carried  an  editorial  on  the  events  in  Yugoslavia  in  which  it  is  said : 

American  Yugoslavs,  friends  of  the  new  Yugoslavia  had  these  days  several 
meetings  at  which  they  adopted  resolutions  which  support  the  criticism  of  the 
Cominform  against  Marshal  Tito  and  the  leadership  of  the  Communist  Party  of 
Yugoslavia.     *     *     * 

It  is  clear  that  the  great  majority  of  Americans  of  Yugoslav  origin  approve 
of  the  criticism  of  the  Cominform  against  the  Yugoslav  leadership. 

Although  the  Narodni  Glasnik  still  expresses  the  hope  that  the 
Yugoslav  Communists  will  admit  their  faults  and  improve  the  situa- 
tion in  Yugoslavia,  they  stress  what  they  deem  the  essential  thing : 

Our  people  have  confidence  in  the  Soviet  Union  and  its  leadership. 

In  the  Worker  of  July  11,  1948,  on  page  4,  an  article  is  published 
under  the  title  "What  European  Communists  Say  About  Yugoslavs." 
Here  are  quoted  the  views  of  French,  Polish,  Rumanian,  Finnish,  Al- 
banian, Italian,  and  Czech  Communists. 

The  Narodni  Glasnik  of  July  12,  1948,  page  1,  publishes,  under  the 
title  "What  European  Communists  Say  About  Yugoslav  Commu- 
nists," a  two-column  report  from  London  which — but  for  two  short 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS      661 

passages  which  ^yel•e  omitted  and  one  whicli  was  shortened — is  a 
verbatim  transhition  of  the  article  "What  European  Communists  Say 
About  Yugoslavs",  published  in  the  Worker  of  Julv  11. 

In  the  Worker  of  July  11,  1948,  the  editorial  "Tito's  Tactics" 
deals  again  with  Tito's  Communist  heresy.  The  Communist  Party  of 
Yugoslavia  is  quoted  as  saying: 

With  us,  the  party,  the  country,  the  central  committee,  the  people's  front,  and 
Tito  are  all  one. 

wdiich  provokes  the  angry  comments  of  the  Worker : 

This  is  the  oi>en  denial  of  inner  party  democracy,  on  the  one  hand,  and  the 
utter  abandonment  of  the  Leninist  conception  of  the  party  as  distinct  from  all 
other  mass  organizations  acting  as  the  highest  form  of  the  organization  of  the 
working  class. 

The  Narodni  Glasnik  of  July  13,  1948,  page  2,  contains  an  article 
by  George  Pirinsky,  in  which  the  author  claims  that : 

Actually  the  sudden  love  of  the  warmongers  for  the  present  leadership  of  the 
Communist  Party  of  Yugoslavia  indicates  that  something  "is  rotten  in  the  state 
of  Denmark." 

Until  the  end  of  the  month,  the  Slobodna  Rec  and  the  Narodni  Glas- 
nik alw^ays  carried  the  same  news  about  the  Cominform-Tito  clash  as 
the  Daily  Worker.  So,  when  the  Daily  Worker  of  July  13,  page  4, 
made  known  the  stand  of  the  Chinese  Communists  on  the  Cominform- 
Tito  clash,  who  assailed  Tito,  the  Narodni  Glasnik  of  July  13  pub- 
lished the  same  news  on  page  1  and  the  Slobodna  Rec  did  likewise  in  its 
issue  of  July  17. 

The  Daily  Worker  of  July  14  reported  that  the  Yugoslav  Com- 
munists in  New  York  had  declared  themselves  against  Tito.  The  same 
news  was  published  in  the  Narodni  Glasnik  of  July  18. 

Thus,  the  Slobodna  Rec  and  Narodni  Glasnik  did  not  hesitate  to 
adopt  quickly  and  thoroughly  the  "only  correct"  stand  on  the  Comin- 
form-Tito clash,  the  stand  of  Moscow,  as  expressed  in  the  Daily 
Worker,  organ  of  the  Communist  Party  of  the  United  States,  or  com- 
municated to  them  probably  by  more  direct  channels. 

The  Slobodna  Rec,  which  for  some  time  seemed  to  be  reluctant  to 
let  a  Soviet  authority  say  the  decisive  word  on  the  dispute,  in  order  to 
preserve  its  semblance  of  an  American  newspaper,  published  in  two 
issues  (December  18  and  December  22, 1948)  a  very  long  article,  "How 
Tito's  Clique  Is  Fighting  Its  Own  People,"  written  by  L.  Baranov, 
"famous  Soviet  writer"  who,  of  course,  presented  the  official  Moscow 
viewpoint  on  the  matter.  And,  without  any  reserve,  the  Slobodna 
Rec  endorses  his  views : 

Baranov  condemns  the  present  leadership  of  Tito  *  *  *  he  says  that 
Tito's  group  switched  to  the  road  of  betrayal  of  the  interests  of  the  people  and 
country. 

And  the  Slobodna  Rec  lets  Baranov  speak,  "so  that  our  readers 
may  get  a  better  understanding  of  what  is  going  on  in  Yugoslavia." 
In  his  article,  Baranov  writes : 

The  present  leaders  of  the  Yugoslav  Communist  Party  call  themselves  friends 
of  the  Yugoslav  people.     *     *     * 

Nothing  can  be  further  from  the  truth. 

They  are  bourgeois  nationalists,  enemies  of  the  working  class. 

What  in  reality  has  Tito     *     *     *     in  common  with  the  true  leaders  in  the 
Marxist  sense  of  the  word?    Absolutely  nothing.     He  is  a  stanch  nationalist,  old 
fractionist,  a  spoiled  person  far  from  the  people. 
98330— 50— pi.  2 14 


662      COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

How  can  anybody  who  considers  himself  a  Marxist  neglect  the  theory  and 
practices  of  revolutionary  struggle,  confirmed  by  the  experience  of  the  inter- 
national revolutionary  movement,  the  experience  of  Socialist  construction  in 
the  Soviet  Union?  No,  a  true  Marxist  would  not  act  that  way.  Only  traitors 
and  enemies  of  the  people  do  that. 

Behind  Tito  comes  the  henchman  Rankovic.  Everybody  knows  that  this  gen- 
tleman cannot  boast  either  of  his  intelligence  or  his  courage.     *     *     * 

He  killed  and  tortured  to  death  hundreds  of  Yugolsav  Communists  whose  only 
"crime"  was  that  they  wanted  to  march  in  the  United  Front  with  brotherly 
Communist  parties,  and  that  they  respected  the  Soviet  Union,  the  country  of 
socialism. 

The  history  of  the  Russian  movement,  as  well  as  the  history  of  the  movement 
of  the  working  class,  offers  countless  examples  how  political  Philistines  try  to 
lead  the  revolutionary  party  *  *  *  but  they  usually  went  down  and  found 
themselves  in  tlie  junk  yard  of  history.  Such  individuals  inevitably  wind  up 
in  the  camp  of  the  reaction.  They  become  the  bitterest  enemies  of  the  working 
class,  renegades,  traitors,  and  assassins,  as  the  despicable  renegades  Bukharin 
and  Trotsky.^ 

The  leaders  of  the  Yugoslav  Party  did  not  take  into  consideration,  or  rather 
did  not  want  to  take  into  consideration,  the  fact  that  the  Communist  Party  of 
Yugoslavia  is  not  a  private  enterprise  of  Tito,  biit  the  product  of  many  years  of 
revolutionary  struggle  of  the  working  class  of  Yugoslavia  and  of  the  interna- 
tional movement  of  the  working  class.  Just  because  of  that,  the  Yugoslav  leaders, 
regardless  of  their  deeds  in  the  past,  were  not  entitled  to  act  toward  the  CPY 
and  the  international  Communist  front  in  the  v»'ay  they  did.  The  problems  of 
the  Yugoslav  working  class  and  this  party  are  also  problems  of  the  international 
workers'  movement  and  the  wliole  Communist  front. 

*  *  *  The  leadership  of  the  Yugoslav  Party  drowned  the  party  in  the  peo- 
ple's front,  which  is,  in  the  same  way  as  the  CPY,  composed  of  representatives  of 
all  classes  of  the  present  Yugoslav  bourgeois  society,  including  the  Kulaks  and 
the  bourgeois  parties.  It  is  only  the  workers'  class  that  is  able  to  achieve  the 
victory  of  socialism.  Tito's  clique,  by  rejecting  the  Marxist-Leninist  teaching 
that  only  the  proletariat  can  play  the  role  of  a  revolutionary  leadm*  and  the 
teacher  of  the  people,  now  asserts  that  the  peasantry  is  the  main  force  for  the 
realization  of  socialism.  Lenin  and  Stalin  teach  that  only  the  workers'  class, 
the  most  revolutionary  and  organized  part  of  modern  society,  is  able  to  lead  the 
peasants  on  the  road  to  socialism;  that  the  working  class  must  move  in  close 
alliance  with  the  working  peasantry. 

The  champions  of  democracy  and  socialism  throughout  the  world  know  that 
only  if  tiiey  rely  on  the  mighty  support  of  the  Soviet  Union  and  the  new  democ- 
racies— that  stronghold  of  peace  and  democracy — can  socialism  be  built  in  coun- 
tries where  people's  democracy  has  been  installed.  *  *  *  Only  incorrigible 
nationalists,  only  persons  who  terribly  hate  the  Soviet  Union,  the  new  democ- 
racies, and  the  brotherly  Communist  parties  would  dare  to  follow  the  road  to 
treason.  Only  enemies  of  the  Yugoslav  people  would  dare  deprive  their  own 
people  of  the  mighty  support  of  the  Soviet  Union  and  the  new  democracies,   *   *   * 

Knowing  that  they  cannot  keep  the  people  oppressed  long  enough  by  deceit, 
Tito's  clique  has  taken  the  road  of  open  teri'orism,  declaring  war  on  their  party 
and  people.  *  *  *  On  the  ground  of  the  unwritten  law  of  the  henchman 
Rankovic,  the  reading  of  Soviet  literature  and  newspapers  is  punishable  by  arrest, 
as  in  the  days  of  the  German  Gestapo.     *     *     * 

There  is  no  middle  road :  Either  with  the  people,  with  the  Soviet  Union  at  the 
head  of  the  people  and  the  new  democracies,  against  the  imperialists  or,  with  the 
imperialists  against  the  forces  of  democracy  and  socialism,  against  the  people. 
Tito's  clique  has  chosen  this  latter  road. 

As  the  other  peoples  of  the  world,  the  people  of  Yugoslavia  see  in  the  countries 
of  socialism,  in  the  Communist  Party  of  the  Soviet  Union,  their  hope,  their  sup- 
port in  the  struggle  for  the  victory  of  socialism,  for  the  victory  of  their  ideas  of 
Marx-Engels-Lenin-Stalin.  In  the  bitter  years  of  Fascist  occupation,  old  people 
in  Montenegro,  while  pointing  with  their  fingers  to  the  East,  would  say  to  their 
grandchildren :  'There  is  Russia  *  *  *  the  day  will  come  when  the  Rus- 
sians will  arrive  and  we  will  be  liberated.' 

And  the  Soviet  people  has  come  and  liberated  the  people  of  Yugoslavia  from 
slavery. 


^  Nicolai    Bukharin.    former    president    of    the    Communist    International,    "purged"    in 
'treason  trials"  of  1937 ;  Leon  Trotslcy,  assassinated  in  Mexico  in  1940. 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS      663 

Tito's  clique  betrayed  the  Yugoslav  people,  its  strivings  and  hopes,  but  the 
Yugoslav  people  and  their  party  are  not  alone.  They  have  true  friends  in  the 
Soviet  Union,  in  the  new  democracies,  in  the  great  party  of  Lenin  and  Stalin  and 
in  the  brotherly  Communist  parties  which  represent  a  mighty  invincible  front  of 
democracy  and  socialism. 

It  is  evidently  easy  to  establish  that  Baranov's  criticism  of  Tito,  en- 
dorsed by  the  Slobodna  Rec,  expressed  exactly,  as  the  Daily  Worker's 
editorials  or  its  columnists  Starobin  and  Howard,  the  Cominform,  i,  e., 
Kremlin  viewpoint  in  the  matter. 

It  is  even  more  provocative  to  demonstrate  how  the  change  of  the 
stand  of  Slobodna  Rec  and  Narodni  Glasnik  on  one  particular  prob- 
lem— the  Cominform-Tito  clash — affected  their  stand  on  all  problems 
relative  to  Yugoslavia.  Before  the  clash,  these  newspapers  had  noth- 
ing but  praise  for  the  Communist  regime  in  Yugoslavia,  for  Tito,  for 
the  Yugoslav  Government's  policy  in  ail  its  aspects.  But,  since  after 
the  Cominform-Tito  clash  Tito's  Communist  regime  in  Yugoslavia 
was  considered  by  the  Kremlin  as  treacherous  to  the  Soviet  Union  and 
to  the  Communist  cause,  that  view  has  pervaded  all  the  articles  of  the 
Slobodna  Rec  and  Narodni  Glasnik.  As  much  as  the  Yugoslav  re- 
gime was  highly  praised  before,  it  is  now  denounced  in  the  most 
violent  terms,  as  can  be  seen  from  examples  to  follow. 

v.   STAND   OF  THE   SLOBODNA  EEC  AND  NARODNI  GLASNIK   ON   YTTGOSLAVIA 
AFTER  THE  COMINFORM -TITO  CLASH 

Complete  lack  of  responsibility. — In  the  Slobodna  Rec  of  January 
15,  1949,  page  3,  an  article  on  Tito's  contradictions  is  reprinted  from 
the  Nova  Borba  (Prague)  : 

Complete  lack  of  responsibility,  *  *  *  separation  of  Yugoslavia  from  the 
Socialist  camp  carried  out  by. Tito's  group  is  bringing  the  country  in  a  catas- 
trophic economic  position  and  makes  it  dependent  upon  the  imperialists.    *  .  *    * 

And,  since  the  Cominform-Tito  clash  all  of  a  sudden  turned  Yugo- 
slavia from  a  "Socialist  paradise"  to  a  "nationalist  hell,"  the  Slo- 
bodna Rec,  on  February  5,  191:9,  page  2,  for  the  first  time  noticed  that 
many  people  in  Yugoslavia  are  stricken  with  tuberculosis : 

Dr.  Paul  Anderson,  leader  of  one  of  the  teams  of  the  Danish  Red  Cross 
*  *  *  declared  that  Yugoslavia  has  one  of  the  highest  rates  of  tuberculosis 
in  Europe,  so  that  over  100  persons  die  daily  from  the  disease.     *     *     * 

Hitting  people  over  the  head. — In  its  tireless  efforts  to  reinterpret 
the  whole  situation  in  Yugoslavia  after  the  Cominform-Tito  clash,  the 
Slobodna  Rec  dedicated  five  long  articles  (February  16,  19,  26,  and 
March  2  and  5)  to  a  review  of  the  events  in  Yugoslavia,  arriving  at 
the  conclusion  that  the  Tito  democracy  consists  of  convincing  people 
by  hitting  them  over  their  heads. 

Most  undeTYiocratic .,  reactionary. — In  the  Narodni  Glasnik  of  Feb- 
ruary 24,  1949,  Leo  Bacich,  secretary  general  of  the  Croatian  Benevo- 
lent Fraternity  (I WO),  asks,  "Where  are  the  present  leaders  of  Yugo- 
slavia heading?"  and  answers: 

Our  people  waged  a  heroic  struggle  for  4  years  and  achieved  victory  only 
owing  to  the  mighty  and  great  Soviet  Union.     *     *     * 

[But]  the  leaders  of  Yugoslavia  are  waging  the  vilest  campaign  against  the 
Soviet  Union  *  *  *  as  well  as  against  the  new  democracies.  *  *  *  The 
gravity  of  the  situation  in  Yugoslavia  is  especially  evident  in  the  most  undemo- 
cratic measures  of  the  Yugoslav  leaders  against  those  who  do  not  approve  of 
their  policy  of  splitting  the  common  peace  front.  Bacich's  conclusion  is  that  the 
Yugoslav  leaders  are  "drifting  into  the  camp  of  the  reaction." 


664      COMIVIUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

In  its  issues  of  March  28  and  29,  1949,  the  Narodni  Glasnik  pub- 
lished two  long  articles  b}'  Radon j  a  Golubovic,  former  Yugoslav  Am- 
bassador to  Rumania,  under  the  title  "Does  Tito's  Policy  Lead  Yugo- 
slavia to  Socialism?".  The  answer  to  that  question  was  indicated  in 
the  subtitle  which  read,  "The  present  policy  of  the  Tito  government 
is  heaping  heavier  and  heavier  burdens  on  the  workers  and  peasantry. 
Golubovic  himself  asserted  that : 

Thus  Tito's  clique  transformed  in  our  country  the  Socialist  principle  of  "work 
according  to  one's  abilities,  and  reward  according  to  one's  work"  into  the  prin- 
ciple of  "work  according  to  one's  socialistic  consciousness,  and  reward  according 
to  one's  capitalistic  consciousness." 

Tito's  clique  is  introducing  into  the  party  nationalist  elements  through  which 
it  intends  to  stifle  the  internationalist  traditions  of  the  party  and  break  up  the 
strongest  forces  which  remained  faithful  to  the  teachings  of  Marx,  Engels,  Lenin, 
and  Stalin. 

Police  terrorism. — In  the  Narodni  Glasnik  of  March  11,  1949,  paj>e 
1,  a  public  letter  of  Yugoslav  pro-Cominform  students  in  Prague  is 
reprinted  from  the  Nova  Borba  (organ  of  Yugoslav  pro-Cominforni 
Communists,  published  in  Prague ) ,  which  accuses  "Tito's  nationalist 
clique  *  *  *  ^-f  arresting  the  most  progressive  elements  among 
our  peoples,"  charges  the  "use  of  disgusting  police  terrorism  methods 
against  the  progressive  democratic  forces,"  and  asks  for  help  against 
the  "bloody  terrorism  of  those  who  betrayed  the  ijiterests  of  the 
people  of  Yugoslavia  and  the  anti-imperialist  front  in  the  world." 

(The  same  news  was  published  in  the  Slobodna  Rec  for  Mar.  3, 
1949.) 

In  the  Narodni  Glasnik  for  March  18,  1949,  page  1,  an  almost 
identical  appeal  was  published  under  the  title  "Yugoslav  Students  in 
the  U.  S.  S.  R.  Appeal  to  the  Youth  of  the  World  Against  Rankovich's 
Agents." 

Orgy  of  terrorism. — Before  the  Cominform-Tito  clash,  the  Slobodna 
Rec  and  Narodni  Glasnik  never  wrote  of  any  "killing"  in  Yugoslavia. 
News  about  ruthless  Communist  terrorism  was  discarded  as  the  inven- 
tion of  "Fascists,"  "war  criminals,"  "stooges  of  the  reaction,"  etc.  But 
when,  after  the  Cominform-Tito  clash  the  regime's  terrorism  hit  not 
only  patriots  and  democrats,  but  Communists'  faithful  to  Moscow  as 
well,  the  humanitarian  feelings  of  the  Narodni  Glasnik  were  sud- 
denly aroused.  The  editorial  from  April  5,  1949,  indignantly  asks: 
"What  does  the  killing  of  Communists  in  Yugoslavia  mean?" 

The  news  from  Yugoslavia  is  becoming  more  and  more  terrible.  It  not  only 
worries  all  decent  emigrants,  but  utterly  amazes  them.    *    *    * 

Communists  are  being  killed  without  trial  in  an  orgy  of  terrorism,  as  it  was 
during  the  old  regime.  That  killing  of  Communists  is  entirely  illegal  and  violates 
every  letter  and  the  spirit  of  the  constitution  of  the  FPR  Yugoslavia,  as  well  as 
all  traditions  of  the  workers'  movement  in  all  countries  of  the  world.  That  is 
lawlessness  which  every  honest  man  must  condemn. 

They  are  being  killed  because  they  are  in  favor  of  what  the  enormous  majority 
of  the  peoples  of  Yugoslavia  deeply  feel,  and  that  is  the  close  friendship  and  firm 
alliance  with  the  Soviet  Union,  protector  of  all  Slavic  countries  and  people's 
democracies.  They  are  being  killed  because  they  believe  in  the  teachings  of 
Marx,  Lenin,  and  Stalin. 

Besides  this,  the  Narodni  Glasnik,  which  never  before  objected  to  the 
Yugoslav  Government's  propaganda  in  the  United  States  and  thought 
that  only  capitalistic  countries,  the  United  States  foremost,  were 
practicing  an  "antipeople's"  guns-instead-of-butter  policy,  angrily 
protested  against — 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS      665 

Tito's  government,  sending  to  America  tons  and  trainloads  of  propaganda 
material.     *     *     * 

For  all  this  material,  Tito's  government  is  spending  thousands  of  dollars, 
Avhich  money  is  so  necessary  to  the  hungry  people  of  Yugoslavia. 

While  before  the  Cominform-Tito  clash,  the  Slobodna  Rec  and 
Narodni  Glasnik  published  only  protests  against  capitalistic  and  "reac- 
tionary" governments,  such  as  the  United  States  Government,  the 
Narodni  Glasnik  of  April  6,  1949,  page  2,  published  a  resolution  of 
the  Chicago  chapter  of  the  Serbian  Progressive  Movement  signed  by 
Pavle  Bacich,  president,  and  George  ISIaravich,  secretary,  and 
addressed  to  Sava  Kosanovic,  Yugoslav  Ambassador  in  Washington, 
D.  C,  under  the  title,  "The  Serbian  Progressive  Movement  of  Chicago 
Protests  Against  the  Government  in  Yugoslavia." 

We  protest  energetically  against  the  arrests  and  killing  of  valiant  fighters  who 
are  following  and  are  working  for  a  closer  unity  with  the  Soviet  Union  and  other 
democracies  of  eastern  Europe. 

Towards  capitalism.—'^Vihy  did  the  Yugoslav  Government  close  the 
Polish  information  bureau  in  Belgrade?"  asks  the  Slobodna  Eec  of 
May  14,  1949,  page  1;  and  for  an  answer  reprints  an  article  from 
Pravda  saying : 

The  Polish  information  bureau  enjoyed  a  deserved  popularity,  because  it 
truthfully  informed  the  Yugoslav  people  about  the  life  of  the  Polish  people. 

The  Yugoslav  ruling  clique  closed  the  Polish  Information  Bureau.  However, 
the  American,  British,  and  French  information  centers  are  still  functioning  in 
Belgrade. 

In  Yugoslavia,  all  roads  are  open  to  the  capitalistic  propaganda.  All  doors 
are  closed  to  the  truth  about  the  construction  of  socialism. 

"The  straw  that  flies  shows  whither  the  wind  blows,"  says  an  old  proverb.  The 
closing  of  the  Polish  information  bureau  in  Belgrade  shows  clearly  that  in  the 
government  circles  in  Belgrade  the  wind  blows  in  a  certain  direction — in  the 
direction  of  capitalism. 

Doivn  lolth  Tito! — The  same  issue  of  Slobodna  Rec,  May  14, 1949, 
page  1,  carries  the  news  about  arrests  in  Belgrade,  Ljubljana,  and 
Fiume,  saying: 

On  one  of  the  walls  in  the  harbor  there  was  a  very  visible  big  sign :  "Down  with 
Tito !" 

PeopJe^s  and  worker's  traitors. — The  editorial  in  the  Slobodna  Rec 
of  May  14,  1949,  is  dedicated  to  the  "destructive  work  of  Tito's  agents 
in  America."  The  attacks  are  particularly  leveled  at  Srdjan  Prica 
and  Stevan  Dedijer,  former  editors  of  the  Slobodna  Rec,  who  will 
publish  a  new  paper  in  America  whose  aim  would  be  to  "create  trouble 
and  dissension  among  the  democratic  forces  of  the  Serbs,  Croats,  and 
Slovenes  in  the  United  States" : 

He  who  today  fights  in  such  a  way  against  the  democratic  and  peace-loving 
forces  in  this  or  any  other  country  deserves  the  name  and  stigma  of  enemy  of 
democracy,  progress,  and  peace.  The  Titoists  have  really  deserved  the  name 
and  stigma  of  enemies  and  breakers  of  democratic  and  peace-loving  forces. 

Dictator  Tito. — In  the  same  issue.  May  14,  1949,  the  Slobodna  Rec 
publishes  in  its  column  Do  You  &iow?  one  news  item  on  terrorism 
in  Franco  Spain  and  three  on  Yugoslavia.  Besides  other  things,  it  is 
said  that  the  police  prohibited  Charlie  Chaplin's  film.  The  Great  Dic- 
tator, to  prevent  people  from  comparing  Tito  with  the  main  person  in 
Charlie's  film. 

Worst  traitor. — The  Slobodna  Rec  of  May  21,  1949,  page  1,  carries 
an  article  entitled  "Tito's  Group  Betrayed  Socialism — Pravda"  (sum- 
marizinof  an  article  from  the  Moscow  Pravda,  organ  of  the  Communist 


666      COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

Party  of  the  Soviet  Union,  entitled  "Tito's  Clique — the  Worst  Traitors 
of  Socialism")  : 

Tito  is  an  agent  of  the  Anglo-American  imperialists,  enemy  of  the  Soviet  Union, 
and  a  destroyer  in  the  service  of  warmongers. 

In  the  terms  of  the  recently  concluded  commercial  agreement  be- 
tween the  Titoists  and  western  Germany — 

the  Titoists  will  give  to  the  German  Nazis  about  19  million  dinars'  worth  of  food 
in  exchange  for  machinery. 

The  people  of  Yugoslavia,  who  severely  suffer  from  lack  of  food,  will  have 
even  less,  and  the  Nazis  will  get  fat  on  the  bacon,  ham,  and  other  products  and 
foodstuffs.  1 

'"'•Crime''' — friendship  with  Soviet. — The  Slobodna  Rec  of  May  21, 
1949,  carries  on  page  1  the  news  that  11  students  were  sentenced  to  jail 
by  Tito's  authorities. 

Their  "crime"  is  that  they  are  in  favor  of  friendship  with  the 
U.  S.  S.  R.  and  countries  of  the  people's  democracies. 

Betrayal  and  terrorism. — The  same  issue  of  Slobodna  Rec  (May  21, 
1949)  carries  on  page  2  the  news  that  Tito  has  ordered  stricter  meas- 
ures against  his  opponents  *  *  *  to  defend  Yugoslavia  from 
enemies  outside  the  country  and  inside,  i.  e.,  all  those  who  do  not  agree 
with  his  dictatorship.     *     *     * 

All  these  orders  which  Tito  gave  to  his  secret  police  are  concerning  the  enormous 
majority  of  Yugoslav  patriots,  who  condemn  the  treacherous  policy  of  the  Tito 
dictatorial  clique,  which  are  equally  directed  against  the  countries  of  the  people's 
democracy  and  the  U.  S.  S.  R. 

Murders  without  trial. — The  Slobodna  Rec  of  May  25,  1949  (p.  3), 
publishes  an  article  by  Eugenija  Pramenko,  assailing  "the  plan  of  the 
Titoists  to  break  the  progressive  ranks" : 

Tito-Rankovic  janissaries  already  killed  many  Yugoslav  patriots  who  never 
appeared  before  a  court. 

With  regret,  the  author  notes  that  former  editors  of  the  Slobodna 
Rec,  Stevan  Dedijer  and  Srdja  Prica,  are  doing  their  utmost  to  sepa- 
rate "progressive"  Serbs  and  Croats  from  the  democratic  movement 
and  exclaims : 

Oh,  Steve,  Steve,  how  could  you  become  such  a  Judas  and  spit  on  everything 
you  once  fought  for. 

Brothers  and  sisters,  democratic  American  Yugoslavs  throughout  America, 
chase  away  the  troublemakers  and  Tito  agents  if  they  appear  amidst  you.  Let 
us  rally  our  progressive  democratic  forces  around  our  heroic  and  democratic  news- 
papers Slobodna  Rec  and  Narodni  Glasnik,  which  are  our  guiding  stars,  for  free- 
dom, democracy,  and  peace  in  the  whole  world. 

Workers  are  in  had  position. — The  Slobodna  Rec  of  May  28,  1949 
(p.  2),  carries  a  long  article  entitled  "The  Bad  Position  of  the 
Workers  in  Yugoslavia,"  written  by  a  young  man  who  recently  re- 
turned from  Commimist  Yugoslavia  to  capitalist  Australia. 

Traitors. — In  the  Slobodna  Rec  of  June  2,  1949  (p.  3),  a  poem,  full 
of  strongest  invectives  against  Tito,  is  published  with  the  following 
introduction  of  the  anonymous  author : 

Until  recently,  I  believed  in  Tito,  as  I  believed  in  the  whole  working  people  or 
myself,  but  now  I  want  to  write  a  poem  for  him  as  traitor  to  his  people. 

In  the  poem,  it  is  said  that — 

Tito  suddenly  became  a  Trotskyist; 
He  is  certainly  against  the  Russians; 
He  is  against  Lenin  and  Marx ; 
He  now  resorts  to  Hitler's  practices. 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS      667 

But,  according  to  the  poet,  "The  people  will  crush  Tito  under  their 
feet." 

And  as  for  his  comrades  in  the  government  : 

Rankovic  will  be  skinned  alive ; 
Kardel.i  will  have  his  tongue  pulled  out ; 
And  our  Montenegrin,  "brother"  Djilas, 
Will  get  a  noose  around  his  neck. 

Life  is  intolerable. — ^In  its  issue  of  June  29,  1949  (p.  2),  the 
Narodni  Glasnik  reports  on  Further  Arrests  of  Communists  on  the 
Part  of  Tito  Regime : 

Life  is  intolerable,  hunger,  scarcity,  and  misery  *  *  *,  only  a  small  group  of 
people,  connected  with  Rankovic's  police,  enjoy  normal  living  conditions.    *    *    * 

Peasants,  students,  and  officers  are  being  arrested,  in  one  word,  everybody  who 
loves  his  country  and  the  Soviet  Union. 

Mass  terrorism. — In  the  Narodni  Glasnik  of  June  30,  1949  (p.  3), 
a  long  report  on  the  situation  in  Yugoslavia  is  published  which,  in 
part,  reads : 

In  order  to  remain  in  power,  Tito's  clique  is  using  the  most  incredible  means 
of  terrorism  over  the  people.     *     *     * 

In  Yugoslavia,  under  Tito's  regime,  laws  and  civil  rights  are  nonexistent.    *    *    * 

Whoever  declares  himself  in  favor  of  the  Cominform  resolution  is  arrested. 
If  he  is  married,  his  comrade  [i.  e.,  wife]  is  instantly  ordered  to  disown  her 
husband  and  to  write  an  article  for  the  Borba.  The  family  of  the  arrested  is  im- 
mediately thrown  out  of  the  apartment  and  their  ration  cards  taken  away.    *    *    * 

We  live  today  without  any  law  or  right — the  law  being  the  will  of  Tito's  agents. 

The  same  article  is  published  in  the  Slobodna  Rec  of  July  13,  1949 
(p.  2.) 

Terrorism..^  persecution. — In  the  issue  of  July  2,  1949,  Slobodna  Rec 
carries  an  anonymous  letter  from  Yugoslavia,  written  by  two  returnees 
from  America  to  Yugoslavia,  very  much  different  from  the  letters 
from  Yugoslavia  which  it  used  to  publish  prior  to  the  Cominform- 
Tito  clash.    The  letter  reads : 

Eight  hundred  of  us  returnees  have  applied  to  return  to  America  and  Canada 
*  *  *.  You  can  imagine  how  we  live,  and  the  fact  that  we  disapprove  of  this 
betrayal  of  the  leadership,  makes  matters  even  worse     *     *     *^ 

Prices  are  so  high  that  an  ordinary  worker  cannot  live.  An  egg  costs  20  dinars 
and  I  work  for  14  dinars  an  hour.  A  pair  of  chickens  is  1,000  dinars ;  1  kilogram 
of  fat,  500  dinars ;  cheese,  150  dinars ;  1  kilogram  of  bacon,  500  dinars ;  and  the 
two  of  us  earn  5,700  dinars  a  month,  which  is  not  enough  for  one  person     *     *     *, 

This  is  not  Yugoslavia  as  its  people  and  we  imagined  it ;  Tito's  betrayal  ruined 
it  completely.  There  is  no  morality  at  all,  but  only  divorces,  prostitution,  and, 
in  children's  homes,  there  are  more  children  of  divorced  parents  than  of  fighters 
who  fell  during  the  war. 

God,  these  are  horrible  things.  Where  dl(i  we  come  to?  If  you  only  could  see 
this,  you  would  be  dumbfounded. 

Terrorism  and  persecution,  murders  and  arrests  of  anybody  who  dares  criticize 
this  greatest  betrayal  in  the  history  of  the  workers'  movement. 

Those  who  write  to  you  that  it  is  well  here,  are  liars  or  sycophants ;  they  are 
those  who  sold  themselves  and  have  no  character  and  no  soul ;  they  are  those  who 
vilify  the  best  friends  of  Yugoslavia  and  its  peoples,  the  Soviet  Union  and  other 
Slavic  countries. 

For  whom  did  we  fig htf— The  Slobodna  Rec  of  July  13, 1949  (p.  1) , 
carries  news  from  Belgrade  of  a  grave  incident  in  front  of  a  jail  where 
a  deserving  Communist  is  kept.  His  mother  is  said  to  have  defiantly 
told  the  UDB  (secret  police)  agents: 

I  am  for  the  Cominform  resolution  ;  I  am  for  Stalin.  Shame  on  you.  Traitors, 
for  whom  did  we  fight?  Didn't  you  fight  for  Stalin,  and  today  Tito  is  calling  him 
a  traitor.  That  traitor  Tito  about  whom  we  heard  only  in  1943.  And  the  graves 
of  our  dead  heroes — for  whom  did  we  fight? 


668      COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

If  the  above  quotations,  expressing  the  views  of  "progressive"  Amer- 
ican Serbs  and  Croats,  are  compared  with  their  views  before  the  Com- 
inform-Tito  clash,  commentaries  are  superfluous.  It  may  only  be 
pointed  to  the  fact  that  the  attacks  against  Communist  Yugoslavia  are 
sometimes  even  more  violent  than  attacks  against  capitalist  countries, 

VI.   THE  STAND  OF  THE  SLOBODNA  REG  AND  NARODNI  GLASNIK  ON  THE 
SOVIET  UNION 

But  the  attitude  of  the  Slobodna  Kec  and  Narodni  Glasnik  toward 
the  Soviet  Union  did  not  change.  Invariably,  always  and  in  any  con- 
troversy, before  and  after  the  Cominform-Tito  clash,  the  Soviet 
Union  was  considered  right,  the  paragon  of  socialist  and  democratic 
virtues,  righteousness,  progress,  devotion  to  peace,  love  of  mankind, 
et  cetera.    A  few  examples  may  serve  to  illustrate  this  point : 

In  the  Slobodna  Rec  of  September  7,  1946  (p.  2),  a  long  article  by 
Louis  Adamic  was  published  on  the  shooting  down  of  American 
planes  over  Yugoslavia,  under  the  title :  "The  Truth  About  the  Amer- 
ican-Yugoslav Crisis — Important  Considerations  on  the  Occasion  of 
the  Airplane  Incident."  According  to  Adamic's  interpretation  of  this 
issue,  which  stirred  a  wave  of  indignation  throughout  the  United 
States,  this  country  was  wrong  and  Communist  Yugoslavia  was  right. 
The  Slobodna  Rec  wholeheartedly  endorsed  this  view. 

In  the  same  issue  of  the  Slobodna  Rec  and  on  several  other  occa- 
sions, an  advertisement  was  published  concerning  the  hook  The 
Great  Conspiracy  Against  Russia,  by  M.  Sayers  and  A.  Kahn.^  Peo- 
ple were  urged  to  buy  it.  In  order  "to  meet  the  needs  of  the  broad 
masses  of  the  people,  the  price  has  been  reduced  from  $3.50  to  $1." 

This  concern  about  the  interests  of  the  Soviet  Union  is  certainly 
touching,  especially  since  it  is  impossible  to  find  among  "progressives" 
any  similar  concern  about  the  United  States  or  any  warning  about  the 
interests  of  the  United  States  being  threatened  by  any  conspiracy. 

Soviet  Union  won  the  loar. — The  Slobodna  Rec,  which  never  speaks 
of  the  merits  of  America  in  winning  World  War  11,  has  a  different 
attitude  toward  the  Soviet  Union.  In  the  Slobodna  Rec  of  November 
29, 1947  (pp.  3  and  4)  it  is  stated : 

Today  *  *  *  the  people  of  Russia,  with  its  unity,  spirit  of  sacrifice,  and 
great  heroism,  as  well  as  owing  to  its  modern  policy,  saved  not  only  its  own 
country  from  the  enemy,  but  all  other  countries  in  the  world  as  well     *     *     * 

The  reversal  of  the  military  situation  in  Soviet  Russia  secured  the  victory  of 
the  Allies. 

This  text  is  strikingly  similar  to  the  views  expressed  by  The  Worker, 
May  9, 1948  (p.  7),  in  an  article  entitled,  "Not  Communism,  but  Anti- 
communism  Is  a  Conspiracy,"  by  M.  Howard : 

Socialism  in  the  U.  S.  S.  R.  performed  a  lion's  share  in  saving  the  national 
independence  of  Britain,  France,  and  the  U.  S.  A. 

Mother  Russia. — In  the  Slobodna  Rec  of  September  18,  1947,  a  list 
of  solicitors  of  advertisements  for  the  Almanac  Vidovdan  is  published, 
together  with  some  of  their  letters  addressed  to  the  Slobodna  Rec. 
Among  others,  Risto  Nogulich,  Chicago,  111.,  is  sending  $110  to  have 
the  almanac,  in  which  "the  life,  work,  and  struggle  of  Mother  Russia 
and  Yugoslavia,  against  whom  the  Fascist  dogs  are  hissing  and  yell- 
ing," is  described. 

^  Michael  Sayers  and  Albert  Kahn. 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS      669 

V.  S.  S.  R.  keeps  its  u'orc?.— Under  the  title  "The  U.  S.  A.  Violated 
Its  Commercial  Treaty  AVith  the  U.  S.  S.  R."  the  Narodni  Glasnik  of 
August  12,  1948,  published  an  item  from  the  New  York  Post  saying 
that— 

The  United  States  flatirantly  and  inexcusably  brolce  a  solemn  agreement  with  the 
Russians.  *  *  *  while  the  U.  S.  S.  R.  always  stood  by  its  obligations  in  the 
treaty. 

In  order  to  give  more  emphasis  to  that  "fact,"  the  Narodni  Glasnik 
published,  besides  the  reprint  from  the  New  York  Post,  an  editorial  on 
the  same  subject. 

Life  for  America. — Always  on  the  alert  to  defend  the  Soviet  inter- 
ests, the  Narodni  Glasnik  of  January  21,  1949,  after  reporting  that  the 
U.  S.  S.  R.  has  decided  to  stop  the  export  of  manganese  ore  to  the  United 
States,  asks,  "Who  started  all  this?"  and  promptly  answers  that  the 
United  States  is  to  blame,  since  it  stopped  the  export  of  machinery  to 
the  U.  S.  S.  R. : 

If  we  need  that  ore  and  if  we  want  to  get  it,  then  it  is  more  than  correct  that 
we  be  ready  to  sell  to  the  Soviet  Union  the  machinery  which  it  needs  and  which 
they  want  to  buy  in  our  country. 

Hundreds  of  thousands  of  workers,  who  in  the  course  of  the  last  months  lost 
their  jobs  in  various  industries,  would  also  like  to  know  why  did  we  stop  the  ex- 
j)ort ;  i.  e.,  the  sale  of  machinery  and  other  products  to  Slavic  countries.  They 
know  that  the  permanent  export  of  such  products  means  work  and  employment — • 
life  itself  for  America. 

In  the  United  States  of  America,  fascism.^ — The  Narodni  Glasnik  of 
February  21,  1949,  page  2,  published  an  article  under  the  title  "The 
Peoples  of  the  World  Do  Not  Want  War,  but  They  Strive  for  Peace 
and  Cooperation,"  in  which  Anna  Devunich,  reporting  on  the  Congress 
of  Women  for  Peace,  held  in  Budapest,  draws  a  comparison  between 
the  United  States  and  the  Soviet  Union : 

The  peoples  realize  the  fact  that  the  Soviet  Union  is  the  main  pillar  of  peace 
and  realize  that  the  policy  of  Wall  Street  is  the  main  prompter  of  a  new  war. 

The  greatest  danger  of  a  third  world  war  arises  from  the  American  reaction. 
The  case  of  the  12  Communist  leaders  in  New  York  is  compared  by  the  peoples 
to  the  Reichstag  fire  in  Germany.  That  event  has  a  great  importance  and  inter- 
national bearing  and  is  thus  looked  upon  as  a  very  great  restriction  of  democracy 
and  concession  to  fascism  in  America.  All  these  things  which  today  are  happen- 
ing in  America,  including  the  chauvinism  against  the  Negro  people  and  other 
minority  groups,  present  our  democracy  in  the  world  as  a  monstrosity  and  created 
hatred.     *     *     * 

Men  and  women  in  Budapest,  for  instance,  know  very  well  that  the  Soviet  Union 
is  their  friend,  because  20,000  Russian  soldiers  lost  their  lives  fighting  from 
house  to  house  against  the  Nazis  for  the  defense  of  Budapest  *  *  *  Children 
did  not  have  bread  and  water,  but  Russian  soldiers  brought  bread,  water,  and 
freedom. 

And  that  is  why  in  Europe  not  only  is  there  no  war  hysteria  nor  war  propaganda 
like  here,  but  there  is  great  sympathy  and  open  love  for  the  Soviet  Union. 

United  States  of  America:  Profits  for  the  feio. — In  the  Narodni 
Glasnik  from  March  4,  1949,  the  editorial  deals  with  the  question. 
What  does  the  price  reduction  in  the  Soviet  Union  mean  ? : 

The  question  is  why  do  prices  go  down  in  the  Soviet  Union  and  in  the  United 
States  they  are  still  at  their  highest  level,  although  production  is  much  higher  here 
than  in  the  Soviet  Union  ?  That  is  not  difficult  to  answer.  In  the  Soviet  Union,  in- 
dustry and  agriculture  belong  to  the  people,  and  consequently  they  are  not 
founded  on  profits.  An  increase  in  production  means  that  prices  must  go  down. 
An  increase  in  production  does  not  mean  increased  profits  as  in  our  country  where 
the  means  of  production  and  distribution  are  in  the  hands  of  wealthy  individuals 
and  groups  of  Individuals.  That  is  the  difference.  That  is  also  the  reason  why  the 
prices  in  our  country  are  so  unreasonably  high.  The  profiteers  do  not  care  about 
the  people,  but  about  ever-increasing  profits. 


670       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

Greatest  country. — A  good  example  of  the  attitude  of  Narodni  Glas- 
nik  toward  the  Soviet  can  also  be  found  in  its  issue  of  June  80,  1949, 
page  4,  where  an  article  is  published  under  the  heading  "S.  Kadic 
on  Soviet  Russia".  The  article  consists  mainly  of  excerpts  from  ar- 
ticles (The  Truth  About  the  Bolshevik  Revolution)  by  the  late  Stjepan 
Radic,  president  of  the  Croatian  Peasant  Party,  written  between  1920 
and  1927 : 

Russia  is  in  fact  a  peasants'  repiiblic  with  a  workers'  government;  therefore 
Russia  is  not  only  the  biggest  and  strongest  but  also  the  most  righteous  country 
in  the  world  (1920). 

Bolshevism  is  an  organization  of  society  and  the  whole  government  in  which 
participate  not  only  every  worker  and  peasant  but  all  other  workers  so  that  every 
cook  and  laundrymaid  is  participating  when  decisions  are  made  in  the  matters  of 
social  life  (1924). 

******* 

Soviet  Russia  is  the  only  great  power  in  the  world  which  in  reality  acknowl- 
edges and  respects  the  right  of  nations  to  self-determination   (1924). 

******* 

The  tenth  anniversary  of  the  Soviet  regime  in  Russia  is  celebrated  very  solemnly 
in  Moscow.  The  bourgeois  newspapers  in  the  whole  world  predicted  in  the 
course  of  these  10  years  not  once  but  many  times  that  the  Soviet  rule  in  Russia 
would  not  last  more  than  a  few  months.  However,  this  regime  is  getting  stronger, 
and  that  because  it  is  supported  by  the  Russian  peasants  and  workers  who,  on 
the  ground  of  social  justice,  are  leading  the  Russian  people  to  a  brighter  future 
(1927). 

VII.    IDENTITY  OF  "PROGRESSIVE"  VIEWS  ON  OTHER  ISSUES 

However,  the  identity  of  policy  and  propaganda  between  the  Daily 
AVorker,  on  the  one  side,  and  the  Slobodna  Rec  and  Narodni  Glasnik, 
on  the  other,  is  not  confined  to  the  Cominform-Tito  clash.  Besides 
often  carrying  the  same  cartoons  and  photographs,  either  several  days 
after  the  Daily  Worker  or  sometimes  even  before  the  Daily  Worker, 
the  Narodni  Glasnik  and  Slobodna  Rec  have  faithfully  followed  the 
Daily  Worker  line,  especially  in  the  basic  problems  of  the  United 
States.    Here  are  some  examples : 

A.  Refusal  of  the  Communists  to  fight  for  their  countries 

The  Daily  Worker  carried  in  its  issue  of  March  7, 1949,  pp.  1  and  9, 
an  open  letter  of  William  Z.  Foster  and  Eugene  Dennis  under  the  title 
'Ts  It  Treasonable  To  Talk  Peace?"  A  few  days  before  Foster  and 
Dennis  had  issued,  in  the  name  of  the  Communist  Party,  a  statement 
in  which  they  opposed  an  "aggressive"  war  of  the  United  States. 
President  Truman  reacted  by  condemning  that  stand  and  calling  the 
Communists  traitors.     In  their  open  letter,  Foster  and  Dennis  said  : 

You  twisted  the  question  originally  asked  and  implied  that  we  Communists  had 
discussed  an  attack  by  the  Soviet  Union  upon  our  Nation. 

We,  of  course,  did  not  discuss  the  fantastic  impossibility  of  such  an  attack  upon 
our  country.  *  *  *  it  is  not  from  the  Socialist  Soviet  Union  *  *  *  that 
the  danger  of  war  arises. 

Neither  the  American  people  nor  the  Soviet  Union  is  responsible  for  the  present 
world  tension.  Responsibility  rests  squarely  on  Wall  Street  and  its  bipartisan 
puppets. 

Despite  all  threats  and  persecutions  we  will  continue  resolutely  to  work  for 
peace.  *  *  *  -sff^  shall  continue  *  *  *  fo  ^n-g^  that  our  nation  shall  sign 
a  pact  of  friendship  and  peace  with  our  great  wartime  ally,  the  Soviet  Union. 

The  Narodni  Glasnik,  in  its  issue  of  March  8,  1949,  page  1,  carried 
the  above  letter,  somewhat  shortened,  under  the  title  "Foster  and 
Dennis  Have  Answered  Truman  That  Peace  Talk  Cannot  Be  Called 
Treason."    The  Slobodna  Rec,  March  9,  1949,  page  1,  also  carried  the 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS      671 


letter  under  tlie  title  "Communist  Leaders  Tell  Truman  That  Peace 
Talk  Is  Not  Treasonable.'  ' 

In  the  same  issue — March  7,  1949,  page  9 — the  Daily  Worker  pub- 
lished an  editorial  under  the  title  "Peace  Is  True  Patriotism."  It  is 
revealing  to  compare  this  editorial  with  the  editorial  of  the  Slobodna 
Kec,  March  9,  1949,  page  2,  entitled  "Wallace  Stands  in  Defense  of 
Peace." 


[Daily  Worker,  March  7,  1949,  p.  7] 
PEACE    IS    TRUE    PATRIOTISM 

Amid  the  shrill  cries  of  the  pre.ss 
which  would  like  to  silence  all  politicnl 
disagreement  with  the  Government's 
war-breeding  "cold  war,"  Henry  Wal- 
lace has  again  spoken  out  with  courage 
and  patriotism  for  peace. 

While  President  Truman  calls  his 
opponents  either  "s.  o.  b."  or  "traitor," 
Wallace  dares  to  stick  to  his  view  that 
an  American-Soviet  war  would  be  a 
crime  against  humanity,  that  it  is  un- 
necessary and  completely  avoidable 
without  sacrificing  a  single  national  in- 
terest which  is  genuinely  American. 
America's  national  welfare  is  a  different 
thing  from  the  profits  of  the  munitions 
makers,  of  course.  For  them  a  war 
would  be  a  godsend,  even  though  mil- 
lions would  be  slaughtered  before  the 
people  of  the  world  began  to  enfox-ce 
peace. 

While  everjone  in  Washington — Con- 
gressman, Senators,  and  Cabinet  mem- 
bers— speaks  about  war  as  if  it  were  the 
most  natural  thing  in  the  world,  as  if  it 
were  inevitable,  and  not  even  too  un- 
desirable, Wallace  on  Thursday,  speak- 
ing for  the  Progressive  Party,  made 
these  points : 

"I  said  it  was  possible  for  progressive 
capitalism  in  the  United  States  to  live 
at  peace  with  communLsm  in  eastern 
Europe.  I  still  think  so.  *  *  *  Our 
opposition  to  the  Truman  doctrine,  the 
ERF,  the  Atlantic  Pact,  universal  mili- 
tary training,  and  increa.sed  military 
expenditures  continues  stronger  than 
ever.  We  must  resolve  that  there  shall 
be  no  war.    *    *     * 

Wallace,  in  his  speech,  supported  the 
struggle  of  the  Communists  against  the 
policy  of  cold  war — i.  e.,  policy  of  all 
those  who  fight  for  peace — and  ex- 
pressed the  apprehension  that  the  war- 
mongers will  seize  upon  the.se  state- 
ments to  instigate  even  greater  war 
hysteria.  With  his  speech  Wallace  de- 
feuded  all  Americans,  the  Constitution, 
and  civil  rights  and  that  every  i)erson 
and  individual  has  the  right  to  speak 
his  mind.     *     *     * 

Wallace's  speech  will  win  the  support 
of  every  citizen,  regardless  of  differ- 
ences of  political  conviction,  who  has 
at  heart  the  good  of  America  *  *  * 
if  we  do  not  want  to  happen  again 
what  happened  in  1933  in  Germany. 


[Slobodna  Rec,  March  9.  1949,  p.  2] 
WALLACE    STANDS    IN    DEFENSE    OF    PEACE 

Henry  Wallace  has,  as  in  the  past, 
again  .spoken  out  for  peace.    *    *    * 

President  Truman  calls  his  opponents 
names  or  "traitors."    *    *    * 

The  national  welfare  of  America  and 
the  American  people,  on  the  one  side  and 
the  interests  of  the  munitions  makers 
on  the  other,  are  as  wide  apart  as 
heaven  and  earth.  For  the  instigators 
of  a  new  war,  that  would  be  a  godsend, 
while  for  millions  of  Americans  ami 
other  people  death.     *     *     * 

The  warmongers,  munitions  makers, 
and  the  reactionary  press  speak  daily 
that  the  war  against  v'^oviet  Union  and 
the  people's  democracies  is  inevita- 
ble. *  *  *  Wallace  on  Thur.s- 
day    *    *    *    said,  among  other  things : 

"I  said  it  was  possible  for  progressive 
capitalism  in  the  United  States  to  live 
at  peace  with  communism  in  eastern 
Europe.  I  still  think  so.  *  *  *  Our 
opposition  to  the  Truman  doctrine,  the 
Marshall  plan,  the  Atlantic  Military 
Pact,  universal  military  training,  and 
increased  military  expenditures  contin- 
ues stronger  than  ever.  We  must  re- 
solve that  there  shall  be  no  war." 

Of  the  Communist  Party  statement 
*     *     *     Wallace  said : 

"I  am  glad  that  they  want  to  work 
with  all  those  who  .seek  peace,  democ- 
racy, and  social  progress.  But  I  am 
not  in  accord  with  their  recent  state- 
ments because,  in  my  opinion,  they  will 
not  contribute  to  peace,  democracy,  and 
social  progress."  Wallace  said  that  he 
thought  that  the  "reactionaries  will 
seize  upon  these  statements  to  .justify 
-new  reaction  and  bigger  war  budgets." 
But  Wallace  reiterated  his  determina- 
tion to  defend  the  civil  right  of  all 
Americans  to  speak  their  minds  on  these 
crucial  issues. 

But,  regardless  of  such  differences, 
Henry  Wallace's  renewed  call  for  peace 
will  win  the  support  of  every  citizen, 
regardless  of  creed  or  political  affilia- 
tion, who  does  not  want  his  country  to 
be  shoved  down  the  fatal  German  path 
by  munitions  makers  and  war-hungry 
banker-generals. 


672       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

It  goes  without  saying  that  on  the  question  of  the  Communist  trial 
the  Daily  Worker  assumed  an  attitude  of  sharpest  disapproval.  The 
essence  of  its  views  is  that,  since  the  Communists  stand  for  democracy, 
the  indictment  of  the  12  leaders  of  the  Communist  Party  is  an  attack 
against  the  most  elementary  democratic  traditions  of  America,  its 
democratic  institutions,  and  the  civil  rights  of  its  citizens.  In  the 
Worker— southern  edition— from  September  26,  1948,  special  section, 
page  o,  the  editorial  proclaims  that  "If  Communists  are  outlawed, 
you're  next,"  and  quotes  William  Z.  Foster,  saying : 

The  attack  on  the  Communists  is  the  major  phase  of  the  drive  toward  fascism 
that  is  now  taking  place  in  the  United  States. 

In  the  Daily  Worker  of  January  10,  1949,  page  2,  the  trial  is  as- 
sailed as  being  undemocratic  because  of  the  "undemocratic  jury 
system." 

In  the  issue  of  January  17,  1949,  page  1,  a  cartoon  entitled  "The 
Thirteenth  Defendant"  was  published  showing  how  the  indictment 
of  12  was  a  blow  striking  the  torch  of  liberty  from  the  hands  of  the 
Statue  of  Liberty.  The  same  cartoon  was  repeated  in  the  issues  of 
January  23  and  30. 

In  the  Worker  of  January  23,  1949,  a  cartoon  was  published  under 
the  title  "The  Other  Defendants,"  referring  to  Jefferson  and  Lincoln, 
who  allegedly  are  the  invisible  but,  together  with  the  Communists, 
real  defendants  in  the  trial. 

In  the  Worker  of  February  6, 1949,  page  3,  an  article  bears  the  title 
"If  They  Frame  the  Communists,  They  Can  Frame  You,  Too."  In  the 
issue  of  March  22,  1949,  page  1,  a  page-wide  title  reads,  "CP  Fights 
for  American  People,  Dennis  Tells  Jury." 

The  stand  of  the  Slobodna  liec  and  Narodni  Glasnik  is  identical  to 
that  of  the  Daily  Worker  in  essence  and  in  the  details. 

The  Narodni  Glasnik  published  on  January  19, 1949,  page  5,  a  report 
of  the  trial,  saying  that  "the  court  hall  and  its  surroundings  look  like 
a  battlefiekl."  It  quoted  one  of  the  lawyers,  George  W.  Crockett,  Jr., 
calling  the  police  on  duty  "an  armed  mob"  and  presented  the  views  of 
the  lawyers.  A  similar  report  was  printed  in  the  Slobodna  Rec  of 
January  19,  1949,  page  1. 

The  Narodni  Glasnik  could  not  be  more  explicit  than  it  was  in  the 
report  of  January  17,  1949,  page  1.  The  three-column-wide  title  read, 
"The  trial  of  the  12  Communists  is  a  trial  of  the  Bill  of  Rights,"  and 
the  subtitle,  "If  the  Communists  are  deprived  of  the  right  of  political 
opinion,  then  automatically  the  people  of  America  are  deprived  of  it, 
and  the  basic  law,  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States,  is  ridiculed." 
In  the  article,  the  editor  presents  the  Communist  view  of  the  trial, 
saying : 

In  connection  with  this  trial,  here  is  what  the  Communists  say :  "The  Bill  of 
Rights  is  in  fact  on  trial." 

Strangely  enough,  the  editors  of  the  Narodni  Glasnik  made  this 
viewpoint  their  own  by  choosing  it  for  the  headline  of  their  newspaper. 
The  article  ends  with  the  pathetic  outcry : 

On  trial  are  not  only  12  Communists,  but  the  rest  of  us — we  145,000,000  people. 

The  Slobodna  Rec  of  January  19,  1949,  entitled  its  editorial  "The 
United  States  Constitution  on  Trial,"  declaring  that — 

Today,  if  Jesus  Christ,  Washington,  Jefferson,  and  Lincoln  were  to  appear 
again,  the  reaction  would  accuse  them  too  of  being  "in  favor  of  forcible  over- 
throw of  our  Government." 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS      673 

The  Narodni  Glasnik  in  its  issues  of  January  20,  1949,  page  1, 
January  25,  page  1,  and  January  26  and  28,  page  2,  attacked  the 
"undemocratic"  jury  system,  reporting  that  "protests  against  the  trial 
of  the  leaders  of  the  Communist  Party  are  pouring  in"  and  that  Sena- 
tor William  Langer  of  North  Dakota  "sharply  assailed  the  biased 
system  of  jury  appointment." 

In  the  same  way,  the  Slobodna  Rec  in  its  issue  of  January  29,  1949, 
page  1,  wrote  "against  the  undemocratic  appointment  of  the  jury" 
and  reported  on  Senator  Langer's  attack  against  the  "discriminatory 
jury  system  in  New  York." 

The  Narodni  Glasnik  of  January  18,  1949,  page  2,  stated  that — 

The  trial  of  the  Communists  is  a  frame-up.  And  that  means  a  frame-up  against 
America. 

In  the  same  issue  was  published  a  telegraphic  request  of  the  Ameri- 
can Slav  Congress  of  Western  Pennsylvania,  signed  by  John  Rudiak, 
president,  and  George  Wuchinich,  secretary,  addressed  to  President 
Truman  and  Attorney  General  Tom  Clark,  to  reject  the  indictment  of 
the  12  Communist  leaders,  because  "the  political  rights  of  all  Ameri- 
cans are  threatened."  The  same  was  published  by  the  Slobodna  Rec 
on  January  19, 1949,  page  1. 

In  its  issue  of  February  21,  1949,  page  6,  the  Narodni  Glasnik  pub- 
lished an  article  by  Howard  Fast  entitled  "The  Battle  of  the  Working 
People  of  Our  Nation  Is  Being  Fought  at  Foley  Square  in  New 
York."  In  the  issue  of  February  22,  1949,  page  1,  the  Narodni  Glas- 
nik proclaimed  that  "The  indicted  Communists  are  more  and  more 
appearing  as  accusers,"  and  that  "Judge  Medina  is  squirming  and  by 
legal  measures  preventing  the  exposure  of  the  disgraceful  jury  system." 

The  Daily  Worker  of  March  14, 1949,  carried  on  page  1  the  headline 
"Wallace  hits  betrayal,"  with  the  caption  "Henry  Wallace,  former 
Vice  President  of  the  United  States  and  Presidential  candidate  of  the 
Progressive  Party,  yesterday  lashed  the  bipartisan  betrayal  of  civil 
rights  in  Congress."  He  urged  Americans  regardless  of  political 
beliefs,  to  join  in  action  to  break  the  filibuster. 

The  Narodni  Glasnik  of  March  15,  1949,  page  1,  published  a  literal 
translation  from  the  Daily  Worker  under  the  headline  "Wallace 
assails  old  parties  because  of  betrayal  of  civil  rights"  and  the  sub- 
title "The  administration  capitulated  before  the  southern  tories  as 
was  to  be  expected;  the  reaction  gets  bolder."  Not  satisfied  with  the 
reprint,  the  Narodni  Glasnik  added  one  additional  column  of 
comments. 

VIII.  THE  APPEAL  TO  "SLAVIO  SOLIDARITY,"  THE  AMERICAN  SLAV 
CONGRESS,  ETC. 

In  all  the  policy  and  propaganda  of  the  Slobodna  Rec  and  Narodni 
Glasnik,  the  appeal  to  "Slavic  solidarity"  is  one  of  the  favorite  themes 
and  most  important  instruments  for  the  mental  conditioning  of  their 
readers  and  for  their  preparation  to  do  their  duty  when  the  move- 
ment of  "ultimate  emancipation"  comes.  The  files  of  these  two  news- 
papers also  reveal  the  closest  cooperation  between  them  and  affiliated 
"progressive"  organizations,  on  the  one  side,  and  the  American  Slav 
Congress  and  its  activities,  on  the  other.    In  the  Narodni  Glasnik  of 


(574      COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

May  8,  1947,  page  3,  Dushan  Popovicli,  praising  some  singing  choirs 
and  music  bands,  says : 

Our  youth,  we  are  proud  that  you  are  of  Slavic  bloocL 

In  the  Narodni  Glasnik  of  May  5,  1947,  an  article  is  published  by 
Frank  Borich,  executive  secretary  of  the  People's  Council,  on  the  im- 
portance of  the  great  second  congress  of  the  American  Croatian  men 
and  women,  which  contains  all  the  main  points  of  the  program  adopted 
at  the  congress.  In  point  6,  the  congress  pledges  "active  support 
to  the  United  Committee  of  South  Slavic  Americans  and  the  American 
Slav  Congress  through  a  fuller  participation  in  their  work." 

In  1947,  Bozo  Galeb  went  to  Yugoslavia  as  a  delegate  to  attend  the 
All-Slav  Congress  held  in  Belgarde.  Upon  his  return,  he  was  given 
the  greatest  publicity  in  the  Slobodna  Rec.  In  the  issue  of  June  3, 
1947,  page  1,  it  is  announced  that  "brother  Bozo  Galeb  will  speak  in 
the  course  of  June  1947  in  the  f ollow^ing  places" :  Gary,  Ind. ;  Mil- 
waukee, Wis.;  Chicago,  111.;  St.  Louis,  Mo.;  Denver,  Colo.;  Salt 
Lake  City,  Utah;  Boise,  Idaho;  Spokane,  Wash.;  Seattle,  Wash.; 
Vancouver,  Canada ;  Portland,  Ore. 

The  same  issue  of  the  Slobodna  Rec  carries  an  advertisement  for  the 
magazine,  The  Slavic  American,  ofiicial  organ  of  the  ASC : 

Featured  in  the  first  issue  will  be  an  article  by  President  Benes,  of  Czechoslo- 
vakia, on  Slav  unity,  and  an  exclusive  interview  with  Leo  Krzycki,  president  of 
the  American  Slav  Congress,  on  his  fiftieth  anniversary  as  a  labor  leader 
*     *     *     [and]  a  short  story  by  Louis  Adamic. 

"No  magazine  so  ambitious  in  scope,  specifically  for  Slavic  Americans  and  their 
friends,  has  ever  been  planned,"  said  George  Pirinsky,  executive  secretary  of  the 
American  Slav  Congress. 

Here  is  an  example  of  how  the  American  Slav  Congress  tries  to 
identify  its  own  cause  with  that  of  the  American  people.  The  Narodni 
Glasnik  of  July  30, 1947,  page  1,  publishes  a  telegram  sent  by  the  exec- 
utive secretary  of  the  ASC,  George  Wuchinich,  to  the  chairman  of 
the  House  Un-American  Activities  Committee,  J.  Parnell  Thomas. 
The  telegram  reads : 

We  request  to  be  heard  on  the  charge  of  a  so-called  "Slav  fifth  column"  emanat- 
ing from  hearings  before  your  committee.  We  stand  forward  to  speak  in  the 
name  of  thousands  of  American  working  men  and  women  of  western  Pennsyl- 
vania to  deny  this  deliberate  slur  intended  to  spread  fear  throughout  our  coun- 
try. 

The  same  issue  of  the  Narodni  Glasnik  carries — page  4 — the  full  text 
of  a  letter  to  Secretary  of  State  George  Marshall,  signed  by  Leo 
Bacich,  acting  executive  secretary  of  the  United  Committee  of  South 
Slavic  Americans,  asking — 

That  the  policy  pursued  toward  Yugoslavia  in  connection  with  issuance  of 
passports  for  travel  to  Yugoslavia  be  reversed  and  passports  issued. 

The  Narodni  Glasnik  of  August  7, 1947,  page  2,  publishes  a  report  of 
a  visit  to  the  Yugoslav  ship  Radnik  by  Petar  Simrak.  After  stressing 
the  difference  between  prewar  Yugoslavia  and  the  present  regime, 
Simrak  enthusiastically  quotes  a  few  new  stanzas  added  to  the  old 
song  called  O  Slavs,  and  sung  by  the  crew  choir : 

O  Slavs,  the  earth  is  trembling 
From  the  Volga  to  the  Triglav ; 
With  a  clear  tone  thunder  the  waves 
From  the  blue  Adriatic  sea. 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS      675 

In  a  thmiflerous  voice  calls  our  comrade 
Stalin,  from  the  Russian  plains, 
And  his  comrade  Tito  answers 
From  the  Bosnian  mountains. 

Simrak  also  quotes  a  new  song  sung  by  "young  sea  girls" : 

From  the  Don,  the  Volga,  and  the  Ural 
To  the  bhie  seacoast  of  the  Adriatic 
All  Slavs  are  illuminated 
r.y  the  Red  Star. 

The  Narodni  Glasnik  of  August  12,  1947,  carries  on  page  2  three 
very  important  messages  to  all  branches  of  the  People's  Council  by 
Frank  Borich,  The  second  is  a  recommendation  of  the  first  copy  of 
the  Slavic  American,  published  by  the  American  Slav  Congress : 

This  periodical  is  of  enormous  importance,  not  only  for  us  Slavs,  but  for  all 
Americans.  It  is  important,  especially  today,  when  the  reaction  is  endeavoring 
to  brand  all  of  us  who  gave  all  that  we  had  for  the  victory  in  the  war,  as  "fifth 
columnists."  We  must  destroy  that  disgusting  slander  and  prove  to  the  people 
of  America  that  we  Slavs  are  among  the  best  and  most  loyal  citizens  of  America, 
who  always  fought  for  its  democratic  traditions  and  democratic  ideals.  The 
Slavic  American  will  play  here  a  great  role.  That  is  why  we  must  take  it  not 
only  to  Americans  of  Slav  origin,  but  to  others  as  well. 

In  an  article  entitled  "The  Lack  of  Knowledge  of  True  Reality" 
(Narodni  Glasnik,  September  17,  1947,  p.  4),  Eusebio  Ruic  comments 
on  Dorothy  Thompson's  article  "The  Fallacy  of  Containing  Russia." 

I  do  not  know  what  the  racial  origin  of  Miss  Thompson  is,  but  from  her 
writing  it  can  be  discerned  that,  at  least,  her  great  grandmother  was  German, 
because  she  is  displaying  the  same  German  partiality  and  greed  which  before 
many  Gei-man  leaders  used  to  display  when  they  were  building  a  great  Germany 
at  the  expense  of  the  Slavs.  Miss  Thompson  knows  well  that  today  the  united 
Slavs  have  thwarted  the  plans  of  all  exploiters  and  conquerors.  Now  they  have 
nothing  else  left  but  to  slander  the  Slavic  countries. 

The  Narodni  Glasnik  of  October  16,  1947,  page  2,  carries  an  appeal 
of  George  Pirinsky,  of  the  Slavic  American,  to  subscribe  to  this 
periodical  under  the  title  "The  Slavic  American  Is  Your  Paper,  It 
Speaks  for  You,  Subscribe  to  It."  Pirinslrv  boasts  that  "in  the  course 
of  the  last  fortnight  over  a  thousand  people  subscribed." 

The  Slobodna  Rec  of  August  5,  1947,  page  3,  carries  a  report  on 
the  "magnificent  welcome  to  Bozo  Galeb  and  Martin  Zorich  in  Cuper- 
tino, Calif."  Among  other  things  Bozo  Galeb  is  quoted  as  saying  that 
in  Yugoslavia: 

The  people  cleaned  the  country  forever.  They  have  forged  not  only  the 
brotherhood  and  unity  of  the  peoples  of  Yugoslavia,  but  also  the  brotherhood 
and  unity  with  all  other  Slav  nations  which  fought  for  the  same  cause. 

There  is  no  more  hatred,  envy,  and  odium  among  the  people  in  Yugoslavia. 
Instead  of  that  love,  warmth,  cordiality,  sincerity,  and  the  mutual  devotion  of 
one  to  another  prevails.  They,  in  Yugoslavia,  call  all  that  brotherhood  and  unity. 
In  the  same  way  there  is  a  strong  all-Slav  solidarity  and  also  a  strong  friendship 
toward  all  freedom-loving  people  who  work  for  cooperation  and  peace. 

The  Slobodna  Rec  of  September  16,  1947,  page  3,  carries  an  an- 
nouncement of  a  public  meeting  of  the  United  Committee  of  the  South 
Slavic  Americans  in  connection  with  the  National  Council  of  Ameri- 
can-Soviet Friendship,  on  September  25,  Manhattan  Center,  Thirty- 
fourth  Street  and  Eighth  Avenue,  New  York,  The  chairman  of  the 
conference  was  Louis  Adamic.  The  announcement  is  signed  by  Leo 
Bacich,  executive  secretary  of  the  united  committee. 


676      COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

The  same  issue  of  the  Slobodna  Rec  publishes  on  page  4  an  article, 
The  Un-American  Committee  Must  Go,  by  Harry  M.  Justiz.  Above 
it  is  a  report  on  a  meeting  of  the  American  Slav  Congress  under  the 
title,  "Henry  Wallace  Presented  With  Slavic-American  Magazine." 
The  subtitle  reads,  "Urges  Slavic  Americans  To  Take  an  Active  Part 
in  Elections  and  Promote  Friendship  Between  America  and  Slav 
Nations."  George  Pirinsky,  executive  secretary  of  the  American  Slav 
Congress,  greeted  the  IMichigan  group  and  commended  them  for  the 
good  work  they  are  doing. 

The  Slobodna  Rec  of  October  15,  1947,  page  3,  carries  a  poem  by 
Krcun  Sekulich  wliich  is  directed  against  Serbian  and  other  Fascists 
who  want  to  "break  down  the  iron  curtain,"  but  will  fail,  because  "be- 
hind it  is  a  great  fighting  army  of  300,000,000  Slavs,  which  have 
weapons  and  food  and  are  led  by  two  giants :  Tito  and  Stalin."  They 
have  "given  power  to  the  workers  and  shaken  the  whole  world.  *  *  * 
Especially  are  trembling  the  Nazis  and  Fascists,  rich  people  and  mon- 
opolists. From  slaves  they  became  men,  and  capital  is  no  longer  their 
judge.  All  people  must  finally  be  equal."  In  this  poem  the  Serbian 
Chetniks  are  assailed  and  called  names,  and  the  Slavs  are  glorified. 

The  same  issue  of  the  Slobodna  Rec  carries  a  report  on  an  article 
of  Bozidar  Milosevich  on  the  importance  of  Slav  unity  for  peace,  pub- 
lished in  the  August-September  issue  of  the  magazine,  The  Protestant, 
under  the  title,  "Slavs  United  for  Peace." 

The  Slobodna  Rec  of  October  25, 1947,  page  4,  carries  an  open  letter 
of  Los  Angeles  Slavs  to  President  Truman,  unanimously  endorsed  by 
over  1,000  people  attending  the  fall  Slav  festival  at  330  South  Ford 
Boulevard,  sponsored  by  the  Slavic  Council  of  Los  Angeles.  The  letter 
urges  President  Truman  to  adopt  a  "realistic  approach  in  our  rela- 
tions with  Bulgaria,  Czechoslovakia,  the  Soviet  Union,  Poland,  and 
Yugoslavia,"  and  "to  do  all  within  your  power  to  promote  friendly 
relations  and  understanding  between  our  Nation  and  our  allies,  the 
people  of  the  Slavic  countries."  It  is  signed  by  the  Slavic  Council  of 
Los  Angeles,  George  V.  Boroz,  president,  and  Casimir  E.  Nowacki, 
executive  secretary. 

The  Slobodna  Rec  of  November  1,  1947,  page  2,  carries  a  public 
statement  of  the  executive  committee  of  the  American  Slav  Congress 
of  western  Pennsylvania,  signed  by  George  S.  Wuchinich,  executive 
secretary,  Pittsburgh,  Pa.,  against  Judge  Blair  Gunther  and  Harry 
Alan  Sherman,  lawyer. 

The  same  issue  of  the  Slobodna  Rec  carries,  page  3,  a  report  by 
Drago  Kosich,  editor  of  the  Slobodna  Rec,  on  the  "magnificent  success" 
of  the  banquet  of  the  Serbian  Peoples  Congress.  As  usual  the  loyalty 
of  these  people  is  pledged,  not  to  America,  but  to  all  Slav  countries. 
Philip  Vukelich,  representative  of  the  Council  of  American  Croats, 
and  chief  editor  of  the  newspaper  Zajednicar  (organ  of  the  Croatian 
Fraternal  Union)  declares : 

All  Slavs  have  united  in  all  Slav  countries,  and  we  have  to  do  the  same.    *    *    * 
Back  in  the  old  times,  the  Romans  used  to  say  that  if  the  Slavs  would  unite, 
they  would  become  an  important  factor  in  the  world. 

The  Slobodna  Rec  of  November  5,  1947,  page  3,  publishes  an  article 
by  Milan  Draskovich,  Wilmington,  Calif.,  praising  Jovo  Popovich, 
the  delegate  at  the  convention  of  the  Serb  National  Federation,  who 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       677 

was  expelled  by  unanimous  vote,  and  assailing  Tomo  Deretich,  who 
failed  to  realize  that — 

All  this  boils  clown  to  one  tiling,  to  send  the  Slavs  again  to  be  killed. 

In  the  Slobodna  Kec  of  November  19,  1947,  page  3,  an  article,  un- 
der the  title  "The  Armistice  Day  of  November  11,"  is  published  in 
which  Dushan  M.  Peyovich,  Detroit,  Mich.,  asks : 

With  whom  shall  we  make  friends  and  plan  a  lasting  peace  in  the  world? 
With  the  attackers  on  Pearl  Harbor  and  Belgrade,  Stalingrad," and  London?  Or 
with  the  age-old  friends  of  unity  and  peace,  the  Slav  Nations? 

In  the  Slobodna  Kec  of  November  29,  1947,  page  2,  its  chief  editor 
Stanko  Vuicli  in  his  article  Why  Are  the  American  Slavs  Being  Slan- 
dered? takes  issue  with  Eobert  Taylor,  who  wrote  several  articles  in 
the  Pittsburgh  Press  on  the  American  Slav  Congress  and  similar 
organizations : 

What  upsets  him  [Taylor]  most  is  that  the  Slavs  are  taking  an  active  part  in 
preparing  the  meetings  of  Henry  A.  Wallace.  This  grieves  him  much,  and  he  goes 
as  far  as  calling  Wallace  himself  a  Communist.  To  be  active  in  the  workers' 
union  and  to  fight  for  the  interest  of  the  American  workers  is,  for  the  Pittsburgh 
Press,  to  indulge  in  disloyal  activities. 

The  attacked  Slavic  organizations  and  individuals  were  among  the  fii'St  to 
support  President  Roosevelt  and  his  policy. 

In  an  article  entitled  "The  Unity  of  the  Slavs  Is  an  Important  Fac- 
tor for  a  Lasting  Peace  in  the  World"  (Slobodna  Rec,  November  29, 
1947,  pp.  3  and  4),  Jovan  Mushikich  takes  a  typically  "progressive" 
Slavic  stand : 

In  the  past  *  *  *  agreements  were  made  with  the  help  and  approval  of 
the  western  European  countries  at  the  expense  of  small  Slavic  nations,  aud  even 
of  Russia     *     *     *. 

For  centuries,  the  small  Slavic  nations  remained  the  object  of  trading  between 
the  ruthless  European  countries  whose  enmity  towai'd  the  Slavs  is  age-old. 

Once  again,  where  the  Soviet  Union  is  concerned,  the  Slobodna  Rec, 
its  editors  and  correspondents  identify  the  people  with  the  Govern- 
ment, whereas,  when  their  own  country,  the  United  States  of  America, 
is  concerned  they  always  make  the  strictest  distinction  between  the 
interests  of  the  people  and  the  governmental  policy  which  is,  allegedly, 
against  the  essential  interests  of  the  people.  Mushikieh  exemplifies 
this  practice : 

Today  *  *  *  the  people  of  Russia,  with  its  unity,  spirit  of  sacrifice,  and 
great  heroism,  as  well  as  owing  to  its  modern  policy  saved  not  only  its  own 
country  from  the  enemy,  but  all  other  countries  in  the  world  as  well     *     *     *_ 

The  arrival  of  the  glorious  Red  Army  on  the  territory  of  the  small  Slavic 
nations  is  the  most  precious  event  which  will  shine  on  the  most  recent  pages  of 
the  history  of  Slavic  people.  Through  that  were  realized  their  strivings,  secured 
their  national  boundaries,  and  democracy,  and  at  the  same  time  were  cemented 
the  solidarity  and  friendship  of  all  Slavic  nations     *     *     *. 

The  united  Slavs,  together  with  all  democratic  and  peace-loving  people  of  the 
world,  will  secure  peace  and  freedom. 

And  this  article  in  the  Slobodna  Rec,  which  never  hails  the  brother- 
hood and  unity  of  all  Americans,  ends  with  an  enthusiastic : 

Long  live  the  brotherhood  and  unity  of  all  Slavs. 

In  an  article  published  in  the  Slobodna  Rec  of  December  31,  1947, 
page  2,  S.  Vukalovich  says : 

In  the  last  war  Russia  broke  Hitler.  Fascism  was  not  able  to  break  the  Slavs 
but  broke  itself.  That  is  what  the  Fascists  can  never  forgive  Russia  for.  That 
is  the  leason  why  they  are  now  attacking  the  Slavs  and  Russia. 

98330— 50— pt.  2 15 


678      COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

The  same  issue  of  the  Slobodna  Rec  carries  (p.  4)  :  "New  Year's 
ffi-eeting  of  the  Yugoslav  Seamen's  Chib  in  New  York"  addressed  to 
"all  brothers  and  sisters  in  tlie  United  States,  Canada,  South  America, 
Australia,  New  Zealand,  and  other  countries : 

Wo  wish  you  further  success  iu  your  work  for  the  unity  of  all  south  Slav  and 
all  Slav  nations. 
Lona  live  the  brotherhood  and  unity  of  all  Slavs. 

The  greeting  is  signed  by  Toma  Babin,  chairman  of  the  club. 

The  Slobodna  Hoc  of  August  2(5, 1947,  publishes  (p.  4)  an  article  by 
George  S.  Wuchinich,  executive  secretary  of  the  American  Slav  Con- 
gress of  western  Pennsylvania  under  the  title  "Widen  Democracy — 
Don't  Narrow  It." 

The  Slobodna  Rcc  of  November  12,  1947,  describes  (p.  3)  the  con- 
ference of  the  Ameri(;an  Committee  for  the  Protection  of  Foreign 
Born  in  Cleveland  on  October  25,  2().  After  saying  that  many  resolu- 
tions were  adopted,  among  which,  one  to  "dissolve  the  House  Com- 
mittee on  Un-American  Affairs,  as  well  as  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,"  they 
informed  the  readers  that  after  the  conference  "there  was  a  meeting 
of  a  few  Slavs  with  (leorge  Pirinsky.  Pirinsky  ex])lained  the  situa- 
tion of  the  American  Slav  Congress  and  appealed  for  financial  help 
in  the  amount  of  approximately  $100,000  in  order  to  enable  it  "to 
lealize  its  many  aims  as  an  efficient  organization."  The  reporter  of 
the  Slobodna  Pec  concludes  that  "this  is  briefly  my  report.  The 
thing  is  big,  the  struggle  against  the  reaction  mtist  be  waged  on  all 
sides." 

The  Slobodna  Rec  of  November  22,  1947,  carries  a  large  announce- 
ment of  the  People's  Festival  in  Pittsburgh,  featuring  Louis  Adamic, 
"outstanding  people's  writer,"  and  Paul  Robeson,  "famous  singer,"  and 
says : 

Tickets  can  be  obtained  at  the  American  Slav  Congress  of  western  Pennsyl- 
vania, 1005  Berger  Building,  Pittsburgh,  Pa. 

In  the  same  issue  of  the  Slobodna  Rec,  an  article  is  published  against 
the  labor-hating  Pittsburgh  Press.  A  photostatic  copy  of  a  letter  of 
President  Roosevelt  of  September  11,  1944,  addressed  to  the  Second 
Slav  Congress  is  reproduced  in  order  to  "refute  the  lies  now  being 
spread  by  the  Pittsburgh  Press  against  the  American  Slavs"  since — 

Now  these  great  American  patriots  of  Slavic  origin  are  subjected  to  a  cam- 
paign of  vilification  and  smear  by  an  unscrupulous  big-business  press. 

Thus,  the  appeal  to  all-Slav  solidarity  which  represents  one  of  the 
main  themes  of  the  progressive  propagan(hi  among  Americans  of 
Slavic  origin  is  far  from  liaving  n  purely  sentimental  charncter.  Be- 
sides creating  the  necessary  state  of  mind  and  mood  to  fight  capitalism, 
which  is  allegedly  the  main  enemy  of  the  Slavs,  this  ii])|ieal  to  Slavism 
is  connected  with  some  concrete  facts  which  the  Communists  are  never 
tired  of  repeating  in  connection  with  the  decisive  question  of  what 
will  happen  in  case  of  war.  A  few  examples  might  illustrate  the 
practical  revolutionary  importance  of  this  "Slavic  propaganda": 

1.  In  a  chapter  entitled  "American  Yugoslavs — Backbone  of  the 
American  Slav  Congress,"  Mirko  Markovich  in  his  pamphlet  The 
Struggle  in  America  for  a  New  Yugoslavia  says: 

Many  theoreticians  tried  and  are  trying  to  prove  the  Anglo-Saxon  origin 
of  the  Americans  as  a  nation.  But  many  facts  are  fundamentally  correcting 
this  "Anglo-Saxon"  theory.     One  of  the  most  striking  is  the  following:     During 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS      679 

the  war,  it  was  discovered  and  stiitistirally  proven  that  over  one-lialf  of  the  war 
material  produced  in  the  United  States  was  produc(Ml  by  tlie  liands  of  the  Ameri- 
can Shivs.  In  other  words,  nioiv  than  lialf  of  tlie  worliers  who  were  employed 
in  war  industry,  especially  heavy  industry,  were  Slavs.  American-Slavs  in  the 
United  States  number  between  13  and  15  million  people. 

This  fact  alone  reveals  the  importance  of  the  role  of  Slavs  in  America  during 
the  war  for  the  cause  of  the  United  States,  for  the  cause  of  the  whole  anti-Hitler 
coalition.  That  is  why  it  was  of  unusual  importance  to  build  up  and  develop 
the  anti-Fascist  united  front  of  Americans  of  Slavic  origin  (p.  45) . 

2.  The  Slobodna  Eec  of  April  29, 1947,  page  2,  published  an  article  of 
Dimitar  Vlahov,  vice  president  of  the  F.  V.  K.  Yugoslavia,  and  dele- 
gate to  the  UN  conference  in  New  York,  under  the  title  "What  Vlahov 
Says  About  the  Immigrants  in  the  United  States." 

Americans  of  Slav  origin  represent  a  very  considerable  force,  because  they 
constitute  50  percent  of  all  the  workers  in  the  American  heavy  and  war  in- 
dustries    *     *     * 

The  progressive  role  of  Americans  of  Slav  origin  is  today  a  well-known  fact. 
They  exert  an  important  influence  between  the  American  people  and  the  Slav 
nations. 

Until  the  attack  of  Hitler's  Germany  on  the  Soviet  Union,  Americans  of  Slav 
origin,  whose  number  amounts  to  15,000,000  people,  had  no  special  mutual 
link.s,  but  as  they  understood  what  a  menace  fascism  represented  for  the  Slav 
nation,  they  organized  themselves  and  formed  special  committees  for  an  efficient 
struggle  against  fascism.     *     *     * 

They  founded  several  very  active  committees,  among  which  stand  out  the 
Conim'ittee  for  Yugoslav  Relief,  tlie  Committee  for  Aid  to  Macedonia,  the  Com- 
mittee for  Reconstruction  in  Yugoslavia,  the  Special  Committee  for  Collecting 
the  Funds  for  Building  a  Modern  Hospital  in  Dalmatia,  further  committe(>s  for 
building  hospitals  in  Macedonia  and  Hercegovina,  as  well  as  the  committees  of 
people  from  Lika  and  Hercegovina  for  the  aid  to  these  regions. 

After  praising  the  work  of  the  American  Slav  Congress,  Vlahov 
ends  his  article  by  saying : 

The  huge  majority  of  our  immigrants  stand  firmly  by  the  F.  P.  R.  Yugoslavia. 

3.  In  the  Slobodna  Rec  of  February  2,  1946,  page  3,  an  article  was 
published  by  Milan  Polovina,  dealing  with  the  problem  of  strikes 
and  workers'  rights,  in  which  the  author  says : 

The  fact  that  in  those  industries  [i.e.,  steel  and  automobile]  52  percent  of  the 
woikers  are  Slavs  and  that,  on  account  of  that,  the  success  or  failure  of  the 
workers'  claims  depends  to  a  great  extent  upon  them,  burdens  us  Americans  of 
Slav  descent  with  a  great  responsibility  to  the  working  people  of  this  country. 
*     «     # 

The  employers  who  had  billions  of  profits  during  World  War  II,  want  to  con- 
tinue accumulating  that  immense  wealth  even  at  the  expense  of  workers'  lives, 
standard  of  living,  and  the  welfare  of  the  workers'  families,  and  even  at  the 
expense  of  the  survival  and  welfare  of  our  country,  America.  That  is  what 
we  are  fighting  against.  *  *  *  In  that  .struggle,  we  Americans  of  Slavic 
origin,  are  playing  a  great  and  important  role. 

4.  Maybe  the  most  outspoken  in  dealing  with  this  problem  was 
George  S.  Wuchinich  who,  in  his  column  "Keep  America  Free," 
published  in  the  Narodni  Glasnik  of  October  13,  1948,  page  4,  said: 

Fifteen  million  work  in  the  basic  industries  and  they  know  the  meaning  of 
Berlin.    To  have  war,  steel  and  coal  must  flow  out  of  mills  and  mines. 

The  same  Wuchinich,  besides  being  executive  secretary  of  the  Am- 
erican Slav  Congress  of  Western  Pennsylvania,  and  an  organizer  of 
the  Progressive  Party,  has  played  an  increasing  role  in  the  Slobodna 
Rec  and  Narodni  Glasnik.  Three  days  before  the  Cominform-Tita 
clash,  he  announced  in  one  of  his  articles  that  the  Narocbii  Glasnik 


680       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

had  decided  "to  make  this  column  a  weekly  feature."  Very  politely, 
Wuchinich  declares : 

Vv'e  in  the  [American  Slav]  Congress  "thank  them  for  this  opportunity  to  reach 
you. 

And  since  Wuchinich  has  had  plenty  of  opportunity  to  reach  the 
readers  of  the  Narodni  Glasnik,  as  well  as  of  the  Slobodna  Rec,  his 
views  can  be  considered  as  representative  of  the  links  which  bind  to- 
gether the  American  Slav  Congress,  the  Progressive  Party,  and  the 
"progressive"  American  Serbs  and  Croats  organized  around  the 
Narodni  Glasnik  and  Slobodna  Rec.  As  can  be  seen  from  the  follow- 
ing examples,  Wuchinich's  dominant  concern  is  to  preserve  in  all 
themes  and  problems,  the  purity  of  the  "progressive"  line : 

America,  arsenal  for  world  reaction. — The  Slobodna  Rec  of  May  15, 
1948,  carries  a  "Call  to  the  Tenth  Anniversary  Conference  of  the 
American  Slav  Congress,"  signed  by  George  Wuchinich,  in  which  it 
is  said : 

Another  war  is  being  planned.     *     *     * 

Preparations  for  war  go  full  speed  ahead  in  our  country.  Politicians  are 
fast  making  America  an  arsenal  for  world  reaction  and  not  democracy.  At  home, 
the  Taft-Hartley  law  does  its  work  against  the  people.     *     *     * 

A  cloud  of  fear  spreads  over  the  Nation  endangering  our  civil  liberties. 

The  Narodni  Glasnik  of  May  27, 1948,  carries  on  page  4  the  full  text 
of  a  radio  address  by  George  Wuchinich  delivered  on  May  23  under  the 
title,  "The  Mundt  Bill  Is  a  Measure  to  Introduce  a  Police  State  and 
Fascism  in  the  U.  S.  A."  Subtitle:  "Quick  Action  by  an  Aroused 
People  is  Needed  to  Defeat  the  Mundt  Bill." 

In  1948  *  *  *  we  face  a  crisis.  *  *  *  The  American  people  must 
awaken.  Franklin  Delano  Roosevelt  led  the  war  for  world  liberation  against 
fascism.     *     *     *  ,  .^  ^     , 

After  these  sacrifices  do  we  want  fascism  here?  Do  we  want  it  to  happen 
here  ? 

Anyone  who  is  "left  of  feudalism" — who  believes  in  the  practices  of  the 
Roosevelt  policies— that  person  is  a  target  for  the  Mundt  bill. 

Last  week,  President  Truman  said  publicly  that  enough  laws  exist  to  deal  with 
treason  and  subversion. 

Even  during,  the  war,  when  our  national  security  was  at  stake,  when  we 
fought  humanity's  worst  enemies,  we  had  no  Mundt  bill.     *     *     * 

This  bill  has  a  specific  purpose — to  launch  America  into  a  police  state. 

This  is  fascism ;  this  is  the  reason  for  the  Mundt  bill.  It's  fascism,  feudalism— 
or  democracy.     And  it's  up  to  you     *     *     «, 

Privileged  forces  against  democracy. — ^In  an  article  entitled  "Widen 
Democracy— Don't  Narrow  It,"  published  in  the  Narodni  Glasnik  of 
August  21,  1947,  George  S.  Wuchinich  expresses  his  apprehensions 
about  America's  future : 

America's  democratic  traditions  are  in  great  danger  today.  Powerful  interests, 
mainly  those  of  monopoly,  have  waged  an  offensive  against  the  people  during  the 
past  session  of  the  Eightieth  Congress.  Not  satisfied  with  a  .50-  to  75-percent 
higher  cost  of  living,  they  are  now  attacking  our  civil  liberties  with  greater  vigor 
than  ever  before.  Instead  of  courage  and  justice  in  the  land,  we  find  fear  and 
suspicion  spreading.  Instead  of  more  democracy,  we  see  privileged  forces  openly 
working  to  restrict  it. 

"Reaction  *  *  *  singled  out  the  Slav  Congress  as  a  distinctly  leftist  organ- 
ization. To  this  weapon  another  one  was  added — the  slander  of  a  Slavic  fifth 
column  in  America.    And  remember  this  is  to  strike  fear  into  all  Americans." 

The  Marshall  flan. — In  his  column  in  Narodni  Glasnik  of  October 
13, 1948,  page  4,  Wuchinich  says : 

The  Marshall  plan  that  was  supposed  to  do  wonders  in  France  with  tons  of 
Coca-Cola  iuice,  with  millions  of  toothpicks  and  tubes  of  toothpaste,  is  falling 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS      681 

apart.  The  people  of  France  parade  the  streets  saying  they  will  not  fight  the 
Soviet  Union  ;  that  they  don't  want  any  part  of  the  Marshall  plan. 

Yeah,  that's  those  Communists,  says  Wall  Street. 

Everywhere  they  take  up  the  "red  herring,"  always  blaming  it  on  the  Reds. 

Why,  there  must  be  over  1,000,000,000  Reds  in  the  world. 

More  than  200,000,000  in  China  alone. 

Everyone  who  is  against  Wall  Street  is  a  Red— the  press  and  radio  say  it 
again  and  again.     *     *     *  ,    .,.        .     ^     n^i,     , 

Here  at  home  these  men  of  money  plan  their  biggest  Red-baiting  stunt.  They  re 
going  to  have  a  trial  this  Friday  of  12  leading  Communists.  They  want  to  hang 
the  rap  on  them.     Blame  them  for  everything. 

"O  K  "  says  Wall  Street  to  itself;  "we  can't  save  China,  Greece,  France, 
Germany',  England,  Africa,  Asia,  but  we  can  save  ourselves  at  home.  Those 
foreign  Communists  won't  listen  to  us,  but  we'll  make  those  Joes  at  home  pay 

"riieV  won't  make  the  Communists  pay.  They're  going  to  make  you  pay.  They 
don't  want  the  Communists  alone,  they  want  to  put  the  American  people  m  a 
grab  bag. 

Sure,  indict  the  Communists  if  they  are  responsible  for  high  prices,  for  $2,500 
autos  that  are  worth  $1,000,  for  high  rents  and  no  houses,  for  high  corporation 
profits,  for  the  Taft-Hartley  law,  for  the  fear  they  spread,  for  the  lynching  of 
Negroes. 

Sure,  indict  Communists  if  they  do  this. 

But,  they  don't  do  this. 

Who  does  it?  .  ^  ,    ,_,.  ^  . 

Look  at  Congress  and  the  Senate.  Is  there  a  Communist  holding  a  seat  in 
either  House?  No;  there  isn't.  Not  a  single  Communist  in  our  Government. 
It's  either  a  Republican  or  Democrat  who  voted  to  kill  OPA,  to  bust  unions  with 
Hartley  who  O.  K.'d  the  draft,  who  lowered  taxes  for  corporations,  who  hold 
up  housing,  and  give  $200,000  to  the  House  Un-American  Activities  Committee. 

Every  law  we  have  is  passed  by  either  a  Republican  or  Democrat. 

Indict  these— not  the  Communists. 

Hitler  blamed  Communists  and  hundreds  of  millions  learned  the  lesson  the 
hard  way.  Must  we  jump  at  the  bidding  of  liars,  at  the  bidding  of  false  fronts, 
of  Wall  Streeters  and  their  donkeys  and  elephants,  who  blare  and  bluster  about 
communism?     *     *     *  .  ,  .  • 

Voting  for  Truman  or  Dewey  means  that  people  like  Use  Koch  will  be  coming 
to  America  to  teach  others  like  her  to  make  lamp  shades  out  of  human  skin. 
It  means  that  more  Negroes  will  be  lynched  and  that  more  unions  will  be  busted. 

The  column  of  December  8,  1948,  in  the  Narochii  Glasnik  is  used  to 
present  an  interview  broadcast  by  Wuchinich  with  Gus  Hall,  mem- 
ber of  the  National  Committee  of  the  Communist  Party  of  America, 
on  the  issue  of  civil  rights.     Wuchinich,  after  presenting  Hall,  said : 

His  civil  rights  are  in  danger.  So  are  yours.  *  *  *  The  issue  is  not  so- 
cialism or  communism ;  it's  you  and  your  rights  that  are  [the  issues]     *     *     * 

Hall.  There  are  altogether  12  of  us  indicted     *     *     *. 

Wuchinich.  Twelve  of  you?  History  records  another  12— Jesus  Christ  and 
his  12  disciples — the  12  apostles. 

Hall.  I  have  good  company.     *     *     * 

Wuchinich.  If  you  are  convicted,  then  no  man  or  woman  is  safe? 

Hall.  Our  conviction  would  mean  that  America  stands  convicted  before  the 
world,  not  us.     *     *     * 

If  civil  rights  are  taken  from  Communists,  from  trade-unions,  from  religious 
and  national  groups,  then  nothing  will  stop  fascism  in  America. 

Wuchinich.  We  *  *  *  are  privileged  to  present  you.  We  have  read 
and  heard  about  your  party  and  have  been  accused  of  being  a  Communist  front. 
We  know  something  of  what  you  undergo.     *     *     * 

In  his  column  of  March  2,  1940,  Wuchinich  says : 

The  case  of  the  Cardinal  [Mindszenty]  has  been  judged  by  the  Hungarian 
people  That  is  their  affair.  In  our  land,  those  who  use  him  and  religion  tor 
a  war  hysteria,  are  not  men  of  peace,  they  lead  people  to  slaughter.     * 

The  men  who  issued  a  call  to  arms  today,  do  it  on  the  same  theme  as  did  Hitler— 
ant!  communism.     *     *     * 


682      COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

People  are  thinking,  and  not  in  the  direction  the  monopoly  press  wants  them 
to  go. 
People  want  peace — not  war. 

In  his  column  of  March  3,  1949  (Slobodna  Eec  for  March  5), 
Wuchinich  declares : 

Washington  is  as  busy  as  a  bee  over  its  newest  baby,  the  Atlantic  Pact.  It's 
being  born  illegally. 

President  Truman,  Dean  Acheson,  and  bipartisanites  are  fathers  of  this 
child — the  pact.     *     *     * 

Still  the  pushers  of  this  pact  ignore  the  Constitution  and  in  the  name 
of  anticommunism  are  promising  that  American  blood  will  be  shed  without 
Congress  having  to  make  it  legal.    *    *    * 

Here,  on  the  one  side,  is  an  attempt  to  violate  our  Constitution  in  the  arena 
of  world  affairs,  and  at  home  in  New  York  is  still  another  that  does  it  against 
the  civil  rights  of  all  Americans.     *     *     * 

The  jury  itself  is  a  violation  of  our  Constitution.  Only  the  rich,  privileged 
are  asked  to  serve. 

Now  there  is  a  parallel  to  the  Atlantic  Pact  and  the  New  York  trial.  They 
are  both  being  done  in  the  name  of  anticommunism.  Marshall  planners,  Truman 
doctriners,  and  bipartisanites  are  raising  tlie  world  banner  of  anticommunism — 
gathering  up  bases,  making  treaties,  lend-leasing  arms,  sending  military  and 
police  missions  to  Iran,  Turkey,  Greece,  China — and  even  this  they  have  found 
is  not  enough — but  they  must  deny  Americans  the  right  to  think  and  hold 
ideas. 

Defeat  after  defeat  has  met  their  plans.  Today,  over  the  past  week,  we  have 
the  announcements  from  France  and  Italy  by  the  leaders  of  the  people,  Thorez 
and  Togliatti,'  that  their  people  will  not  join  in  a  war  of  anticommunism,  and 
have  their  countries  become  battlegrounds  for  American  imperialism. 

Anticommunism,  whether  American  brand  or  German,  leads  to  one  road — the 
violation  of  people's  democratic  will. 

Atlantic  Pact — New  York  trial  of  Communists — it's  all  the  same  cloth,  falsely 
woven  into  lies  and  laid  into  a  trap  into  which  our  future,  if  we  let  it,  will 
be  soaked  in  blood. 

In  his  column  of  March  16, 1949,  Wuchinich  asserts : 

These  are  your  dollars  and  wealth  that  should  go  to  stop  unemployment, 
to  lower  prices,  spread  national  health  systems,  to  build  TVA's,  and  to  widen 
our  social  security.    These  are  peaceful  pursuits ;  the  others  lead  to  war.     *     *     * 

Unemployment  is  the  issue,  not  Eed  baiting. 

Wuchinich's  views  on  anticommunism  do  not  seem  to  differ  ma- 
terially from  those  of  Milton  Howard,  Daily  Worker  columnist,  who 
thinks  "Not  communism,  but  anticommunism  is  a  conspiracy"  (the 
Worker,  May  9, 1948,  p.  7),  and  that— 

The  modern  philosophy  of  anticommunism  readied  its  peak  in  the  writings  and 
activities  of  Adolf  Hitler  (the  Worker,  Sept.  19,  194S,  p.  7). 

In  his  column  of  May  9,  1949,  Wuchinich  states : 

Instead  of  war  and  huge  military  budgets,  we  must  consider  trade  with  the 
Soviet  Union.     *     *     * 

This  is  the  No.  1  point  on  the  order  of  business — and  not  war. 

In  his  column  of  June  30, 1949,  Wuchinich  says: 

Ominously,  the  FBI  is  showing  itself  as  a  model  of  a  police  state  so  beloved 
by  Hitler,  Himmler,  and  Heydrich  the  Hangman.  Suicides  and  mysterious  deaths 
have  already  resulted  from  the  many  investigations  conducted  by  the  FBI,  De- 
partment of  Justice,  House  Un-American  Activities  Committee,  the  Senate  Ju- 
diciary Conunittee,  and  other  bodies  that  spend  public  money  ferreting  into 
people's  minds. 


^  Maurice  Thorez,  secretary-general  of  the  French  Communist  Party  ;  Palmiro  Togllattl, 
ee<;retary  of  the  Italian  Communist  Party. 


.    COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS      683 

IX.    THE   YUGOSLAV   "PROGRESSIVE"   PRESS   AND   THE   ACTIVITIES   OF   REPRE- 
SENTATIVES OF  THE  FPR  YUGOSLAVIA  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES 

Although  the  evidence  already  presented  leaves  no  doubt  as  to  the 
real  character  of  the  Slobodna  Rec  and  Narodni  Glasnik,  it  seems 
appropriate  to  present,  for  the  sake  of  completeness,  the  evidence  about 
the  activities  of  the  officials  of  the  Yugoslav  Embassy  in  the  United 
States,  as  well  as  of  the  officials  of  the  Yugoslav  delegations  to  the 
United  Nations  Organization,  Red  Cross,  and  others,  as  recorded  in 
the  pages  of  these  newspapers. 

The  fact  that  the  instances  quoted  in  this  chapter  belong  into  the 
period  before  the  Cominform-Tito  clash  does  not  make  them  obsolete. 
On  the  contrary,  we  consider  this  fact  as  enhancing  the  importance  of 
the  evidence  quoted,  since  that  period  was  marked  by  an  unparalleled 
submission  of  Yugoslav  Communist  policy  to  Soviet  policy.  It  must 
be  borne  in  mind  that  it  is  the  periocl  when  Edvard  Kardelj,  the  then 
Yugoslav  Foreign  Minister,  asked  the  Soviet  Ambassador  to  Yugo- 
slavia, Sadchikov,^  "that  the  Soviet  Union  regard  us  [the  Yugoslav 
Comnmnists]  as  representatives  of  one  of  the  future  Soviet  republiu 
and  not  as  representatives  of  another  country  able  to  solve  her  prob- 
lems independently,  and  the  Communist  Party  of  Yugoslavia  as  a  part 
of  the  All-Union  Communist  Party,  which  is  to  say  that  our  relations 
ensue  from  the  perspective  that  Yugoslavia  in  the  future  will  become 
a  part  of  the  U.  S.  S.  R."  (letters  of  the  CKKPY,  central  committee  of 
the  Communist  Party  of  Yugoslavia,  and  letters  of  the  CKSKP,  cen- 
tral committee  of  the  All-Union  Communist  Party  (Bolshevik),  Bel- 
grade, 1948,  Serbian  ed.,  p.  42) . 

Consequently,  the  documents  presented  here  pertain  to  a  period  when 
the  U.  S.  S.  R.  was  "directing  the  domestic  and  foreign  policies  of 
Yugoslavia  in  the  right  way"  (letters,  p.  42). 

A.  Activities  of  the  Yugoslav  Embassy  staff 

According  to  the  Slobodna  Rec,  the  following  instances  can  be  cited : 

1.  Popular  meeting  of  the  United  Committee  of  South  Slavic  Amer- 
icans, Chicago,  February  9,  194G.  Speakers:  Dr.  Sergije  Makiedo, 
counselor  of  the  Yugoslav  Embassy  in  Washington,  D.  C,  on  behalf 
of  the  Ambassador,  and  Vladimir  Vukmirovic,  consul  general  in  Chi- 
cago. Besides  them,  all  the  members  of  the  delegation  of  the  Yugo- 
slav Red  Cross:  Dr.  Robert  Neubauer,  Nada  Krajger,  and  Gayo  Rat- 
kovich.  The  film,  the  Liberation  of  Belgrade,  shown  on  that  occasion, 
was  certainly  quite  instrumental  in  supporting  the  official  Communist 
thesis  that  not  the  western  allies  but  U.  S.  S.  R.  and  the  Yugoslav 
Communist  guerrillas  beat  the  Germans  and  woti  the  war  (Slobodna 
Rec,  February  2,  1946,  p.  4). 

Later,  on  the  very  day  of  the  meeting,  it  was  announced  that  the 
main  speaker  would  be  "the  former  Yugoslav  Ambassador  to  the 
United  States  and  newly  appointed  Foreign  Minister  of  Yugoslav, 
Stanoje  Simic." 

2.  Great  popular  meeting  and  concert  given  by  the  Democratic 
Serbian  Women  of  Western  Pennsylvania,  on  February  24, 1946,  with 
"net  proceeds  going  to  the  people  of  Yugoslavia."  Speakers:  Capt. 
George  Wuchinich,  "officer  of  the  American  Army"  (and  executive  sec- 


Ivan  v.  Sadchikov. 


6S4       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS    . 

retary  of  the  American  Slav  Congress  of  Western  Pennsylvania),  and 
Maj.  Branko  Vukelich,  "officer  of  the  Yugoslav  Army."  Maybe  such 
a  way  of  featuring  these  two  speakers  was  intended  to  suggest  the 
identity  of  views  between  "progressive  elements"  of  the  American 
Army,  and  officers  of  the  army  of  the  FPR  Yugoslavia,  which  is  en- 
tirely "progressive."  Main  guest  speaker :  Mrs.  Danica  Simic,  wife  of 
the  Yugoslav  Minister  of  Foreign  Affairs. 

3.  Slobodna  Rec  of  March  9,  1946,  page  2,  published  in  connection 
with  an  article  of  Mary  Sumrak  on  International  Women's  Day,  a 
picture  of  Mrs.  Simic  and  Mrs.  Sime  Balen,  wife  of  the  press  attache 
of  the  Yugoslav  Embassy  and  former  Partisan  fighter. 

4.  On  May  19,  1946,  Dr.  Sergije  Makiedo  spoke  at  the  meeting  of 
the  American  Committee  for  Yugoslav  Relief.  After  describing 
the  sacrifices  and  efforts  of  the  people  in  Yugoslavia,  he  said:  "And 
still,  in  spite  of  all  our  efforts,  we  would  be  exposed  to  many  suffer- 
ings, were  it  not  for  the  help  of  you,  our  friends  in  other  countries. 
The  UNRRA  helped  us  to  same  millions  of  lives.  The  Red  Cross 
has  helped  us,  and  the  American  Committee  for  Reconstruction  in 
Yugoslavia  has  given  to  us  not  only  its  material  help,  but  its  warm 
feelings,  as  it  understood  our  problems  and  our  achievements  and 
contributed  much  to  the  understanding  of  other  friends  of  ours  in  this 
country"  (Slobodna  Rec,  May  21,  1946,  p.  2).  In  view  of  the  fact 
that  the  financial  burden  of  UNRRA  was  carried  not  by  individuals 
but  by  the  American  taxpayers — that  is,  the  United  States  as  a  whole — 
the  turn  which  Dr.  Makiedo  gives  to  that  help  does  not  seem  to  be 
accidental  or  naive.  His  accent  on  the  work  of  enlightenment  of 
Americans  done  by  the  American  Committee  for  Reconstruction  in 
Yugoslavia  also  deserves  some  attention. 

5.  "Representatives  of  the  Yugoslav  Embassy  in  Washington"  were 
present  at  the  queer  celebration  of  Independence  Day  by  the  Croatian 
National  Council,  mentioned  before  (Slobodna  Rec,  June  29,  1946, 

6.  The  consul  general  in  Chicago,  Vladimir  Vukmirovic,  spoke  as 
"representative  of  the  Embassy  of  FPR  Yugoslavia  in  Washington, 
D.  C,"  at  the  "splendid  banquet  in  honor  of  the  delegates  and  guests 
of  the  Serbian  National  Congress"  in  Pittsburgh,  September  1,  1946 
( Slobodna  Rec,  Aug.  31,  1946,  p.  1 ) . 

7.  Consul  General  Vukmirovic,  "as  a  delegate  of  Yugoslavia,"  spoke 
at  the  banquet  of  the  American  Slav  Congress  in  Pittsburgh  (Slobodna 
Rec.  September  7, 1946,  p.  2). 

8.  Sava  Kosanovich,  Ambassador  of  FPR  Yugoslavia  in  Wash- 
ington, D.  C,  spoke  at  a  mass  rally  in  Madison  Square  Garden,  with 
which  the  American  Slav  Congress  in  New  York  (Sept.  20-22,  1946) 
was  concluded. 

9.  On  December  1,  1946,  the  Dalmatian-American  club  of  western 
Pennsylvania,  Free  Dalmatia,  organized  a  "Dalmatian  Evening." 
The  main  speaker  was  Dalibor  Soldatic,  the  social  attache  of  the 
Yugoslav  Embassy  in  Washington,  "who  recently  arrived  from  Yugo- 
slavia." The  Slobodna  Rec  made  known  that  the  proceeds  would  be 
devoted  to  "technical  help  to  the  newspaper  Slobodna  Dalmacija  {Free 
Dalmathiy  and  that  "our  brother,  D.  Soldatic,  will  explain  to  us  the 
newest  events  in  our  dear  homeland"  (whereby  of  course  the  term 
"our  dear  homeland"  does  not  apply  to  the  United  States,  but  to  Com- 
munist Yugoslavia)   (Slobodna  Rec  Nov.  27,  1946,  p.  4). 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS      685 

10.  At  the  big  ball,  organized  by  the  newly  founded  All-Slav  Fed- 
eration for  Lakawanna,  December  1,  1946,  whose  proceeds  were 
devoted  to  "building  a  new  children-liospital  in  F.  P.  R.  Y.,''  the  main 
speaker  was  Sime  Balen,  press  attache  of  the  Yugoslav  Embassy,  "who 
fought  valiantly  for  the  liberation  of  our  country,  Yugoslavia" 
(Slobodna  Rec,  Nov.  27, 1946,  p.  4) . 

11.  Sava  Kosanovic,  Yugoslav  Ambassador,  s])oke  at  a  great  mass 
meeting  organized  for  the  aid  to  Yugoslav  children  on  February  2, 
1947,  in  Pittsburgh,  Pa.  (Slobodna  Rec,  Jan.  25,  1947,  p.  1). 

12.  Sime  Balen,  press  attache  of  the  Yugoslav  Embassy,  spoke  at 
a  meeting  and  concert  organized  by  the  Council  of  Free  Croatian  Men 
and  Women  in  New  York  City  on  February  9,  1947,  which  was  an- 
nounced as  "important."  It  was  stressed  that  "after  the  speech  peo- 
ple from  the  audience  may  ask  questions  of  the  speaker"  (Slobodna 
Rec,Feb.  2, 1947,p.4). 

13.  Dr.  Sergije  Makiedo,  counselor  of  the  Yugoslav  Embassy,  and 
consul  general,  Vukmirovic,  spoke  at  the  "great  celebration"  of  the 
third  anniversary  of  the  Croatian-American  Club  Partisan  in  Chi- 
cago on  February  16,  1947.  The  proceeds  went  to  "our  people  in 
Yugoslavia"  (Slobodna  Rec,  Feb.  2,  1947,  p.  4). 

14.  Dr.  Slavko  Zore,  counselor  of  the  Yugoslav  Embassy,  spoke  in 
Milwaukee,  Wis.  "He  first  gi-eeted  the  public  in  English  and  spoke  in 
English  about  half  an  hour ;  then  he  spoke  in  Serbo-Croatian  and  then 
in  Slovenian."  Dr.  Zore  obviously  w^ould  not  miss  the  opportunity 
to  let  people  know  in  three  languages  what  he  thought  of  the  progress 
and  strength  of  F.  P.  R.  Y.,  as  well  as  of  Mr.  Churchill's  idea  of  the 
iron  curtain  and  his  Fulton,  Mo.,  speech,  as  these  were  the  main  points 
of  Dr.  Zore's  speech.  When  the  toastmaster  introduced  Dr.  Zore  to 
the  public,  he  received  "thunderous  applause.  People  rose  to  their 
feet  to  greet  their  dear  guest.  And  during  his  speech  he  was  often 
greeted  with  enormous  applause"  (Slobodna  Rec.  Apr.  17,  1949). 

15.  At  the  solemn  celebration  of  the  sixth  anniversary  of  the  "upris- 
ing in  Montenegro,"  July  13,  1941,  organized  by  the  united  Serbian 
organizations  of  New  York  City,  the  Yugoslav  consul  general  in  New 
York,  Miodrag  Markovich,  delivered  a  long  speech  in  which  he  praised 
the  Yugoslav  partisans  and  their  activities  in  1941 .  They  did  so  well 
"that  Generalissimo  Stalin  could  say,  'The  flame  of  the  partisan  strug- 
gle has  spread  to  all  Yugoslavia'."  It  is  very  interesting  that  a  Yugo- 
slav consul  general  to  New  York  does  not  know  that  President  Roose- 
velt, the  then  Chief  Executive  of  the  country  to  which  he  is  accredited 
as  a  diplomat,  spoke  at  that  time  (1941)  of  the  "valiant  struggle  of 
the  Russians  and  the  Serbs"  (quotation  approximate),  but,  strangely 
enough,  quotes  the  words  of  "Generalissimo  Stalin."  At  the  same 
occasion  Markovich  did  not  miss  the  opportunity  to  say  that  the  "par- 
tisan victories  brought  not  only  freedom  to  the  Yugoslav  peoples  but 
the  partisans  brought  also  new  conceptions  of  a  social  order" 
( Slobodna  Rec,  July  31, 1947,  p.  2 ) . 

16.  Consul  General  Miodrag  Markovich  spoke  in  New  York  on  the 
occasion  of  the  state  holiday  of  Yugoslavia,  November  29,  1947,  and 
stressed  that  the  F.  P.  R.  Y.  was  "realizing  the  5-year  plan  without 
inflation."  Perhaps  a  survey  of  the  American  press  dealing  with  the 
danger  of  inflation  in  the  United  States  at  that  time  would  be  quite 
indicative  as  to  the  motives  of  Consul  General  Markovich  in 
mentioning  the  inflation. 


686      COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

17.  At  the  banquet  of  the  American  Serbian  Women  in  Pittsburgh, 
February  24,  1947,  which  was  a  "manifestation  for  Yugoslavia,"  the 
main  speakers  were  Mrs.  Danica  Simic,  wife  of  the  Yugoslav  Foreign 
Minister,  and  Mrs.  Sime  Balen,  wife  of  the  press  attache  of  the 
Yugoslav  Embassy  and  herself  representative  of  the  Anti-Fascist 
Women's  Front  of  the  Yugoslav  Embassy  in  Washington,  D.  C. 

"The  entry  of  Mrs.  Simic,  Mrs.  Balen,  and  Major  Vukelich  was 
greeted  by  the  public,  standing,  with  a  long  applause."  Mrs.  Simic 
spoke  at  length  about  the  "traitor  Draza  Mihailovich."  As  for  Mrs. 
Balen — 

she  was  not  on  the  program,  but  as  the  people  knew  she  was  there,  they  wanted 
her  to  say  a  few  words  at  any  cost.  Especially  since  her  husband  left  a  good 
impression  with  his  speech  in  the  midst  of  us.  She  was  greeted  sincerely  and 
enthusiastically.  She  brought  the  greetings  of  the  Anti-Fascist  Women's  Front 
of  Yugoslavia,*  an  organization  which  was  created  before  the  war  and  which 
played  one  of  the  great  and  glorious  roles  in  the  liberation  of  the  peoples  of 
Yugoslavia. 

Mrs.  Simic  and  Balen  stayed  in  our  midst  5  days,  during  which  they  were 
invited  to  visit  many  of  our  American  institutions  and  organizations.  We  have 
not  words  enough  to  thank  them  all,  who  contributed  that  our  organizations 
could  give  this  modest  moral  and  material  help  to  our  peoples  *  *  *  to  build 
a  bright  and  happy  future  toward  which  the  genial  Marshal  Tito  is  leading  them 
(Slobodna  Rec,  Mar.  21,  1946,  pp.  3-4). 

18.  At  the  celebration  of  the  fifth  anniversary  of  the  coup  d'etat 
of  March  27, 1941,  in  Pittsburgh,  took  part  Dr.  Slavko  Zore,  counselor 
of  the  Yugoslav  Embassy,  and  Sime  Balen,  press  attache,  beside  Dr. 
Nikola  Petrovich,  Yugoslav  Minister  of  Commerce.  Balen  attacked 
Draza  Mihailovich  and  hailed  Tito,  but  was  on  the  whole  rather  re- 
served. Dr.  Zore  "explained  to  the  listeners  the  events  in  Yugoslavia 
and  stressed  the  meaning  of  tlie  national  revival." 

19.  A  meeting  held  in  the  Palm  Garden  Hall  in  New  York  (May 
5,  194G),  where  the  main  guests  were  members  of  the  Yugoslav  dele- 
gation to  the  UNO,  was  "also  attended  by  Col.  Mihovil  Tartaglia, 
military  attache  of  the  Yugoslav  Embassy,  as  well  as  Aleksandar 
Franich,  Director  in  the  Ministry  of  Foreign  Affairs;  Pavle  Lukin, 
Director  of  the  Personnel  Division  of  the  Yugoslav  Foreign  Ministry; 
and  Zaka  Popovich,  Counselor  of  the  Foreign  Affairs  Ministry. 

20.  Sime  Balen,  colonel  of  the  National  Army  of  Liberation  of 
Yugoslavia  and  press  attache  of  the  Yugoslav  Embassy  in  Washing- 
ton, D.  C,  spoke,  together  with  Zlatko  Balokovic  and  Ma].  Branko 
Vukelich,  at  the  picnic  of  the  Serbian  organizations  of  New  York  City, 
wliich  had  "to  show  our  soliclarity  with  our  heroic  peoples  in  Yugo- 
slavia." The  proceeds  were  dedicated  to  "building  hospitals  in  Yugo- 
slavia." 

21.  Sava  Kosanovic,  Yugoslav  Ambassador,  was  main  speaker  at  the 
Second  Congress  of  American  Croatians  (Cleveland,  April  13,  1947), 
together  with  Leo  Krzycki,  chairman  of  the  American  Slav  Congress 
(Slobodna  Rec,  April  24, 1947). 

22.  Sava  Kosanovic  spoke  at  the  banquet  of  the  Second  Serbian 
National  Congress  in  Pittsburgh  on  October  26, 1947. 

23.  Sava  Kosanovic  was  featured  as  main  speaker  at  the  Yugoslav 
exhibit,  sponsored  by  the  Twenty-fourth  Annual  Women's  Interna- 
tional Exposition,  November  6,  1947.  Also  present  was  the  singing 
choir  Jedinstvo  (Unity)  directed  by  Dr.  Lujo  Goranin,  and  others. 

Since  in  1946,  the  most-featured  public  speaker  at  American-Yugo- 
slav Communist  gatherings  was  Maj.  Branko  Vukelich,  "one  of  the 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       687 

leaders  of  the  people's  uprising  in  Lika,  and  later  social  attache  of 
F.  P.  R.  Y.  in  Ottawa,  Canada,"  it  is  worth  while  dwelling  a  little  on 
his  activities : 

1.  Speaker,  in  addition  to  Capt.  George  Wuchinich  and  Mrs.  Simic, 
at  the  "great  popular  meeting"  of  the  Democratic  Serbian  Women  of 
Western  Pennsylvania,  on  February  24, 1946  (Slobodna  Rec,  February 
19,  1946,  p.  3). 

Western  Pennsylvania,  on  February  24, 1946  (Slobodna  Rec,  February 
ary  21, 1946  (Slobodna  Rec,  February  19, 1946,  p.  1). 

3.  At  the  "great  popular  meeting"  in  Chicago,  on  March  17,  1946, 
besides  other  speakers,  Vukelich  is  featured  as  "member  of  the  Yugo- 
slav Embassy"  (Slobodna  Rec,  March  12,  p.  1). 

4.  At  the  "gxeat  popular  meeting"  in  Chicago  (March  24,  1946), 
organized  by  the  Serbian  Progressive  Club,  Sloboda,  Vukelich  spoke 
about  Yugoslavia  during  the  German  occupation.  No  account  of  his 
speech  was  published,  but  the  announcement  of  the  organizers  is 
indicative  enough.     It  reads : 

Brothers  and  sisters  in  Chicago.  Come  to  hear  the  plain  truth  from  the  lips 
of  a  man  who  fought  for  the  liberation  of  the  whole  Yugoslav  people.  You  must 
hear  both  sides.  Do  not  believe  what  various  agents  and  stooges  of  Fotich  * 
and  his  like,  who  while  mourning  the  fat  and  money  posts  which  they  have  lost, 
are  lying  and  shedding  crocodile  tears  over  the  fate  of  the  Serbian  jieople 
(Slobodna  Eec,  Mar.  19,  1946,  p.  1). 

5.  Slobodna  Rec,  of  March  21, 1946,  No.  34,  page  2,  published  under 
the  title  "People's  Fighter  Branko  Vukelich  on  the  Historical  Change 
in  Yugoslavia" : 

A  very  interesting  and  important  talk  which  Major  Vukelich,  member  of  the 
Yugoslav  Embassy  in  Washington,  D.  C,  a  well-known  and  outstanding  or- 
ganizer of  the  uprising  in  Primorje,  Gorski  Kotar,  and  Dreznica  had  with  our 
Canadian  comrades. 

Vukelich  first  criticized  the  domestic  policy  of  Yugoslavia  until  1941 
in  a  most  biased  and  arbitrary  way,  following  the  Communist  Party 
line.  Then  he  assailed  Yugoslavia's  foreign  policy,  which  was  "an 
inimical  policy  toward  our  eldest  brother,  the  Soviet  Union." 

In  order  to  keep  this  slave  order,  the  regime  ruthlessly  fought  the  political 
thought  of  the  people,  and  its  first  and  heavy  blows  were  aimed  especially  at  the 
vanguard  of  that  people's  thought  and  ideals— that  is,  the  Communist  Party  of 
Yugoslavia— and  so  it  outlawed  it  in  the  very  first  years  of  existence  of  Yugo- 
slavia. 

Vukelich  finally  praised  all  the  achievements  of  Communist  Yugo- 
slavia, and  particularly  the  social  care  for  children : 

In  those  villas  and  palaces  where  formerly  licentious  princes,  kings,  ministers, 
barons,  and  rich  people  were  living  luxuriously  and  making  plans  how  to  fight 
down  democracy  and  the  people,  now  there  is  our  young  hope— to  who  all  that 
belongs. 

6.  After  such  speeches,  it  is  no  wonder  that  Slobodna  Rec  (March  21, 
1946,  No.  34,  p.  3),  reporting  on  the  banquet  of  American  Serbian 
Women  in  Pittsburgh,  where  Vukelich  spoke,  beside  Mrs.  Simic  and 
Balen,  reported  that  "in  a  short  space  of  time  he  has  become  the  most 
popular  speaker  among  our  emigrants  in  the  United  States."  Vuke- 
lich spoke  of  "how  the  people  fought,  what  it  fought  for,  what  are  its 


»  Constantin  A.  Fotich,   last  Ambassador  of  non-Communist  Yugoslavia   to  the  United 
States. 


688       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

ambitions  and  decisions,  what  is  the  present  situation  in  the  country, 
etc." 

7.  Speaker  at  a  picnic  in  Akron,  Ohio,  June  16,  1946.  (Slobodna 
Rec,  June  13,  1946).  ^^  ^    ^.  ^  , 

8.  Slobodna  Eec  published  on  June  15,  1946,  page  3,  Vukelich's 
photograph  with  the  statement  that  he  "organized  the  first  people's 
uprising  in  1941  in  Dreznice,  Kordun,  which  gave  1,800  partisan 
fighters." 

9.  Slobodna  Rec  of  December  4,  1946,  page  2,  published  under  the 
title  "What  Is  Freedom  to  the  People  Is  Dictatorship  and  Terrorism 
to  the  Enemies  of  the  People?"  Vukelich's  speech  in  Ottawa,  Canada, 
at  the  celebration  of  November  29.     The  speech  begins : 

Dear  Brothers  and  Sisters,  Comrades:  You  have  gathered  at  this  grandiose 
meeting  in  order  to  celebrate,  as  a  branch  of  the  great  Yugoslav  people,  Novem- 
ber 29,  the  greatest  national  holiday  of  our  brotherly,  united,  and  happy  people. 

After  speaking  in  superlatives  of  the  partisans'  activities  during  the 
war  and  the  Communist  regime  in  Yugoslavia,  he  tackled  the  criticisms 
of  the  undemocratic  character  of  that  regime : 

When  they  tell  us  that  we  abolished  liberties  and  introduced  dictatorship,  they 
say  it  and  conceive  it  under  the  angle  of  their  felonious  and  vile  aims.  We  all 
know  and  it  has  been  scientifically  proved  that  there  are  oppressors  and  oppressed 
and  that 'those  of  the  two  who  hold  power  do  not  establish  dictatorship  over 
themselves  nor  do  they  deprive  themselves  of  freedom,  but  those  whom  they  are 
going  to  oppress.  *  *  *  it  would  be  stupid  to  believe  that  we  established 
dictatorship  for  ourselves  and  abolished  freedom;  and,  as  for  the  former  oppres- 
sors, it  is  true  that  they  received  what  they  asked  for  and  that  an  end  was  put 
to  their  harmful  activity.  Well,  the  difference  is  that  the  former  was  a  complete 
democracy  for  a  handful  of  human  vultures,  and  this  is  democracy  for  90  percent 
of  the  working  people  and  at  that  a  complete  democracy  of  the  finest  form.  And, 
inversely,  that  was  a  strict  dictatorship  over  90  percent  of  the  working  people, 
and  this  is  the  interdiction  of  crime  to  a  handful  of  overthrown  exploiters. 

Finally,  Vukelich  praised  the  secret  police,  OZNA,  as  being  the 
people  itself:  "The  Communists  =^  *  *  gave  the  power  to  the 
peasants  and  workers  in  Yugoslavia,  and  they  will  see  to  it  that  nobody 
will  ever  be  able  to  take  the  power  from  the  hands  of  the  people." 

In  this  connection,  it  is  very  instructive  to  quote  the  Slobodna  Rec 
of  May  14, 1949,  page  3,  publishing  a  letter  of  the  Serbian  Progressive 
Club,  Karageorge,  Gary,  Ind.,  addressed  to  Dr.  Ivan  Ribar,  chairman 
of  the  Presidium  of  the  People's  Assembly  of  FPR  Yugoslavia.  The 
club  requests  that  Branko  Vukelich,  former  counselor  of  the  Yugoslav 
legislation  in  Ottawa,  now  in  jail  in  Zagreb,  be  released.  The  request  is 
supported  as  follows : 

*  *  *  For  your  Government's  and  your  information,  we  take  the  liberty  of 
telling  you  this  of  the  activities  which  Branko  Vukelich  carried  out  among  the 
Yugoslav  emigrants  in  America  and  Canada. 

Before  Branko's  arrival  in  our  midst,  at  the  beginning  of  1946,  all  of  us  had 
rather  poor  information  about  your  heroic  and  superhuman  struggle  against  the 
invader  and  domestic  traitors,  because  among  us  worked  the  antipeople's  Yugo- 
slav press  which  was  under  the  influence  of  tlie  exiled  government  in  London. 

With  the  arrival  of  Vukelich,  the  situation  changed  completely.  His  fiery 
speeches  at  conventions  and  other  meetings  exerted  such  an  influence  upon  the 
people,  that  the  antipeople's  press  was  obliged  to  apologize  to  the  public.     *     *     * 

Branko  Vukelich  succeeded,  during  his  brief  stay  in  our  midst,  to  make  our 
immigrants  acquainted  with  the  hardsbips  and  sufferings  of  our  people  in  the  old 
country  during  the  struggle  for  national  liberation.  It  is  just  on  account  of  that 
fact  that  Branko  knew  how  to  present  to  our  immigrants  the  real  picture  of  the 
struggle  and  sufferings  of  our  people  that  our  people  here  started  to  give  and  send 
help  to  their  people  with  both  hands. 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS      689 

Second.  Brauko,  with  his  energetic  work,  has  done  more  to  make  your  state 
leadership  popular,  your  state  leadership  and  the  great  struggle  of  the  people 
for    Socialist    ideas,    than    any    one    of    your    representatives    in    America    or 
Canada.     *     *     * 
{B)  Activities  of  the  Yugoslav  delegates  to  the  United  Nations 

This  is  approximately  the  framework,  furnished  by  the  activities  of 
American-Yugoslav  Communists,  as  well  as  by  the  members  of  the 
Yugoslav  Embassy  to  the  United  States,  within  which  the  Yugoslav 
delegates  to  the  UN  (or  aftiliate  organizations)  were  called  uponto 
play  their  own  role.  And  the  Slobodna  Rec  does  not  fail  to  provide 
the  necessary  proofs  that  the  UN  delegates  did  their  best  to  act  up 
to  the  expectations  of  their  masters, 

1.  The  Slobodna  Rec  of  May  16,  1946,  p.  2,  published,  under  the 
title,  "The  Pe£)ples  of  Yugoslavia  as  Guardians  of  Peace  and  Fighters 
for  a  Happier  and  Better  Future,"  the  broadcast  speech  which  Dr. 
Dushan  Brkich,  Minister  of  Justice  in  the  People's  Republic  of  Cro- 
atia and  delegate  of  FPR  Yugoslavia  to  the  UN  Commission  for 
Human  Rights,  delivered  in  New  York,  on  May  10, 1946.  Brkich  paid 
tribute  to  UNRRA,  but  added  that,  "our  people  are  expecting,  by 
right,  even  greater  help  for  the  reconstruction  of  their  country  and 
realization  of  their  hopes  for  a  happier  future." 

2.  In  the  Slobodna  Rec  of  May  23,  1946,  in  which  was  published  an 
article  of  Minister  Dushan  Brkich  on  Communist  Bulgaria,  full  of 
praise  and  approval,  naturally,  there  appeared  also  an  announcement 
of  forthcoming  meeting  organized  by  the  Serbian  Progressive  Club, 
"Vasa  Pelagich"  (to  be  held  May  26, 1946)  : 

Our  colony  will  have  the  honor  of  hearing  the  official  representative  of  FPR 
Yutioslavia,  Minister  of  PFIl  Croatia,  the  Serb  Dr.  Dushan  Brkich.  We  invite 
alf  Slavs  to  come  to  this  picnic  and  get  acquainted  with  Minister  Brkich,  and 
through  him  with  the  real  situation  in  Yugoslavia.  *  *  *  At  the  picnic 
will  also  be  present  our  "Shuraadinka"  Krista  Djordjevich,  who  is  a  delegate  of 
the  FPR  Yugoslavia.  Minister  Dushan  Brkich  and  Krista  Djordjeviqh  anived 
recently  from  the  old  homeland. 

3.  In  its  report  on  the  celebration  of  the  cornerstone  laying  for  the 
Yugoslav  Home  in  New  York  (Slobodna  Rec,  June  13,  1946,  p.  3),  it 
was  especially  announced  to  the  public  "that  diplomatic  represeiita- 
tives  of  our  fatherland,  FPRY,  who  have  come  to  represent  it  before 
the  UN,  were  present  at  the  celebration."  They  were  Dushan  Brkich 
and  Krista  Djordjevich. 

The  public  greeted  with  great  enthusiasm  our  dear  and  cherished  guests  and 
representatives  of  FPRY,  because  we  and  our  gatherings  were  not  accustomed  to 
be  visited  by  diplomats  and  representatives  of  the  past  and  old  Yugoslavia. 

4.  It  is  worth  while  mentioning  that  the  Third  American  Slav  Con- 
gress (September  20-22,  1946)  was  attended  by  Dr.  Oskar  Lange, 
Poland's  representative  to  the  United  States,  besides  Saya  Kosanovic, 
the  Yugoslav  Ambassador  representing  Yugoslavia  (Slobodna  Rec, 
October  22,  1946,  p.  4). 

5.  Under  the  title  "Dimitar  Vlahov— Macedonian  and  Yugoslav 
Fighter  and  Statesman,"  the  Slobodna  Rec  of  December  11, 1946,  pub- 
lishes the  biography  of  Vlahov,  Yugoslav  delegate  at  the  session  of  the 
UN  in  New  York.  According  to  this  biography,  Vlahov  spent  his 
whole  life  in  illegal  political  activity : 

BiK-ause  of  his  progressive  views,  he  was  named  the  first  Socialist  in  the  Turkish 
Parliament.  Between  the  two  World  Wars  he  published  several  Communist 
newspapers  and  periodicals.     In  1925  he  founded  the  United  Macedonian  Revo- 


690       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

lutionary  Organization.  In  1933,  during  the  Anti-Fascist  Congress  in  Paris, 
he  was  elected  member  of  the  central  committee  of  that  congress,  whose  chair- 
man was  the  well-known  French  writer  and  democratic  fighter,  Henri  Barbnsse. 

Vlaliov  wrote  articles  in  L'Humanitc,  Pravcla  (Moscow),  and  many 
other  newspapers.  In  1943,  w4ien  the  foundations  of  a  Communist 
YugosLavia  were  laid  (although  illegally),  Vlahov  was  elected  vice 
president  of  the  first  Provisory  Yugoslav  Communist  Parliament. 
During  the  Paris  Peace  Conference  in  1946,  Vlahov  was  a  member  of 
the  delegation. 

6.  A  few  days  later  the  Slobodna  Kec  of  December  31, 1946,  No.  188, 
page  4,  published  an  account  of  Vlahov's  visit  to  Detroit: 

In  spite  of  the  few  days  available  for  preparations,  the  attendance  at  the  splen- 
did banquet  in  honor  of  Vlahov  was  larger  than  could  be  expected. 

Four  hundred  and  fifty  persons  filled  the  crystal  ballroom  of  the  Hotel  Book- 
Cadillac,  and  many  had  to  withdraw  as  there  were  no  more  places. 

When  Vlahov  rose  to  speak,  the  great  hall  resounded  from  thunderous  applause. 
Vlahov  described  the  history  of  the  Macedonian  people  and  described  in  detail 
its  importance  within  the  framework  of  the  struggle  against  fascism  and  against 
domestic  quislings. 

Today  the  Macedonians  have  equal  rights  with  the  other  peoples  of  Yugo- 
slavia, and  there  are  no  more  "great  Serbian  gendarmes  who  would  terrorize 
the  poor,"  said  Vlahov. 

The  common  struggle  with  the  Serbs,  Croats,  Slovenes,  Montenegrines,  and 
other  freedom-loving  people  *  *  *  has  foi-ged  our  unity  which  nobody  is  able 
to  break  any  more,  however  cunning  he  may  be.  There  is  no  more  danger  of 
■*'great-Serbianism"  and  "great  Serbian  dictatorship,"  nor  will  there  ever  be  any, 
as  with  Tito  there  is  no  difference  between  various  religions  and  political  groups. 
Those  who  work  for  the  people  have  the  greatest  rights  and  their  labor  is 
acknowledged. 

At  the  banquet  $14,000  was  collected  for  a  hospital  in  Skoplje.  *  *  *  This 
sum  was  the  beginning  of  the  campaign  to  collect  $250,000. 

This  speech  will  be  better  understood  if  an  article  (radio  speech) 
of  Vlahov's,  under  the  title  "The  Colonial  Peoples  Must  Be  Guar- 
anteed Full  Social,  Political,  and  Cultural  Development,"  is  taken 
into  consideration,  as  it  distinctly  shows  that  Vlahov  did  not  look  for 
the  best  solution  of  the  "Macedonian  problem"  according  to  the  needs 
of  the  "Macedonian  people,"  but  tends  to  apply  to  all  peoples,  regard- 
less of  all  their  peculiarities  and  special  circumstances  of  life,  char- 
acter, and  history,  the  same  Communist  pattern. 

7.  The  Slobodna  Rec  of  January  6,  1947,  page  1,  published  a  very 
interesting  account  of  Vlahov's  activities  under  the  title,  "Dimitri 
Vlahov  Touring  Our  Colonies :" 

The  delegate  of  Yugoslavia  at  the  United  Nations,  Dlmitar  Vlahov,  has  visited 
our  Macedonian  immigrants  in  America  and  Canada.  Dr.  Vlahov  is  a  great 
Macedonian  fighter  for  the  independence  and  rights  of  all  Macedonians.  As 
early  as  1908,  he  was  elected  as  first  member  of  the  Turkish  Parliament,  where 
his  speeches  in  favor  of  an  autonomous  Macedonia  won  him  fame. 

From  1932  on,  he  was  in  Vienna  editor  of  the  Balkan  Federation  and  Mace- 
donian Affairs,  which  were  published  in  several  European  languages.  Today 
he  is  president  of  the  partly  free  Republic  of  Macedonia  and  vice  president  of 
the  FPR  Yugoslavia  and  delegate  at  the  UN  in  New  York. 

That  great  son  of  the  Macedonian  people  has  up  to  now  visited  Buffalo, 
Toronto,  Detroit,  and  other  places.  Everywhere  our  Yugoslav  immigrants, 
especially  the  Macedonians  who,  in  his  honor,  organized  concerts  and  ban- 
quets gave  him  a  warm  welcome.  On  all  these  occasions  Vlahov  gave  long 
speeches  in  which  he  set  forth  the  position  of  Macedonia  in  today's  FPR  Yugo- 
slavia. He  especially  stressed  the  great  understanding  of  Marshal  Tito  and  of 
other  people's  republics  for  Macedonia,  and  declared  that  Macedonia  is  obtain- 
ing all  possible  help  for  its  development  and  progress. 

His  statements  about  the  position  of  the  part  of  Macedonia  under  the  rule 
of  Greece    (Egean   Macedonia)    attracted   great   attention.     He   said,    "If   the 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS      691 

racial  terrorism  against  our  people  in  Greece  is  continued,  it  will  be  completely 
obliterated." 

The  visit  of  Vlahov  to  our  colonies  will  bring  very  good  results.  In  that 
manner  the  people  learn  to  know  the  facts  and  realize  more  clearly  the  true 
aims  of  the  struggle  for  liberation.  On  the  occasion  of  these  visits,  donations 
for  a  hospital  in  .Macedonia  were  collected.  In  Toronto,  the  collection  brought 
$7,000,  and  in  Detroit  $14,000.  From  Detroit,  Vlahov  will  go  to  Chicago  and 
Akron.  We  wish  for  Vlahov  that  he  will  achieve  great  success  on  his  travels 
for  the  good  and  benefit  of  Macedonia  and  the  whole  FPR  Yugoslavia. 

Characteristically,  the  "good  and  benefit"  of  America  is  forgotten. 

9.  On  the  occasion  of  the  Second  Serbian  Congress  in  Pittsburgh, 
October  25  and  26,  1947,  the  Slobodna  Rec  several  times  published 
the  announcement  that  Vladimir  Simich,  President  of  the  Federal 
Council  of  the  National  Assembly  of  the  Federal  People's  Republic 
of  Yugoslavia  and  delegate  to  the  General  Assembly  of  the  United 
Nations,  would  be  the  main  guest  speaker.  It  even  published  his 
photograph  and  biography.  However,  there  was  later  no  account  of 
Simich's  participation  at  the  congress. 

10.  The  Slobodna  Rec  of  July  31,  1947,  page  2,  reporting  on  the 
celebration  of  the  sixth  anniversary  of  the  people's  uprising  in  Monte- 
negro, stressed  that  the  "celebration  was  attended  by  Dr.  Joza  Vilfan, 
Minister  of  the  FPRY  at  the  UN,  Mr.  Aleksa  Todorovich,  secretary  of 
the  delegation  of  the  FPRY  at  the  UN,  and  Mrs.  Zoja  Levi,  member  of 
the  Anti-Fascist  Women's  Front  of  Yugoslavia."  The  report  reveals 
what  importance  such  visits  have  for  American- Yugoslav  Commu- 
nists by  saying :  "The  organizing  committee  expressed  its  gratitude  to 
all  people  who  attended  the  picnic,  but  foremost  to  the  above-men- 
tioned persons." 

ACTIVITIES  OF  THE  DELEGATES  OF  THE  YUGOSLAV  RED  CROSS 

Concerning  the  representative  of  the  Red  Cross  of  Yugoslavia,  on 
a  mission  in  the  United  States,  the  files  of  the  Slobodna  Rec  tend  to 
demonstrate  that  they  have  done  their  best  not  to  lag  behind  other 
delegations  and  missions  from  FPRY,  and  that  their  activities  have 
been  nicely  timed  with  the  activities  of  the  Yugoslav  Embassy: 

1.  The  Slobodna  Rec  of  January  17,  1946,  page  3,  presents  the  pic- 
ture of  three  delegates  of  the  Red  Cross  of  FPR  Yugoslavia,  announc- 
ing that : 

The  representatives  of  the  Red  Cross  from  our  homeland,  partisan  fighter, 
Dr.  Robert  Neubauer,  Lt.  Nada  Ki-aiger,  and  Lt.  Gayo  Ratkovich,  will  partici- 
pate at  the  meetings  in  Cleveland,  Pittsburgh,  Farrel,  Johnstown,  Duquesne,  Mil- 
waukee, and  other  towns.     *     *     * 

They  will  personally  greet  our  people  here  and  tell  them  the  truth  which  some 
of  our  people's  enemies  are  distorting. 

At  the  same  time  it  is  announced  that  a  special  reception  for  Nada 
Kraiger  is  being  prepared  by  the  Slovene  Progressive  Women  in 
Cleveland. 

2.  The  Slobodna  Rec  of  January  22,  1946,  page  4,  reprinted  from 
the  New  York  Post,  Januar}?^  11,  1946,  an  interview  with  Dr.  Robert 
Neubauer,  chief  of  the  Yugoslav  Red  Cross  delegations,  written  by 
Mary  Bragiotti.  Dr.  Robert  Neubauer  explains  that  until  1941  he 
was  "too  busy  to  be  interested  in  politics."  In  May  1941  he  was  sent  to 
a  German  concentration  camp  but  does  not  explain  for  what  reason  and 
under  what  charges.     At  any  rate,  "in  that  camp  I  caught  the  spirit 


692       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

*  *  *  and  once  you've  got  it  it's  finislied.  I  joined  the  liberation 
movement."  Subsequently  "The  German  commanding  officer  received 
so  many  letters  urging  him  to  release  the  doctor  that,  after  6  weeks  in 
the  concentration  camp,  he  was  freed  and  told  to  disappear  quickly 
into  the  Italian-held  part  of  the  country,']  He  disappeared — but 
quickly — and  reappeared  in  his  birthplace,  Ljubljana,  Slovenia,  as  an 
innocent,  small-town  doctor.  His  office  was  opposite  the  police  de- 
partment and  some  of  his  patients  were  Italian  officers  and  men. 

The  "innocent"  doctor  was  one  of  the  organizers  of  the  National 
Liberation  Front. 

Perhaps  one  is  permitted  to  wonder  whether  a  man  who  "caught  the 
spirit"  so  quickly  and  was  so  easily  released  by  the  Nazis  has  come  to 
the  United  States  for  such  an  innocent  purpose  as  "to  study  [the  oi-gan- 
ization  of  the  American  Red  Cross]  and  to  explain  to  the  American 
people  Yugoslavia's  medical  and  social  problems." 

3.  All  three  members  of  the  Red  Cross  delegation  spoke  at  the  meet- 
ing of  the  United  Committee  of  vSouth  Slavic  Americans  in  Chicago, 
February  9,  1946,  together  with  Dr.  Makiedo,  counselor  of  the  Yugo- 
slav Embassv,  and  V.  Vukmirovic,  consul  general  in  Chicago.  (Slo- 
bodna  Rec,  February  2,  194G,  p.  4). 

4.  Under  the  title  "Johnstown  Deserves  Honor  and  Recognition,'' 
the  Slobodna  Rec  of  February  2,  1946,  No.  13,  page  3,  published  an 
enthusiastic  account  of  Dr.  Neubauer's  visit  to  that  town : 

After  Dr.  Neubauer's  speech,  $1,700  was  collected  for  the  people  of  Yugoslavia. 

[Dr.  Neubauer.]  who  described  the  situation  in  Yugoslavia  and  the  sufferings  of 
our  people  brought  upon  them  by  Nazi-Fascist  invaders,  *  *  *  spoke  with 
incredible  enthusiasm  of  our  people  in  building  the  destroyed  and  charred  land. 
Dr.  Neubauer's  words  left  a  strong  impression.  To  many  the  picture  became 
clearer.  *  *  *  Dr.  Neubauer's  speech  coveied  all  important  problems  of  the 
reconstruction  and  aid  to  tlie  people  of  Yugosalvia.  Also  the  background  of 
events  was  very  convincingly  shown. 

5.  According  to  the  Slobodna  Rec  of  February  16,  1946,  page  4,  all 
three  delegates  spoke  in  Auckland  (February  26),  San  Francisco 
( February  27 ) ,  and  Cupertino  ( February  24) , 

6.  Under  the  title  "Our  Aid  Raises  the  Spirit  of  Our  People."  the 
Slobodna  Rec  of  February  16,  1946,  page  4,  published  a  picture  of  a — 

beautiful  group  of  progressive  women — Serbian,  Croatian,  and  Slovenian — who 
have  organized  a  heartfelt  welcome  to  the  Partisan  Nada  Kraiger.  Partisan  Nada 
is  seen  in  the  middle  beside  a  bunch  of  flowers  which  were  presented  by  the 
active  sisters.     They  all  work  for  aid  to  Yugoslavia. 

7.  The  Slobodna  Rec  of  February  23,  page  4,  published  an  appeal  of 
the  American  Committee  for  Yugoslav  Relief  to  attend  a  mass  meeting 
in  San  Francisco  at  which  all  three  delegates  spoke.  Net  proceeds 
were  "devoted  to  children  in  Yugoslavia."  The  appeal  invites  "all 
Yugoslavs  from  San  Francisco  and  vicinity  to  attend  this  meeting  and 
hear  about  the  situation  in  Yugoslavia." 

^8.  According  to  the  Slobodna  Rec  of  March  12,  1946,  page  4,  Nada 
Kraiger  spoke  in  Gary,  Ind.,  at  the  meeting  of  the  Women's  Committee 
for  Yugoslav  Relief  on  March  13, 1946. 

9.  Slobodna  Rec  of  March  27,  1947,  page  3,  published  an  appeal  of 
Mrs.  Krista  Djordjevich,  special  delegate  and  member  of  the  central 
committee  of  the  Society  of  the  Red  Cross  of  FPRY,  addressed  to  "the 
Montenegrines  and  Bokese  in  the  United  States"  to  give  donations  for 
the  purchase  of  an  ambulant  clinic  for  Montenegro. 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       693- 

Mrs.  Djordjevich  says  that  slie  "had  the  opportunity  of  meeting 
many  Americans  of  Yugoslav  origin.  *  *  *  I  attended  the  gather- 
ing of  the  American  Serbs  in  New  York  City,  who,  in  a  short  time, 
collected  an  important  sum  for  Yugoslav  war  orphans."  She  sum- 
mons them  to  do  more : 

I  am  convinced  that  you  will  further  on  collect,  with  the  same  willingness  and 
love,  donations  and  gifts  for  any  part  of  our  devastated  country,  and  especially 
for  our  war  orphans. 

10.  Mrs.  Djordjevich  was  also  present  at  the  meeting  of  the  Serbian 
Progressive  Club,  Vasa  Pelagich,  in  Detroit,  together  with  Dr.  Dushan 
Brkich  (previously  mentioned,  Slobodna  Rec,  May  23,  1946),  and  the 
meeting  in  New  York  City  on  May  5,  1946  (Slobodna  Rec  June  13, 
1946).  On  that  occasion  it  was  mentioned  that  she  was  a  delegate  to 
the  United  Nations  Economic  and  Social  Commission. 

D.  ACTIvrriES  OF  THE  DELEGATES  TO  THE  UNRRA  MEETINGS  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES 
OF  AMERICA 

The  delegation  of  FPR  Yugoslavia  at  the  fourth  session  of  UNRRA 
in  Atlantic  City  (March  15-29, 1946)  was  headed  by  Dr.  Nikola  Petro- 
vich,  Yugoslav  Minister  of  Commerce.  This  is  what  the  Slobodna  Rec 
writes  about  his  activities : 

1.  The  Slobodna  Rec  of  March  19,  1946,  page  4,  printed  an  adver- 
tisement of  the  celebration  of  the  fifth  anniversary  of  the  people's 
uprising  in  Yugoslavia.  That  advertisement,  printed  on  almost  a 
whole  page  of  the  paper,  featured  as  main  speaker  Dr.  Nikola  Petro- 
vich.  The  net  proceeds  were  devoted  to  Yugoslav  relief.  The  appeal 
summoned  all  Americans  of  Yugoslav  origin  to  "show  your  solidarity 
with  the  Yugoslavs  of  Marshal  Tito." 

2.  The  Slobodna  Rec  of  March  26,  1946,  page  2,  published  a  biog- 
raphy of  Dr.  Nikola  Petrovich  under  the  title,  "Nikola  Petrovich,. 
Yugoslav  Minister  of  Commerce,  on  an  Important  Mission."  The 
Slobodna  Rec  informs  us  that — 

After  realizing  how  terroristic,  reactionary,  and  hostile  to  the  people  the  Belgrade 
clique  of  power  holders  were,  Petrovich  as  a  high-school  student  already  joined 
the  ranks  of  the  Serbian  Democratic  Youth,  fighting  for  a  truly  democratic  Yugo- 
slavia, based  on  a  brotherhood  of  all  Yugoslav  people.  During  his  studies  in 
Prague,  he  stood  out  among  democratic  students  with  his  active  work.  After 
graduating,  lie  came  home  and  lived  in  Belgrade,  taking  an  active  part  in  the 
struggle  of  the  I'opular  Front  against  the  dictatorial  regimes  of  the  Karageorge- 
vich  '■  clique.  Besides  his  political  activity,  he  distinguished  himself  in  the  field 
of  economic  and  cultural  activity.  He  wrote  a  number  of  articles  and  studies 
in  democratic  papers  and  periodicals,  such  as  NIN,"  Nasa  Stvarnost,'  and  others 
which  the  royal  police  subsequently  prohibited. 

In  1941,  he  answers  "the  appeal  of  Tito,  takes  up  arms  and  joins 
the  partisan  ranks."  He  organized  partisan  units  in  Voivodina.  In 
1942,  he  was  elected  a  member  of  the  Chief  People's  Committee  of 
Liberation  of  Voivodina  and,  in  1943,  "at  the  historical  second  session-, 
of  tlie  AVNOJ  *  in  Jajce,  lie  was  elected  a  member  of  the  presidency 
of  the  AVNOJ." 


Mvaragoorgevich,  the  royal  house  ruling  Yugoslavia  before  the  Couimuuist  seizure  of 
power. 

2  Nfdel.ine  Inforraativne  Novine  (Weekly  Information  Newspaper),  a  well-known  Com- 
munist weekly,  edited  by  Sveta  Popovich,'  a  professional  Communist  and  veteran  of  the 
Spanish  civil  war. 

'  One  of  the  leading  Communist  periodicals  published  in  Yugoslavia  prior  to  World 
War  II. 

*  Anti-Fasisticko  Vece  Narodnog  Oslobodjeiija  Jugoslavije   ( Anti-Pascist  Council  of  the- 
National  Liberation  of  Yugoslavia). 
98330— 50— pt.  2 16 


694       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

In  1944,  he  was  Acting  Minister  of  Commerce  in  the  National  Com- 
mittee of  Liberation  of  Yngoslavia  and,  in  February  1945,  became 
Minister  of  Supply  in  the  first  cabinet  of  Tito. 

3.  The  Sloboctna  Rec  of  April  4,  1946,  page  2,  published  the  whole 
speech  of  Petrovich  in  Pittsburgh  under  the  title,  "New  Development 
in  the  History  of  the  South  Slavs  and  the  Historical  Change  in  Yugo- 
slavia— Important  Speech  of  the  Yugoslav  Minister  Petrovich."  In 
order  to  fit  the  occasion,  Petrovich  started  by  sustaining  the  official 
Communist  thesis  about  the  coup  d'etat  of  March  27  ^  by  asserting 
that  it  was  the  work  "of  the  people" : 

On  that  day,  I  listened  to  the  speeches  of  today's  minister  in  our  government, 
Lt.  Gen.  Milovan  Djilas,  today's  major  general  of  our  army,  SvetozarVukmanovic- 
Tempo,  today's  vice  president,  Dr.  Ivan  Ribar  and  his  unforgettable  sou,  the  late 
Ivan-Lola  Ribar.  *  *  *  It  is  because  of  the  people  that  the  name  of  Yugo- 
slavia is  shown  for  the  first  time  with  bright  light  before  the  whole  world. 

Fate  has  determined  that  I  am  celebrating  the  fifth  anniversary  of  March  27 
here  in  Pittsburgh   with   you,   my  dear   brothers   and   sisters.     *     *     *     But 

*  *  *  at  a  distance  of  thousands  and  thousands  of  miles,  we  are  today  united 
in  spirit  with  our  whole  people. 

After  attacking  the  foreign  policy  of  Yugoslavia  until  1941,  which 
was  "inimical  to  the  greatest  Slav  country  in  the  world,  the  Soviet 
Union,"  Petrovich  hailed  Tito:  "You  know  him  because  he  is  the 
blood  of  your  blood." 

Petrovich  then  spoke  about  Draza  Mihailovicli  and  made  the  very 
significant  statement  that  "there  is  no  power  in  the  world  which  could 
possibly  force  us  to  deliver  Draza  Mihailovicli  to  some  international 
court.  He  will  be  tried  by  our  people's  court."  It  is  indicative  that 
these  words  were  printed  in  three  places  in  the  same  issue  of  the 
Slobodna  Eec:  In  the  report  on  Petrovich's  speech,  in  the  leading 
article,  and  in  a  column.  As  to  the  "legend  about  Draza  Mihailovicli," 
Petrovich  said  that — 

it  was  not  diflBcult  for  us  to  shatter  and  bare  the  skillful  lie  about  Mihailovich. 
It  is  much  more  difficult  to  shatter  the  legend  about  Draza  Mihailovich  here  in 
America,  because  here  you  lack  the  immediate  experience  which  the  people 
in  our  country  had.     Therefore,  it  will  take  much  more  persistent  work. 

Although  you  are  far  away  from  your  homeland,  I  think  that  it  is  possible  for 
you  to  help  it  in  many  ways.  In  my  opinion,  one  of  the  main  tasks  of  our  immi- 
grants in  the  United  States  is  to  be  the  living  link  between  the  people  of  Yugo- 
slavia and  the  American  people.  Explain  to  your  American  fellow  citizens 
the  meaning  of  the  events  in  Yugoslavia ;  explain  to  them  all  the  great  changes 
which  have  been  brought  about  under  the  direction  of  Marshal  Tito. 

4.  In  the  same  issue  of  the  Slobodna  Rec  the  leading  article  is  de- 
voted to  comment  on  Petrovich's  speech : 

Mr.  Petrovich  casts  a  strong  beam  of  light  in  the  ideas  of  our  immigrants.  He 
is  stating  an  important  historical  fact  when  he  says :  "The  demonstrations  which 
preceded  March   27th  were   directed  by   the   then  unknown  Josip  Broz-Tito." 

*  *  *  Mr.  Petrovich  especially  stressed  *  *  *  that  the  coup  d'etat  of 
March  27  would  never  had  happened,  had  it  not  been  prepared  by  the 
year-long  struggle  of  democratic  forces  in  our  country  against  the  domestic 
reaction.     *     *     * 


1  On  March  27,  1941,  a  group  of  Yugoslav  officers  revolted  against  the  government  of 
Regent  Prince  Paul  over  the  signing  of  the  Anti-Comintern  Pact  by  Yugoslavia  with  Ger- 
many and  Italy.  The  revolt  was  led  by  Gen.  Dusan  Simovic.  The  Communists  have 
since  the  end  of  the  war  attempted  to  claim  credit  for  participation  in  the  revolt  when  as 
a  matter  of  fact  they  had  absolutely  no  part  in  it.  At  that  time,  the  Communist  Parties 
thrfnic'liont  the  world  carried  on  a  program  of  "peace"  propaganda  to  supjiort  the  Soviet- 
German  Pact  of  19.39.  Therefore,  any  military  action  aimed  at  Nazi  Germany  would  have 
been  contrary  to  the  current  Soviet  Party  line  and  would  automatically  been  opposed  by 
the  Communist  Parties. 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS      695 

It  is  significant  that  owing  to  such  speeches  Petrovich  won,  accord- 
ing to  the  Slobodna  Rec,  "the  sympathies  of  the  people"  in  Pittsburgh 
RV.d  "left  the  strongest  impression  on  all  ^^ho  attended  the  meeting." 

In  spite  of  all  the  care  that  the  Slobodna  Rec  and  Narodni  Glasnik 
took  to  present  the  cooperation  between  the  official  representatives  of 
the  Federal  People's  Republic  of  Yugoslavia  and  the  "progressive" 
Americans  of  Serbian  and  Croatian  origin  as  a  harmless  cultural  and 
humanitarian  cooperation  for  welfare  and  peace,  the  real  nature  of 
those  contacts  can  easily  be  established  from  the  above  quotations. 

It  is  nevertheless  helpful  to  study  the  pages  of  the  Slobodna  Rec 
and  Narodni  Glasnik  after  the  Cominform-Tito  clash,  when  the  official 
contacts  rapidly  declined  and  almost  disappeared.  In  the  same  way  as 
the  Cominform-Tito  clash  induced  Tito's  regime  to  publish  revealing 
facts  and  information  about  connnunism  in  Soviet  Russia  and,  on  the 
other  hand,  induced  Moscow  to  publish  revealing  information  about 
communism  in  Yugoslavia,  the  Cominform-Tito  clash  brought  into  the 
open  some  interesting  facts  relative  to  the  activities  of  Yugoslav  offi- 
cials in  the  United  States  (and  Canada)  and  the  relations  between 
American  (or  Canadian)  organizations  and  the  Communist  Yugoslav 
autliorities. 

In  this  connection,  it  is  worth  while  pointing — besides  the  case  of 
Branko  Vukelich — to  the  conflict  between  the  Secretary  General  of 
the  Yugoslav  Government,  Ljubodrag  Djuric,  and  the  Council  of 
Canadian  Yugoslavs,  an  issue  in  which  both  the  Slobodna  Rec  (Feb- 
ruary 1,  1949,  p.  2)  and  the  Narodni  Glasnik  (February  10,  1919,  p. 
2)  took  a  very  definite  stand. 

The  Narodni  Glasnik  praised  the  work  of  the  council  which  "has 
played  and  is  playing  a  very  useful  and  progressive  role  in  the  life  of 
Yugoslav  emigrees  in  Canada."  It  stressed  equally  the  merits  of  the 
council  in  helping  "the  heroic  people  in  Yugoslavia,  for  which  the 
Yugoslav  Government  and  its  representatives  in  Canada  gave  lauda- 
tory acknowledgments."  But  since  the  Yugoslav  Government  "left 
the  powerful  front  of  peace  and  anti-imperialism,  led  by  the  Soviet 
Union,"  the  representatives  of  the  Yugoslav  Government  "reacted  in 
a  manner  which  can  *  *  *  only  harm  the  interests  of  Yugoslavia 
itself  and  of  the  progressive  movement  in  Canada." 

In  his  letter  addressed  to  the  Council  of  Canadian  Yugoslavs,  the 
Secretary  General  of  the  Yugoslav  Government  withdrew  "all  authori- 
zations and  powers  issued  to  the  council  by  the  authorities  and  institu- 
tions of  FPR  Yugoslavia."     The  reason  for  this  was  that — 

the  attitude  of  the  council  toward  the  FPRY  lately  does  not  give  the  necessary 
guaranty  that  the  money  collected  for  help  to  Yugoslavia  will  be  correctly  used, 
which  could  harm  both  those  who  give  the  money  and  those  who  ought  to  benefit 
from  it. 

In  its  angry  answer,  the  council  declares  bluntly — 

We  consider  your  intervention  in  the  affairs  of  the  council,  especially  the  inter- 
vention of  your  legation  in  Ottawa,  whose  work  in  this  country  oversteps  all 
diplomatic  rights,  as  an  open  provocation  and  an  attempt  to  breali  our  emigrant 
movement. 

[The  council  and  similar  organizations  in  Canada  and  the  U.  S.  A.]  never 
asked  nor  obtained  any  authorizations,  permits  and  powers,  etc.,  from  the  Yugo- 
slav Government  to  work  in  the  United  States  of  America  or  Canada  *  *  * 
In  no  case  were  they  organs  of  the  Yugoslav  Government  or  any  other  foreign 
agency.     *     *     * 

The  withdrawal  of  authorizations  *  *  *  publicly  easts  a  suspicion  not 
only  on  the  organization  concerned,  but  on  any  other  organization  which  per- 


696       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

formed  a  noble  and  patriotic  worlv  in  helping  the  peoples  of  Yugoslavia,  that  it  is 
an  agency  of  a  foreign  power.     *     *     * 

Have  the  representatives  of  the  Yugoslav  Government  ever  thought  or  cared 
about  the  undesired  consequences  if  the  Canadian  authorities  would  take  the 
declaration  of  the  representatives  of  the  Yugoslav  Government  as  a  proof  that 
the  Council  of  Canadian  Yugoslavs  is  anything  but  a  Canadian  organization? 

X.    CONCLUSION 

All  the  evidence  presented  in  this  report  points  to  a  few  elementary- 
facts  concerning  the  "progressive"  American  Serbs  and  Croats,  and 
more  particuLarly  the  Slobodna  Rec  and  the  Narodni  Ghasnilv,  namely  : 

1.  That  these  two  newspapers  have  never,  on  any  single  occasion,  on 
any  single  issue,  supported  the  stand  of  the  United  States  Govern- 
ment. 

2.  That  they  always,  without  a  single  exception,  have  given  full, 
unconditional,  and  unrestricted  support  to  the  official  stand  of  the 
Government  of  the  Soviet  Union. 

3.  That  their  attitude  toward  Yugoslavia,  the  country  of  their 
origin,  depended  solely  and  entirely  on  the  existing  relations  between 
Yugoslavia  and  the  Soviet  Union ;  that  is,  on  the  policy  of  the  Yugo- 
slav Government  in  power  toward  the  Soviet  Union,  or,  to  put  it  more 
precisely,  on  the  policy  of  the  Soviet  Government  toward  the  regime 
in  Yugoslavia. 

4.  That  the  criticism  by  the  Slobodna  Rec  and  the  Narodni  Glasnik 
leveled  at  the  existing  social  and  political  order  in  the  United  States 
follows  to  the  letter  the  line  of  Communist  strategy  and  tactics. 
These  two  newspapers  not  only  are  doing  their  best  to  illustrate  the 
main  theses  of  the  Marxist-Leninist  theory  but  follow  closely  and 
conscientiously  the  line  of  Communist  tactics  themselves,  especially 
the  new  tactics  of  the  Communist  Party,  of  the  so-called  anti-Fascist 
people's  fronts  adopted  at  the  Seventh  Congress  of  the  Communist 
International  and  elaborated  in  detail  in  the  two  most  recent  works  of 
William  Z.  Foster,  the  Twilight  of  World  Capitalism,  and  In  Defense 
of  the  Communist  Party  and  the  Indicted  Leaders. 

This  Communist  theory,  reduced  to  its  essentials,  consists  of  the 
following  theses : 

(a)  Capitalism  is  the  source  of  exploitation,  oppression,  and  all 
evil  in  this  world. 

(h)  Capitalism,  owing  to  its  inner  structure  and  the  laws  of  its 
development,  is  doomed  to  failure. 

(c)  On  the  ruins  of  capitalism  a  new  order  will  be  installed — the 
socialist  order. 

(d)  Although  the  downfall  of  capitalism  is  unavoidable  because  it 
is  subject  to  laws  as  unchangeable  as  natural  laws,  the  downfall  of 
capitalism  will  not  be  achieved  automatically.  The  working  class, 
which  is  the  creator  of  socialism,  in  order  to  achieve  victory  must 
i\ecessarily  be  organized  into  a  party,  but  not  a  "bourgeois"  party 
which  follows  the  rules  and  can  function  only  within  the  parlia- 
mentary system.  The  party  of  the  working  class  must  be  a  "new 
type"  party,  a  militant  vanguard  party  which  will  prepare  and  organ- 
ize the  workers  for  direct  revolutionary  action  and  a  forcible  over- 
throw of  the  existing  capitalistic  order  and  government. 

(e)  The  United  States  is  no  exception  to  the  above  rules.  On  the  con- 
trary, capitalism  in  the  United  States  exemplifies  most  drastically  all 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       697 

the  main  theses  of  Leninism,  which  is  Marxism  in  the  imperialistic 
phase  of  capitalistic  development.  Capitalism  in  America  is  thus 
bound  to  fall,  owing  to  its  own  internal  contradictions  and  inability 
to  solve  the  growing  difficulties  inherent  in  capitalism  as  a  system. 

(/)  But  since,  according  to  Marx,  Lenin  and  Stalin,  no  ruling  class  in 
history  ever  gave  up  its  privileged  position  without  struggle — never 
voluntarily  disappeared  from  the  world  stage — American  capitalism 
is  doing  its  best  to  keep  at  all  costs  the  unique  position  which  it  has 
in  the  present  world. 

(g)  These  efforts  of  American  capitalism  to  keep  its  position  at  any 
price  is  entirely  undemocratic.  Since  its  downfall  is  inexorable,  Amer- 
ican capitalism — personified  in  Wall  Street  bankers,  and  political 
reaction — must  necessarily  pursue  a  policy  of  fascism  in  America  and 
the  policy  of  imperialism  which  leads  to  war  in  its  relations  with  other 
countries. 

(A)  In  pursuing  such  a  policy,  Wall  Street  and  American  reaction 
must  necessarily  clash  with  the  interests  of  the  common  people  in 
America  as  well  as  with  the  interests  of  all  people  in  the  world.  The 
internal  and  international  tension  which  ensue  must  necessarily  lead 
to  an  open  conflict  between  world  capitalism,  headed  by  Wall  Street, 
and  the  front  of  democracy  and  peace,  headed  by  the  Soviet  Union. 

(i)  The  growing  violence  of  the  capitalists  must  be  met  by  violence 
on  the  part  of  the  people.  The  entire  program  of  the  Communist 
Party,  its  press,  and  all  affiliated  organizations  is  to  prepare  the  people 
for  the  conflict  which  is  bound  to  come,  so  that  the  sinister  intrigues  of 
capitalists  can  be  met  and  "the  people  smash  the  power  of  the  ruling 
capitalists,  take  control  themselves,  and  enter  into  genuinely  fraternal 
relations  with  other  peoples,  particularly  with  the  U.  S.  S.  R." 
(Foster). 

Tliis  background  is  iiecessary  for  the  correct  understanding  and  ap- 
praisal of  the  policy  and  propaganda  of  any  "progressive"  organiza- 
tion in  the  LTnited  States,  since  the  Marxist-Leninist  theory  requires  a 
special  technique  of  propaganda. 

This  special  technique  is  well  illustrated  in  the  pages  of  the  Slobodna 
Rec  and  the  Narodni  Glasnik.     It  follows  a  few  simple  rules : 

No  news  or  articles  must  be  ]:»ublished  which  could  possibly  harm  the 
mental  and  political  preparation  of  the  people  for  the  overthrow  of 
capitalism.  All  news  must  be  carefully  selected  so  as  to  support  any 
one  of  the  main  theses  of  Marxism-Leninism.  This  applies  not  only  to 
the  editorials  but  to  the  most  insignificant  item  published  in  the  papers, 
sucli  as  cartoons,  photographs,  announcements,  and  advertisements. 

Moreover,  every  single  item  must  be  carefully  selected  so  as  to  in- 
crease tlie  belief  of  the  readers  in  the  inevitability  of  the  downfall  of 
capitalism,  in  the  righteousness  of  the  Communist  cause,  and  to  in- 
crease their  willingness  to  take  an  active  part  in  the  decisive  revolu- 
tionary struggle.     These  simple  rules  are  carried  out  by — 

1.  Always  presenting  the  United  States  in  an  unfavorable  light. 
Every  single  copy  of  the  newspapers  must  present  new  evidence  of  the 
rottenness  of  American  capitalism,  of  the  deep  rift  between  the  in- 
terests of  Wall  Street  and  reaction  on  the  one  hand,  and  the  workers 
and  the  people  on  the  other. 

2.  Always  presenting  the  Soviet  Union  in  a  favorable  light  by  giv- 
ing examples  of  its  domestic  policy  favorable  to  the  people  and  for- 


698       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

eign  policy  favorable  to  peace,  and  serving  the  interests  of  all  man- 
kind. 

3.  Commenting  on  all  events  and  all  problems  so  as  to  indict  the- 
United  States  and  praise  the  Soviet  Union. 

4.  Proving  that  there  is  no  conflict  of  interests  between  the  United 
States  as  a  whole  and  the  Soviet  Union,  but  that  the  main  conflict 
exists  inside  America  itself;  namely,  between  its  ruling  class  and  the 
broad  masses  of  the  people.  As  stated  by  George  S.  Wuchinich,  of 
the  American  Slav  Congress,  in  his  column  in  tlie  Slobodna  Rec  of 
May  14, 1949,  page  2 : 

The  time  has  come  to  look  to  battle  fronts  in  Pittsburgh,  Detroit,  Minneapolis, 
San  Francisco,  and  New  Orleans,  not  to  the  Yangtze,  Athens,  Berlin,  Rome, 
Paris,  or  London. 

5.  Presenting  all  the  Government's  policies  and  activities  which 
tend  to  strengthen  America  as  militaristic,  Fascist,  and  imperialistic, 
and  recommending  a  policy  of  weakening  America  militarially,  politi- 
cally, and  spiritually  as  being  favorable  to  the  cause  of  the  American 
people  and  international  peace  and  well-being. 

There  is  no  doubt  that  these  simple  rules  of  Communist  propaganda 
have  been  very  carefully  applied  by  the  Slobodna  Rec  and  the  Narodni 
Glasnik,  although  it  might  have  appeared  to  readers  not  well  enough 
acquainted  with  Marxist  theory  and  tactics  that  they  were  sometimes 
deviating  from  the  Communist  line  and  assuming  an  unbiased  or  even 
patriotic  attitude. 

Such  cases  do  by  no  means  indicate  a  deviation  from  the  party  line 
but,  on  the  contrary,  are  striking  evidence  of  how  closely  and  obediently 
the  Slobodna  Rec  and  Narodni  Glasnik  have  been  following  every  twist 
and  turn  of  Communist  tactics.  All  the  propaganda  of  the  Slobodna 
Rec  and  Narodni  Glasnik  does  not  follow  strictly  and  to  the  letter  the 
theories  of  Marx,  Lenin,  and  Stalin.  But  that  fact  does  not  make  it  less 
communistic,  since — 

Propaganda  habits  alone,  the  mere  repetition  of  the  truths  of  pure  communism,, 
is  of  no  avail  (V.  I.  Lenin,  Left  Wing  Communism,  an  Infantile  Disorder). 

Communist  action  and  propaganda,  in  order  to  be  successful,  require 
a  wide  range  of  tactical  lines  to  be  applied,  some  of  which  may  seem  not 
only  inconsistent  with  Communist  theory,  but  even  contrary  to  it. 

Our  theory  is  not  a  dogma  but  a  guide  to  action  (Lenin,  quoting  Marx  and  En- 
gels  in  Left  Wing  Communism,  an  Infantile  Disorder). 

The  very  cliaracteristic  of  the  Communist  propaganda  is  to  conceal 
from  enemies,  and  even  more  from  those  who  sympathize  with  commu- 
nism only  on  account  of  their  deficient  knowledge  of  Communist  ends 
and  means,  its  true  aims. 

This  duality  of  action  and  propaganda,  one  for  the  Communists  and 
one  for  the  non-Communists,  can  be  traced  back  to  Lenin's  duality  of 
programs  of  action,  as  presented  at  the  Congress  of  the  Russian  Social 
Democratic  Workers'  Party  in  1903  in  Brussels  and  London : 

This  program  consisted  of  two  parts :  the  maximal  and  the  minimal  programs. 
The  maximal  program  dealt  with  the  principal  aim  of  the  working  class  party; 
namely,  the  Socialist  revolution,  the  overthrow  of  the  power  of  the  capitalists,  and 
the  establishment  of  a  dictatorship  of  the  proletariat.  The  minimal  program 
dealt  with  the  immediate  aims  of  tlie  party,  aims  to  be  achieved  before  the  over- 
throw of  the  capitalist  system  and  the  establishment  of  the  dictatorship  of  the 
proletariat ;  namely,  the  overthrow  of  the  Czarist  autocracy,  the  establishment  of 
a  democratic  republic,  the  introduction  of  an  8-hour  working  day  for  workers,  the 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS      699 

abolition  of  all  survivals  of  feudalism  in  the  countryside,  tlie  restoration  to  the 
peasants  of  the  cut-off  lands  (otrezki),  of  which  they  had  been  deprived  by  the 
landlords  (History  of  the  Communist  Party  of  the  Soviet  Union  (Bolsheviks), 
Moscow,  1938,  Serbian  edition,  pp.  41,  42). 

Ever  since,  the  Communists  have  been  trying  to  work  out  for  all 
countries  a  concrete,  minimal  program  behind  which  to  rally  as  many 
allies  as  possible,  in  order  to  realize  the  one  and  only  important  pro- 
gram, the  maximal  program :  Communist  dictatorship  in  the  whole 
world. 

With  amazing  frankness  William  Foster  has,  in  his  recent  works, 
The  Twilight  of  World  Capitalism,  and  In  Defense  of  the  Indicted 
Leaders,  admitted  that  the  rise  of  fascism,  or  rather  national  social- 
ism, gave  birth  to  the  idea  of  creating  "people's  fronts,"  which  would 
unite,  under  the  slogan  of  struggle  against  fascism,  as  many  people 
and  political  groups  as  possible  who  could  be  used  by  the  Communists 
to  advance  the  Communist  cause.  The  idea  of  people's  fronts  has  been 
put  into  operation  with  greater  or  lesser  success  in  many  countries. 
On  the  whole,  the  experiment  has  been  so  successful  that  the  people's 
fronts  are  still  regarcled  as  an  indispensable  instrument  of  Communist 
action. 

The  phenomenon  of  "people's  frontism"  is  one  of  the  most  fascinat- 
ing subjects  for  sociological  and  political  studies.  And  though  it  is 
outside  of  the  scope  of  this  study  to  indulge  in  an  analysis  of  all  the 
phenomena  and  problems  of  the  people's  fronts,  it  is,  nevertheless, 
indispensable  in  any  study  dealing  today  with  Communism  to  con- 
sider the  essentials  of  "people's  frontism."  The  question,  w4io  is  more 
instrumental  in  furthering  the  Communist  cause,  the  Communists  or 
the  people's  frontists,  must  here  be  left  undiscussed.  What  matters 
here  is  to  demonstrate  how  the  Communists  conceive  the  people's 
fronts  and  wliat  importance  they  attach  to  them  today. 

The  practical  application  of  the  idea  of  people's  fronts  has  not  been 
confined  to  the  prewar  period  of  Hitler's  rise  to  power.  On  the  con- 
trary, "the  new  Communist  anti-Fascist  tactics,  initiated  at  the 
Seventh  World  Congress  of  the  Comintern  *  *  *  actually  got 
into  effective,  successful  operation"  after  the  U.  S.  S.  R.  got  into 
the  war,  in  June  1941  (Foster,  In  Defense,  p.  45) . 

During  the  war,  and  immediately  thereafter,  the  "new  tactical 
orientation"  (Foster,  In  Defense,  p.  42)  was  put  into  practice  with 
greatest  success,  since  it  brought  about  a  "new  type  'national  unity' 
coalition  government,  with  Communist  participation  and  organized 
largely  upon  Communist  initiative"  (Foster,  In  Defense,  p.  48)  in  a 
number  of  European  countries. 

Consequently,  it  is  not  surprising  that  when  the  Communist  Infor- 
mation Bureau  was  organized  in  September  1947,  the  nine  Communist 
Parties  paid  the  greatest  attention  to  the  problem  of  people's-front 
tactics,  and  that  "the  substance  of  the  decisions  of  the  nine  big  Euro- 
pean Communist  Parties  was  *  *  *  reaffirming  and  strengthening 
the  basic  anti-Fascist,  people's  front  tactical  line  that  had  been  ini- 
tiated by  the  Seventh  Congress  of  the  Comintern"  (Foster,  In  Defense, 
p.  62). 

There  have  not  been  since  then  any  signs  of  the  Communists  re- 
nouncing the  people's  front  tactical  line,  but  only  reaffirming  it. 
Characteristically  the  French  Communist  Party  calls  for  the  election 
of  a  "government  of  democratic  union,"  supported  by  a  broad  united 


700       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

front  of  "Socialists,  Communists,  Catholics,  and  Republicans,"  and 
the  Italian  Communist  Party  follows  a  similar  policy  '  (Foster,  Twi- 
light of  World  Capitalism,  p.  123) . 

As  Joseph  Starobin  points  out  in  his  article.  The  National  Confer- 
ence of  French  Communists,  Daily  Worker,  April  27,  1949,  page  8 : 

Thorez  *  *  *  urges  the  Communists  to  go  out  among  the  people  and  reach 
Frenchmen  "of  all  opinions,  all  tendencies,  all  believes"     *     *     *_ 

In  other  words,  the  people's-f  ront  tactics,  being  of  vital  importance 
to  the  Communists,  have  become  today  one  of  the  main  weapons  of 
Communist  propaganda  and  action,  "The  present  day  party  line  fol- 
lows the  broad  path  towards  the  people's  front  and  people's  (lemocracy 
types  of  government  now  to  be  found  in  eastern  Europe"  (Foster, 
Twilight,  p.  124). 

Foster  readily  admits  that  "the  basic  united  front,  anti-Fascist, 
antiwar  line  *  *  *  had  since  [1935]  plaved  such  a  vital  role  in 
world  affairs"  (Foster,  Twilight,  p.  122). 

And  as  for  the  United  States,  the  Communist  Party  has  established 
the  "minimal  program"  and  concretely  defined  its  people's  front 
policy,  which 

now,  in  this  country,  is  that  of  building  up  a  great  anti-monopoly  coalition  of 
workers,  farmers,  Negroes,  intellectuals,  and  other  democratic  forces  to  fight 
for  the  immediate  interests  of  the  people  and  for  the  ultimate  establishment 
of  socialism  (Foster,  Twilight,  p.  124). 

The  policy  of  the  Communists  is  to  "support  every  popular  pro- 
gressive movement,"  but  never  unconditionally,  or  in  the  interest  of 
human  progress  or  the  advancement  of  the  people's  welfare,  but  strict- 
ly, and  solely,  because  they  deem  it  profitable  for  the  realization  of 
socialism. 

Mao  Tse-tung  of  the  Chinese  Communist  Party  "compared  Marxist 
theory  to  an  arrow  which  'must  be  shot  at  the  target  of  the  Chinese 
Revolution.  We  must  shoot  the  arrow  with  an  aim.'  "  (The  Worker, 
January  9,  1949,  magazine,  p.  2,  article  on  China  by  Anna  Louise 
Strong.) 

One  of  their  main  concerns  in  their  participation  in  the  people's 
front  movements  is  to  talk  all  non-Communists  into  believing  that 
they  have  common  interests  with  those  of  the  Communist  Party,  and 
that  it  is  thus  profitable  for  all  of  them  to  cooperate  for  the  defeat  of 
Communist  enemies. 

According  to  V.  Molotov,  now  Soviet  Foreign  Minister : 

The  task  of  our  time  is  to  unite  all  the  anti-imperialistic  and  democratic  forces 
of  the  nations  into  one  mighty  camp,  welded  together  by  the  unity  of  their  vital 
interests  against  the  imperialist  and  antidemocratic  camp  and  its  policy  of  en- 
slavement of  the  people  and  new  adventures  (Molotov,  Thirtieth  Anniversary  of 
the  Revolution,  the  Strategy  and  Tactics  of  World  Revolution,  One  Hundred 
Years  of  Communism,  edition  of  the  Committee  on  Foreign  Affairs,  H.  Doc.  No. 
619,  p.  235.) 

The  New  York  State  Committee  of  the  Communist  Party  published 
a  call  to  action  in  the  Daily  Worker  on  March  1, 1949,  page  1,  in  which 
it  said,  "Defend  your  rights  by  defendings  the  rights  of  the  Com- 
munists." 

That  is  one  of  the  most  important  points  in  the  whole  experience 
with  the  people's  front  movement.  While  other  participants  con- 
sider the  people's  front  as  an  organization  of  compromise,  where 
every  single  group  has  to  sacrifice  a  smaller  or  greater  part  of  its  own 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       701 

program  for  the  sake  of  realizing  a  broad  common  goal,  the  Com- 
munists view  it  only  as  a  means  of  harnessing  as  many  people  and 
political  groups  as  possible  for  the  realization  of  Communist  ends.  So, 
while  being  ready  to  accept  anybody's  help  which  in  any  way  can 
promote  their  interests,  they  strongly  resent  any  attempt  of  other 
groups  to  impose  upon  the  people's  fronts  any  ideas  or  courses  of  action 
which  might,  in  the  slightest,  be  detrimental  to  the  Communist  cause. 
Stalin  specifically  laid  down  this  rule : 

The  Communist  Party  *  *  *  does  not  and  must  not  share  leadership 
with  any  otlier  party  *  *  *.  (Joseph  Stalin,  Lenin's  Contribution  to 
Marxism.  On  the  Theory  of  Marxism,  Karl  Marx,  Frederick  Engels,  V.  I. 
Lenin,  Joseph  Stalin,  International  Publishers,  New  York,  1948,  p.  31.) 

The  files  of  the  Daily  Worker  of  1948  give  ample  material  to  corrob- 
orate this  assertion.  In  the  Daily  Worker  of  April  7,  1948,  Milton 
Howard  examines  AVallace's  progressive  capitalism.  While  paying 
tribute  to  Wallace  for  "one  of  his  most  trenchant  attacks  on  the  war- 
minded  financial  interests  running  Washington"  and  urging  "resolute 
unity  of  all  groups,  opposed  to  the  criminal  war  which  the  bankers- 
generals  are  preparing,"  Howard  decidedly  rejects  the  very  idea  of 
the  existence  and  possibility  of  "progressive  capitalism"  in  the  United 
States  today.  "To  talk  of  progressive  capitalism  in  the  era  of  the 
Morgans,  Eockefellers,  Forrestals,  du  Fonts,  Fords,  and  similar  mo- 
nopolists is  to  describe  something  that  does  not  exist  in  present-day 
America."  This  criticism,  however,  does  not  imply,  by  any  means, 
the  rejection  of  the  people's-front  idea,  or  allies  such  as  Henry 
Wallace,  but  it  is  used  to  stress  the  necessity  of  people's  fronts  follow- 
ing strictly  the  Communist  conceptions : 

If  peace  is  to  be  won  today  it  must  be  won,  not  by  making  the  trustified  capital- 
ism of  the  United  States  of  America  progressive,  which  is  Utopian,  but  by  the 
development  of  such  powerful  people's  movements  (of  which  the  AVallace  move- 
ment is  one)  that  trusts  will  be  efEectively  curbed,  and  their  abolition,  through 
national  ownership,  actively  prepared. 

"It  is  not  by  expecting  the  trusts  to  become  progressive,  but  by 
decisive  advance  in  democracy  through  a  great  increase  in  the  eco- 
nomic and  political  power  of  the  working  class  and  its  allies  that 
these  can  be  won."  After  putting  Wallace  in  his  right  place,  by  mak- 
ing it  clear  that  within  the  people's  front  anybody  can  help  the  Com- 
munists, but  only  one  will  must  be  obeyed,  Howard  concludes : 

That  we  disagree  with  Wallace's  non-Communist  political  philosophy  of 
"progressive  capitalism"  does  not,  of  course,  diminish  the  accuracy  of  his 
challenge  to  big  business  war  makers,  nor  its  significance  as  a  courageous  cham- 
pion of  democratic  progress. 

A  few  weeks  later  Howard  again  takes  issue  (Daily  Worker,  May 
19, 1948,  p.  9)  with  Wallace,  who,  in  a  speech,  referred  to  the  "excesses 
of  local  Communists."  Howard  emphatically  rejects  any  such  re- 
marks, since  "excesses"  imply  "a  philosophy  of  irresponsibility,  of 
adventurism,  and  egotistical  calculations,"  and  warns  Wallace  that 
he  "will  fatally  and  inevitably  weaken  his  own  vital  struggle  against 
the  "Red  menace"  hysteria  *  *  *  j-f  j^g  makes  such  accommoda- 
tions to  the  slanders  of  his  antidemocratic  enemies." 

And  once  more,  in  the  Daily  Worker  of  June  9, 1948,  page  9,  Howard 
rebukes  Wallace  on  two  counts :  First,  for  holding  the  "foreign  policy 
of  the  Soviet  Union  *  *  *  equally  guilty  with  the  banker-domi- 
nated State  Department  for  the  cold  war."     And  second,  for  defining 


702       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

the  nature  of  American  Communists'  interest  in  peace  "because  tliey 
want  a  successful  Socialist  experiment  in  Russia."  The  way  Howard 
reacts  to  these  two  statements  is  also  characteristic  of  the  Communist 
concept  of  people's  fronts.  As  regards  the  first  count,  he  is  very 
lenient  since  he  realizes  that  whoever  assails  and  puts  the  blame  for 
the  cold  war  on  the  United  States,  certainly  helps  tlie  Soviet  struggle 
against  America.  Besides,  to  abandon  the  people's  front  because  of 
the  "incorrect"  views  of  some  of  its  participants  would  amount  "to 
abandon  the  people's  movement  to  incorrect  views,  not  to  speak 
of  *  *  *  abandoning  any  serious  mass  struggle  for  peace  what- 
soever." Such  a  withdrawal  would  be  the  more  objectionable  since 
Wallace  "slapped  down  the  *  ^'  *  cowardly  effort  to  red-bait 
him  into  an  admission  that  peace  for  the  United  States  of  iVmerica  is 
exclusively  a  Communist  aim,"  by  making  the  "true  and  important 
statement"  that  "Communists  are  interested  in  peace." 

But  Wallace's  second  mistake  is  talcen  much  more  seriously.  Well 
aware  that  one  of  the  main  obstacles  for  the  success  of  communism  in 
the  United  States  is  the  fact  that  the  Communist  Party  in  America 
is  considered,  by  most  Americans,  not  as  an  American  party,  but  as  an 
organization  receiving  orders  from  abroad,  and  working  for  the  inter- 
ests of  a  foreign  power,  Howard  emphatically  stresses  that,  "for 
Communists,  peace  is  an  American  interest"  and  "the  success  of  social- 
ism anywhere  in  the  world  is  an  American  interest  if  by  that  is  under- 
stood the  American  people  and  not  the  Wall  Street  minority."  After 
stressing  again  that  Communists  desire  peace  "for  the  advancement 
of  people's  democracy  and  American  socialism  in  our  own  country" 
Howard  declares  that  "our  desire  for  peace  and  American  socialism 
coincides  with  the  peace  aims  of  socialism  in  the  Soviet  Union  *  *  * 
since  socialism  is  the  greatest  force  for  peace  in  the  world  today. 
That  only  proves  that  the  socialist  interest  of  the  Soviet  peoples  coin- 
cides with  the  national  interest  of  the  American  people." 

Not  less  interesting  are  the  considerations  of  the  Daily  Worker  on 
people's  front  problems  in  connection  with  the  Cominform-Tito  clash. 
In  his  column  of  July  14,  1948,  Milton  Howard  sharply  assailed  the 
New  York  Times  for  asserting  that  the  Communist  Information 
Bureau's  criticism  of  the  Yugoslav  Communist  Party's  leadership 
"presages  the  new  turn  away  from  the  people's  front  in  all  countries." 
Shocked  by  such  an  idea,  Howard  declares  that  the 

criticism  of  the  Yugoslavian  Communists  was  exactly  the  contrary — that  their 
inability  to  maintain  a  clearly  defined  Communist  Party  within  the  people's 
front  presented  a  danger  to  the  people's  front  itself,  since  without  such  a  van- 
guard Communist  Party  such  an  alliance  faced  the  danger  of  losing  its  effective- 
ness and  its  goal. 

For  a  genuine  people's  front,  the  Communist  Party  is  indispensable  as  the  voice 
of  the  working  class,  tlie  main  class  force  within  it.  Without  a  clearly  defined 
Communist  Party,  the  less  stable  elements  within  the  people's  front  (wealthier 
middle  classes  for  example)  tend  to  vacillate,  and  tend  to  move  toward  compro- 
mise with  the  reaction. 

And  then  comes  an  admission  by  Howard  whose  true  significance 
and  bearing  cannot  be  missed  by  anyone  who  is  familiar  with  the 
Communist  practice  of  using  words  such  as  "progress,"  "peace," 
"democracy,"  and  so  forth,  when  they  mean  Communist  dictatorship : 

The  people's  front  is  the  political  form  which  the  Communists  see  as  the 
most  effective  for  uniting  the  greatest  number  of  people  on  a  commonly  agreed 
upon  platform  for  progress  and  peace.  «  *  *  The  people's  front  is  the 
path  of  democracy. 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS      703 

Needless  to  say  that  tlie  same  line  can  distinctly  be  observed  in  the 
-columns  of  Joseph  Starobin,  who,  in  five  articles,  analyzes  the  Comin- 
form-Tito  clash,  giving  special  attention  to  Tito's  misconception  of 
the  people's  front.  What  he  rebukes  him  for  in  his  column  of  July  15, 
1948,  is  that  "the  front  became  a  lasting  organization,  with  a  perma- 
nent program  to  quote  Tito's  famous  speech  of  last  September,"  which 
is  obviously  what  the  Communist  Party  did  not  intend  and  does  not 
want  the  people's  front  to  be.  Starobin  stresses  the  essential  condition 
for  a  people's  front,  namely  the  necessity  "to  lead  the  peasants  wisely 
under  the  firm  guidance  of  the  working  class." 

In  his  column  on  July  16,  Starobin  also  assails  those  who  contend 
that — 

the  Communists  are  abandoning  the  people's  front.  The  people's  front  is 
♦  *  *  to  be  built  on  a  long-term  basis.  But  it  has  to  be  built  with  its  base 
among  the  workers.  As  a  middle-class  phenomenon,  it  can  be  very  important  for 
a  time,  but  it  can't  solve  basic  problems. 

And  finally  it  is  interesting  to  review  the  official  stand  of  the  Amer- 
ican Communist  Party  regarding  people's  front  movements.  The 
Worker  magazine,  July  18,  19-18,  page  3,  reports  on  the  Communist 
Party  convention  discussion  and  discusses  the  "Lessons  of  Elections 
in  Steel  Union  Locals  of  the  Indiana-Calumet  Area" : 

The  experience  *  *  *  shows :  that  the  possibility  of  Communist  partici- 
pation in  the  united  front,  its  form,  character  and  extent,  are  determined  in 
large  degree,  by  the  strength,  support,  following  and  prestige,  which  the  Com- 
munists can  bring  to  the  united  front.  And  it  is  impossible  to  achieve  these 
without  the  independent  work  and  activity  of  the  Communist  Party  and  the 
■Communists. 

In  The  Worker  of  July  25, 1948,  Milton  Howard  presents  "The  Com- 
munist's Opinion  of  the  New  Progressive  Party" : 

American  Communists  quite  openly  approve  of  its  formation  *  *  *^  The 
American  Marxists  have  always  supported  and  taken  their  place  within  every 
people's  democratic  movement  *  *  *.  The  traditional  relationship  of 
Marxism  to  all  socially  progressive  movements  is  one  of  cooperation  and  construc- 
tive criticism,  whether  such  movements  were  struggles  for  national  liberation  or 
the  abolition  of  monarchies,  etc.,  or  now  the  curbing  of  the  trusts. 

The  official  stand  of  the  American  Communist  Party  on  the  New 
Party  is  carefully  defined  in  the  1948  election  platform  of  the  Com- 
munist Party  (The  Worker,  August  15,  1948,  pp.  6-7)  : 

The  Progressive  Party  is  by  its  very  nature  a  great  coalition  of  labor,  farmers, 
the  Negro  people,  youth,  professional  and  small-business  people.  It  is  anti- 
monopoly,  anti-Fascist,  antiwar.  *  *  *  it  is  not  a  Socialist  nor  a  Commu- 
nist Party  and  we  are  not  seeking  to  make  it  one.  It  is  and  should  develop  as  a 
united  front,  broad  mass  people's  party. 

The  Communists  declare  that  they  will  "seek  no  special  position  in 
■the  movement,"  but  at  the  same  time  reassure  their  followers  and  warn 
their  allies  that  they  "will,  of  course,  oppose  any  special  disabilities 
because  of  our  socialist  views."  This  concept  of  a  "united  front,  broad 
mass  people's  party"  in  which  the  Communists  would  "oppose  any 
special  disabilities"  because  of  their  socialist  views,  seems  rather  to 
corroborate  than  to  refute  the  "propaganda  that  the  third  party  is  a 
'front'  for  the  advocates  of  socialism,"  a  contention  indignantly  re- 
jected by  Howard  ("The  Communists'  Opinion  of  the  New  Party," 
The  Worker,  July  25, 1948,  p.  7) . 

The  suwess  of  the  basic  idea  of  the  people's  fronts  to  harness  non- 
Communists  for  the  realization  of  Communist  ends  was  such  that  in 


704       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

the  course  of  a  few  years  the  Communists  succeeded  in  appropriating 
a  great  part  of  the  arsenal  of  democratic  terms,  theories,  and  slogans, 
thus  mitigating  their  usefulness  for  democratic  propaganda  and 
making  strong  Communist  inroads  in  the  democratic  front.  At  the 
same  time,  they  were  able  to  impose  some  of  their  own  slogans  on  their 
democratic  allies  in  the  people's  fronts.  In  such  manner,  words,  terms, 
and  ideas  indispensable  for  successful  democratic  action  and  political 
education  of  the  people,  acquired  a  double  meaning — one  democratic, 
one  communistic.  ^  H 

The  situation  was  much  clearer  and  to  fight  communism  was  much 
simpler  when  communism  was  admittedly  opposed  to  democracy,  when 
freedom,  the  rule  of  the  law,  the  respect  for  the  Nation,  the  will  of  tlie 
people,  free  elections,  etc.,  were  distinctly  democratic  concepts,  assailed 
by  Communists  who  considered  them  just  "bourgeois  prejudices"  and 
rejected  them  as  labels  used  for  the  protection  of  the  interests  of  the 
ruling  class.  But  today,  after  the  people's-front  tactics  have  been 
applied  for  a  number  of  years,  such  a  confusion  between  democratic 
and  Connnunist  ideas,  slogans,  and  fronts  has  ensued,  that  it  is  not 
always  easy  to  detect  behind  a  democratic  appearance  a  Communist 
essence. 

However,  in  the  case  with  which  we  are  concerned,  there  are  so  many 
points  of  reliance  that  it  is  possible  to  reach  a  thoroughly  substantiated 
conclusion.  The  editors  of  the  Narodni  Glasnik  and  Slobodna  Rec  have 
seen  to  it  that  all  possible  doubt  as  to  their  real  political  orientation 
should  be  dissipated.  It  is  a  favorite  device  of  the  Communists  not 
only  to  claim  all  democratic  rights  for  themselves  in  order  to  destroy 
democracy,  but  to  pretend  that  any  criticism  they  make  is  democratic 
by  the  very  fact  that  the  right  to  criticize  is  a  democratic  right.  The 
right  to  criticize  the  government  of  one's  own  country  or  the  existing 
social  order  is  certainly  a  democratic  right.  But  wiiether  it  is  made 
use  of  democv:'tica]ly  or  it  is  misused  communistically,  depends  on  the 
critic.  Democ  atic  criticism  presupposes  at  least  some  degree  of  fair- 
ness, of  willingness  to  see  and  present  both  sides  of  a  problem,  to  in- 
vestigate before  judging,  to  weigh  the  pros  and  cons  before  concluding. 
It  requires  a  certain  degree  of  readiness  not  only  to  assail  sharply  what 
is  undoubtedly  wrong,  but  to  give  credit  to  what  is  obviously  right. 
When  the  critic  does  not  meet  these  requirements,  there  is  no  democratic 
criticism. 

If  someone — like  the  Slobodna  Rec  and  Narodni  Glasnik — keeps  crit- 
icizing onesidely  one's  own  country;  if  the  United  States  is  always 
wrong  and  the  Soviet  Union  always  right ;  if  distinction  is  persistently 
made  between  the  United  States  Government  and  the  people,  wdiile  the 
Soviet  Government  is  always  identified  with  the  Soviet  people ;  if  there 
is  never  agreement  with  the  policy  of  the  United  States  Govermnent, 
and.  on  the  other  side,  not  a  single  deviation  from  the  official  stand  of 
the  Soviet  Government;  if  there  is  always  identify  of  views  with  the 
Daily  Worker,  official  organ  of  the  Communist  Party  of  America,  if 
the  Marxist-Leninist-Stalinist  line  is  adhered  to,  not  only  in  principle, 
but  in  all  changes  of  its  tactics,  if  there  is  never  any  conflict  between  the 
views  of  the  Narodni  Glasnik  and  Slobodna  Rec  on  the  one  side, 
and  those  of  the  Communist  Party  on  the  other  side,  then  it  seems  clear 
that  we  have  before  us  no  naive  and  well-intentioned  adherents  of  peo- 
ple's fronts,  but  Communists. 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEX  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS      705 

Besides  the  already  quoted  examples,  one  of  the  basic  issues  in 
which  the  true  character  of  tlie  Narodni  Glasnik  and  the  Slobodna 
Rec  can  be  ascertained  is  the  issue  of  national  freedom  and  independ- 
ence. This  was,  and  is  even  today,  a  field  where  the  Communists  are 
most  easily  and  successfully  deceiving  the  public  opinion.  In  his  usual 
blunt  and  categorical  way  Lenin  defined  the  "right  of  i^.ations  to  self- 
determination"  as  the  "right  to  secession."  Lenin  does  not  even  try 
to  pretend  that  such  a  view  is  taken  for  the  sake  of  the  nations  con- 
cerned, but  makes  it  clear  that  in  this  issue,  as  well  as  in  any  other  one, 
the  only  determining  factor  are  the  interests  of  communism :  "In  the 
interests  of  the  unity  of  the  proletarians,  in  the  interests  of  their  class 
solidarity,  v  e  must  recognize  the  right  of  nations  to  secession."  (V.  I. 
Lenin,  The  Eight  of  Nations  to  Self-Determination,  Foreign  Lan- 
guages Publishing  House,  Moscow,  1947,  p.  61.)  In  other  words,  the 
Communists  stand  for  national  freedom  and  independence,  or  against 
it,  according  to  the  concrete  political  situation  of  the  moment.  They 
pose  as  champions  of  and  say  "yes"  to  national  independence,  national 
freedom,  nationalism,  only  as  long  as  the  nations  concerned  are  op- 
pressed. That  is,  as  long  as  they  can  be  used  for  the  purpose  of  de- 
stroying other  nations,  destroying  organized  forces  able  to  oppose 
communism.  But  as  soon  as  a  nation  is  free  and  organized  and  thus 
able  to  oppose  communism,  the  stand  of  the  Communists  changes  com- 
pletely. The  nation  is  reduced  to  the  working  class  and  the  national 
interest  becomes  a  class  interest. 

It  is  thus  quite  understandable  that  the  United  States,  being  the 
strongest  democratic  nation  in  the  world,  is  the  main  target  of  Com- 
munist propaganda  and  activities  and  that  the  Communists  say  "no" 
to  all  forces  and  factors  which  constitute  the  strength  of  America. 
They  acknowledge  the  national  traditions  and  history  of  the  United 
States  not  as  a  cultural  heritage  of  unremitting  efforts  and  sacrifices 
to  achieve  freedom  and  independence  from  any  foreign  power  and 
national  unity  and  individual  freedom  within  the  country  itself,  but 
only  as  the  preliminary  stages  of  the  final  "socialist"  revolution  to 
come.  They  interpret  the  revolutionary  past  of  America  not  as  deeds 
and  events  which  helped  form  the  American  Xation  and  made  possible 
the  w  ty  of  all  Americans,  but  as  alleged  precedents  for  their  dis- 
ruptive activities,  tending  to  create  divisions,  barriers,  and  conflicts 
among  Americans. 

The  Communists  deny  the  existence  of  any  common  links  which 
would  bind  together  all  Americans.  They  insist  on  their  division  in 
two  enemy  camps,  the  one  being  the  front  of  American  people,  whose 
interests  are  identical  with  the  interests  of  the  Soviet  ITnion  and  all 
"progressive"  forces  in  the  world,  and  the  front  of  a  minority  of  "re- 
actionaries," ""Wall  Street  bankers-generals,"  and  similar  cliques 
whose  interests  are  opposed  to  interests  of  the  American  people,  as 
well  as  to  the  interests  of  all  people  in  the  world,  but  the  Soviet  Union 
foremost.  "Patriotism  consists  in  servinsr  the  interests  of  one's  own 
working  people."  solemnlv  proclaims  the  Dailv  Worker  (Joseph  Staro- 
bin.  in  his  column  Around  the  Globe,  of  July  16, 1948.  p.  8) .  "It  is  the 
highest  patriotism  today  to  fight  for  American  Socialism"  (The 
Worker,  April  4,  1948,  p.  9,  article :  "What  Would  Socialism  m  the 
USA  Be  Like").  The  real  meaning  of  this  peculiar  Communist  patri- 
otism can  exactly  be  ascertained  if  one  keeps  in  mind  the  official  .Soviet 


706       COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS 

stand  on  the  problem  of  the  position  of  the  workers  of  all  countries 
toward  the  government  of  those  countries  and  toward  the  government 
of  the  Soviet  Union: 

But  America's  aspirations  to  world  supremacy  encounter  an  obstacle  in  the 
U.  S.  S.  R.,  the  stronghold  of  anti-imperialist  and  anti-Fascist  policy,  and  its 
growing  international  influence,  in  the  new  democracies,  which  have  escaped 
from  the  control  of  Britain  and  American  imperialism,  and  in  the  workers  of  all 
countries,  including  America  itself,  who  do  not  want  a  new  war  for  the 
supremacy  of  their  oppressors.  Accordingly,  the  new  expansionist  and  reaction- 
ary policy  of  the  United  States  envisages  a  struggle  against  the  U.  S.  S.  R.  against 
the  labor  movement  in  all  countries,  including  the  United  States,  and  against 
the  emancipationist  anti-imperialist  forces  in  all  countries  (A.  Zhdanov  on  The 
International  Situation,  report  made  at  the  Conference  of  the  Nine  Communist 
Parties,  held  in  Poland,  September  1947). 

Equally  explicit  is  Mao  Tse-tung,  who,  speaking  of  the  irreconcilable 
opposition  between  the  interests  of  the  American  imperialists  and 
those  of  the  American  people,  and  the  people  of  all  nations,  says. 

The  American  reactionaries  will  one  day  find  themselves  opposed  by  the  whole 
world.  *  *  *  In  the  postwar  world  a  very  great  people's  movement  has  been 
developing  for  peace  and  democratic  liberties.  This  movement  mu.st,  of  neces- 
sity, move  toward  victory.  Victory  will  come  *  *  *  through  the  cooperation 
of  the  peoples.  The  American  people,  themselves  oppressed  by  reactionaries,, 
should  make  common  cause  with  the  people  of  all  the  other  lands  against  the 
attacks  of  American  imperialists  in  their  respective  countries.  (From  an  inter- 
view with  IMao  Tse-tung  bv  Anna  Louise  Strong,  Daily  Worker,  February  11, 
1949,  p.  5). 

These  quotations  should  suffice  to  mnke  apparent  that  fundamental 
striving  of  the  Communists  to  destroy  any  organized  power  in  the 
world  in  order  to  subdue  the  peoples  of  all  countries  when  they  are 
disorganized  and  powerless.  The  Communists  are  well  aware  that  as 
long  as  nations  are  protected  by  their  organized  governments,  there  is 
no  chance  for  a  power  based  on  a  doctrine  of  so  deep  contempt  of  man, 
freedom,  and  human  dignity,  as  the  Communist,  to  be  accepted. 
Therefore,  the  tendency  of  the  Communists  is  to  undermine  all  organ- 
ized governments  and  create  a  political  vacuum  which  is  to  be  filled  by 
the  utterly  inhuman  and  ruthless  Communist  Party  and  state  machine. 

Thus  tile  appeal  to  national  freedom,  national  independence,  and 
nationalism  should  not  deceive  anybody  as  to  the  real  concepts  of  the 
Communists  on  those  issues.  Strictly  adhering  to  the  viewpoint  that 
any  means  which  leads  to  the  goal  is  good,  and  that  any  ally  who 
can  be  instrumental  in  furthering  the  Communist  cause  is  welcome, 
the  Communists  are  not  reluctant  to  speak  of  national  feelings  to 
flatter  national  pride,  even  to  pay  respect  to  the  histories  of  various 
nations,  if  they  think  that  it  can  be  used  to  produce  desired  effects. 

For  that  reason,  the  "nationalist"  elements  in  the  propaganda  of  the 
Slobodna  Rec  and  Narodni  Glasnik  should  not  be  misinterpreted. 
In  his  pamphlet  The  Struggle  in  America  for  the  New  Yugoslavia 
(Belgrade  1946,  pp.  25-26),  Mirko  Markovich  tells  of  the  difficulties 
through  which  the  movement  of  the  "progressive"  American  Serbs 
and  Croats  had  to  go,  and  especially  stressed  that  the  success  of  the 
movement  was  hampered  by  the  lack  of  understanding  of  the  national 
feelings  of  those  masses,  because  of  "the  lack  of  understanding  of  the 
Leninist-Stalinist  basis  of  the  national  problem."  What  was  wrong, 
asserts  Markovich,  was  that  "the  national  feelings  of  the  national 
groups,  the  right  to  be  proud  of  one's  own  nation,  of  one's  traditions, 
and  of  the  history  of  the  people  from  whence  the  workers  originated, 


COMMUNIST  ACTIVITIES  IN  ALIEN  AND  NATIONAL  GROUPS       707 

were  disregarded  in  the  practical  realization"  (p.  26).  Markovich 
severely  reprimands  those  who  followed  to  the  letter  the  theory  that, 
"the  workers  have  no  nation  except  their  workers'  class"  and  that  "the 
workers  are  citizens  of  the  world"  for  their  dogmatic  rigidity,  ^uch 
an  "incorrect  conception  of  the  national  problem,  the  incorrect  under- 
standing of  the  national  feelings  of  our  innnigrants"  were  the  reasons 
that  the  "workers'  movement  was  not  able  successfully  to  fight  the 
chauvinistic  poison  of  reaction"  (p.  27). 

Thus  the  Communists  d,o  not  hesitate  to  make  appeals  to  national 
feelings,  to  history  and  tradition  whenever  they  think  that  a  Commun- 
ist interpretation  is  possible.  And  in  the  same  way  as  the  Daily 
Worker  speaks  of  Valley  Forge  in  connection  with  the  present  civil 
war  in  Greece,  the  Slobodna  Rec  fries  to  establish  a  link  between  the 
exploits  of  the  Serbs  several  centuries  ago  which  represent  for  the  Ser- 
bian people  a  national  and  moral  vahie  of  the  highest  order, — with  the 
action  of  the  Communist  partisans  in  the  Second  World  War.  Of 
course,  after  the  Cominform-Tito  clasli  it  Avas  not  longer  possible  to 
glorify  the  leaders  of  Communist  Yugoslavia,  but  until  then,  no 
opportunity  was  missed  to  compare  Tito,  Rankovic,  Djilas,  and  others 
to  the  legendary  heroes  whose  struggle  for  national  and  individual 
freedom  is  deeply  rooted  in  the  souls  of  the  Serbs.  The  Narodni  Glas- 
nik  followed  in  principle  the  same  line,  adapted  to  the  peculiari- 
ties of  Croatian  history.  In  doing  this,  both  newspapers  were  just 
following  the  Communist  pattern  which  is  built  on  the  realization 
that  the  forces  of  tradition,  history  and  national  feelings  are  so 
strong  that  they  cannot  be  fought  successfully  by  frontal  attack,  but 
must  be  distorted  in  order  to  serve  the  Communist  cause. 

As  regards  the  United  States,  the  propaganda  of  the  Slobodna 
Rec  and  the  Narodni  Glasnik  applies  the  same  principles  and  may 
thus  give  to  uninformed  people  the  impression  that  they  stand  for 
the  American  historical  heritage.  In  fact,  this  represents  only  the 
special  tactics  to  realize  more  easily  the  invariable  Communist  aims. 
President  Franklin  D.  Roosevelt — who  is  now